An Choróinn Mhuire 1

An Choróinn Mhuire

An tAthair Peadar Ua Laoghaire

Canónach, S.P.

do shaothraigh

An tAthair Risteárd Pléimeann, Ph. D.

do chuir in eagar

Nihil Obstat: Gulielmus Landers, Censor Theo. Deput.

Imprimi potest: X Gulielmus, Archiep. Dublinen. Hiberniae Primas.

Dublini, die 2 Februarii, 1917.

Festo Purificationis B.M.V.

Fógarthar gach ceart ar cosnamh.

Tá an leabhar so fé chomairce Mhuire na dea-chómhairle.
AN CHORÓINN MHUIRE.

NA CHÚIG ÁTHAIS.

(Gach aon Luan agus gach aon Dardaoin i gcaitheamh na bliana, agus gach aon Domhnach san Advent agus tar éis an Epiphaní go dtí an Carghas.)

In ainm an Athar, agus an Mhic, agus an Sprid Naoimh. Amen.

V. A Thiarna, osclóir mo bheóla.

R. Agus labharfaidh mo bhéal moladh dhuit.

V. Crom chúm le cúnamh, a Dhia.

R. Brostaigh, a Thiarna, agus cabhraigh liom.

V. Glóire don Athair, &c.

R. Mar a bhí ar dtúis, &c. Amen.

An Chéad Áthas.

Teachtaireacht an Árdaingil.

Machnaímís anso ar an áthas a chuir Dia na Glóire ar chroí na Maighdine Muire nuair a chuir sé an tÁrdaingeal Gabriél ag triall uirthi dhá ínsint di go raibh sí ceapaithe ón síoraíocht chun bheith ’na máthair ag Slánaitheóir an domhain, agus nuair a ghlac Mac Dé colann daonna ’na broínn, le hoibriú ón Sprid Naomh.

Ár nAthair atá ar neamh, &c.

Go mbeannaíthear duit, a Mhuire, &c. (Deich n-uaire).

Glóire don Athair agus don Mhac agus don Sprid Naomh.

Mar a bhí ar dtúis, &c. Amen.

An Tarna hÁthas.

An chuaird ag triall ar Elisabet Naofa.

Machnaímís anso ar an áthas a bhí ar chroí na Maighdine Muire nuair a bhí ’ fhios aici a gaol, Elisabet Naofa, ’ bheith ag iompar clainne, agus nuair ’ imigh sí ar chuaird dhá féachaint, agus í féin ag iompar Mhic Dé an uair chéanna. Chuaigh sí isteach i dtigh Elisabet agus bheannaigh sí dhi, agus nuair ’ airigh Elisabet an guth, do thug an leanbh a bhí i mbroínn Elisabet léim le neart áthais. Eóin Baiste an leanbh san, agus do glanadh é an uair sin ó pheaca an tsínsir.

Ár nAthair atá ar neamh, &c.

Go mbeannaíthear duit, a Mhuire, &c. (Deich n-uaire).

Glóire don Athair, &c.

Mar a bhí ar dtúis, &c. Amen.

An Tríú hÁthas.

Teacht Íosa Críost ar an saol.

Machnaímís anso ar an áthas a bhí ar chroí na Maighdine Muire nuair ’ fhéach sí ar aghaidh a Mic, aghaidh Mhic Dé, aghaidh an tSlánaitheóra, tar éis é ’ theacht ar an saol uaithi, gan dochar dá maighdineas. Chuir sí ’na luí i mainséar an asail é, agus ’ fhios aici gurbh é Mac Dé é.

Ár nAthair atá ar neamh, &c.

Go mbeannaíthear duit, a Mhuire, &c. (Deich n-uaire).

Glóire don Athair, &c.

Mar a bhí ar dtúis, &c. Amen.

An Ceathrú hÁthas.

Toirbheart an linbh Íosa sa Teampall.

Machnaímís anso ar conas mar a thoirbhir an Mhaighdean Mhuire an leanbh Íosa sa Teampall, lá a hainicthe, agus gur ghlac Simeón naofa chuige é in’ ucht agus é ag gabháil a bhaochais le Dia ó chroí.

Ár nAthair atá ar neamh, &c.

Go mbeannaíthear duit, a Mhuire, &c. (Deich n-uaire).

Glóire don Athair, &c.

Mar a bhí ar dtúis, &c. Amen.

An Cúigiú hÁthas.

Íosa i lár na n-ollamh.

Machnaímís anso ar an áthas mór a bhí ar chroí na Maighdine Muire nuair a fuair sí a Mac istigh sa teampall, i gcathair Ierúsalem, agus é, in aois a dhá bhlian déag istigh i lár na n-ollamh go léir, ag cur ceisteanna chúthu agus ag freagairt ceisteanna dhóibh, agus í féin agus Ióseph Naofa tar éis trí lá ’ chaitheamh á chuardach.

Ár nAthair atá ar neamh, &c.

Go mbeannaíthear duit, a Mhuire, &c. (Deich n-uaire).

Glóire don Athair, &c.

Mar a bhí ar dtúis, &c. Amen.

Molaimís Íosa Críost.

Moladh dho de shíor agus de ghnáth. Amen.

An Salvé Regína.

Go mbeannaíthear duit, a Bhannríon Naofa, a Mháthair na Trócaire. Go mbeannaíthear duit! Is tu ár mbeatha, ár mísleacht, agus ár ndóchas! Is ortsa do screadaimíd, clann bhocht díbeartha Ébha! Is chútsa suas a chuirimíd ár n-osna, ag caí agus ag gol sa ghleann so na ndeór. Iompaigh orainn dá bhrí sin, a choimirce chaomhuasal, do shúile atá lán de thrua, agus nuair a bheidh deireadh lenár ndíbirt, tabhair radharc dúinn ar thoradh do bhruinne, Íosa, a Mhaighdean Mhuire róthrócaireach, róghrámhar, rómhilis.

V. Guigh orainn, a Naomh-Mháthair Dé.

R. Ionas go mb’fhiú sinn toradh geallúna Chríost d’fháil.

Guímís Dia.

A Athair Shíoraí, do cheannaigh t-Aon-Mhac Dúinn, lena bheatha agus lena bhás agus len’ aiséirí, aoibhneas síoraí na bhflaitheas. Tabhair dúinn, aicimíd ort, do ghrásta, ionas, ag machnamh dúinn ar na mistéiríbh seo na Coróinneach Muire, go dtiocfaidh linn do thoil naofa a dhéanamh agus an t-aoibhneas síoraí sin a shroisint, trí Íosa Críost ár dTiarna. Amen.

Foclóirín

Advent: PUL uses an Anglophone form here, where the CO has concocted Aidbhint.
aicim, athach: “to beseech”, or aitim, atach in the CO. Note this rare verb is used only in the present tense and with the verbal noun. Aicimíd ort, “we beseech thee”. I haven’t found attestation of the verbal noun in PUL’s works, but Dinneen indicates athach, a form explained by the fact that the verb itself was originally spelt aithchim. IWM shows a variant form aircim. Pronounced /akʹimʹ~arkʹimʹ, ɑhəx/.
ainicim, anacal: “to protect, save, purify”, with the past participle ainicthe, /anʹikʹi/. Lá a hainicthe, “the day of her purification”.
ainm: “name”, pronounced /anʹimʹ/.
aiséirí: “resurrection”. Pronounced /a.ʃəi’rʹiː/.
amen: “Amen”, or áiméan in the CO. This word is one of many whose spelling in the works of PUL indicates an eschewing of an artificial gaelicisation of a non-Irish word. The pronunciation is given in IWM as /amʹenʹ/.
aoibhneas: “bliss, delight”, pronounced /iːvʹinʹəs/.
áthas: “joy”. Na chúig áthais, “the five joyful mysteries (in the rosary)”.
baiste: “baptismal”. In Dinneen’s dictionary, baiste is an adjective meaning “baptismal”, whereas in Ó Dónaill’s dictionary it is a variant of the word baisteadh meaning “baptism”. It is probably to be interpreted as an adjective that derives from the genitive singular of the noun, baistidh, although the spelling Eóin Baistidh is not found.
bannrín: “queen”, or banríon in the CO. While this word was traditionally written bainríoghan, the broad n in a bhannríon naofa probably reflects assimilation to the broad n of naofa, as a bhannrín is given in PUL’s An Teagasg Críostaidhe (in the Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary) in the vocative with a slender n, which accords with the pronunciation shown in IWM, /bau’ri:nʹ/.
beóla: “lips”, derived from beól, a poetic form of béal, “mouth”. The CO uses béil, the regular plural of béal to mean “lips”. The plural beóil is found in PUL’s Críost Mac Dé.
broínn: “womb”, pronounced /bri:ŋʹ/.
caím, caí: “to weep, lament”.
caomh: “gentle”. Also found as a prefix, as in caomhuasal, “gracious”.
Carghas (an Carghas): “Lent”, pronounced /ka’riːs/.
coimirce: “protection, guardianship; refuge”. This is edited here using the form found in the CO, although PUL used the older spelling comairce in the original, because IWM shows the word is pronounced /kimʹirkʹ~kimʹirkʹi/. Yet the Letiriú Shímplí edition indicates a pronunciation of /komirkʹi/.
colann: “body”, or colainn in the CO. Colann daonna, “human flesh”.
coróinn: “crown”, with coróinneach in the genitive, pronounced /kroːŋʹ, kroːŋʹəx/. An Choróinn Mhuire, “the Rosary”.
cuaird: “visit, trip, circuit”, or cuairt in the CO.
Dardaoin: “Thursday”, shown in the LS edition of An Choróinn Mhuire as pronounced /dɑr’diːnʹ/. I am wondering how viable this form is as opposed to Déardaoin, which results from the fusion of and Dardaoin, and is pronounced /dʹeːr’diːnʹ/. As the context is gach aon Luan agus gach aon Dardaoin, and we don’t have Dé Luain here either, Dardaoin should maybe be accepted as a correct form.
dea-chómhairle: “good counsel”. Muire na dea-chómhairle, “Our Lady of Good Counsel”.
deóir: “tear”. This is one of a number of words where the dative has replaced the original nominative, deór, to which the genitive plural remains aligned.
dóchas: “hope”.
Ébha: Eve, mother of the human race.
Elisabet Naofa: Elisabeth, mother of St. John the Baptist and cousin of the Virgin Mary.
Eóin Baiste: John the Baptist. See under baiste.
Epiphaní (an tEpiphaní): the Epiphany, the manifestation of Christ to the Gentiles when the three kings came to worship him. Spelt Eipiphaní in PUL’s Críost Mac Dé. The CO has Eipeafáine.
Gabriél: the Archangel Gabriel who announced the incarnation to the Virgin Mary.
gach: “each, every”. Gach aon is pronounced /gəh ‘eːn/, as shown in the LS edition of An Choróinn Mhuire. See also paragraph 377 of IWM.
geallúint: “promise”, or gealltanas in the CO. The genitive singular and nominative plural are both geallúna.
glóire: “glory”, or glóir in the CO.
maighdineas: “virginity”, or maighdeanas in the CO.
mainséar: “manger”, pronounced /main’ʃe:r/.
mísleacht: “sweetness”, or milseacht in the CO.
mistéir: “mystery”, e.g. in the religious sense.
osclaim, oscailt: “to open”, or osclaím, oscailt in the CO. Pronounced
/oskəlimʹ, oskiltʹ/. As a syncopating verb, the future and conditional forms appear to be in the second conjugation, e.g. osclóir.
Salvé Regína: Salve Regina, or Hail, Holy Queen, the Marian hymn.
sínsear: “ancestor”, or sinsear in the CO. This word was traditionally spelt sinnsear, and had a long /i:/ in WM Irish. The singular form can have collective meaning, “ancestors”. Peaca an tsínsir, “original sin”.
síor: “eternal”, substantivised in the phrase de shíor, “for ever, constantly”. Pronounced /də hiːr/.
síoraí: “eternal”. A Athair Síoraí was found in the vocative in the original—and the LS edition showed an unlenited s here too—this has been adjusted in editing here to a Athair Shíoraí.
sprid: “spirit”, or spiorad in the CO. The original had spiorad or declined forms thereof, but in WM Irish spiorad is aligned with the related word sprid, “sprite, ghost”. Sprid in the sense of “spirit” is, however, masculine. An Sprid Naomh is often undeclined in the genitive as a phrase noun in the nominative absolute. Thus, in the sign of the cross, the original ends with an Spioraid Naoimh, but we find in LS an Sbrid Näv.
sroisim, sroisint: “to reach”, or sroichim, sroicheadh in the CO. Pronounced /sroʃimʹ, sroʃintʹ/. The verbal noun is more commonly found as sroisiúint in PUL’s works.
tagaim, teacht: “to come”. With le, “to be able to”: although this is generally known as an Ulster idiom.
tarna: “second”, or dara in the CO.
toirbhrim, toirbheart: “to offer, present”, or toirbhrím, toirbhirt in the CO. Toirbheart Íosa sa Teampall, “the Presentation of Christ in the Temple. Pronunciation unclear, as the LS edition has toiriveart, with the preterite thoirbhir transcribed herivir. These probably point to /terʹivʹirʹimʹ, terʹivʹərt/, owing to the difficulty of showing a broad consonant followed by an /e/ in LS. PUL’s translation of Gníomhartha na nAspal has toirbhirt.

Ár nDoithin Araon 1

Ár nDóthain Araon

An tAthair Peadar Ua Laoghaire

Canónach, S.P.

do scríbh

An tAthair Risteárd Pléimeann, Ph. D.

do chuir in eagar

1. Beidh Ár nDóthain Araon Ann.

I.

Seo focal le Diarmuid an Stoca. Siúd é an Diarmuid, nuair aduairt an sagart leis gur “ghlas an lá é,” a thug mar fhreagra: “Imbriathar féin, a Athair, go bhfuil sé fuar, pé dath atá air.”

Bhí aithne ar Dhiarmuid i ngaireacht deich míle de Magh Chromtha, ar gach uile thaoibh. Bhí fáilte agus béile bhídh agus lóistín oíche dho ins gach tigh, bocht agus saibhir, mar “duine le Dia” ab ea é. Thuig sé in’ aigne féin ná raibh ansan ach a cheart. Dar leis, ba leis féin na tithe agus na daoine. Dá mbeadh áthas i dtigh, ní raibh duine sa tigh ba mhó áthas dá bhárr ná Diarmuid. Dá mbeadh buairt i dtigh, ní raibh duine sa tigh sin ba mhó buairt dá bhárr ná Diarmuid. Nuair a bhí Boc na Carraige tar éis bháis, chonaic daoine Diarmuid ag dul fé dhéin an tórraimh. Do labhradar leis, ach níor chuir sé suím ar bith iontu. Do leanadar air chun cainnte a bhaint as. Fé dheireadh d’iompaigh sé orthu le feirg agus duairt sé, “Is mór an náire dhíbh ná leogfadh sibh dom féin inniu, agus mo chroí briste, brúite, leis an gcreach atá ar lá agam ansúd thuas!”

II.

Níorbh fhéidir do dhuine uasal cuireadh dínnéir a chur amach i ganfhios do Dhiarmuid, agus ní nách iúnadh, bheadh Diarmuid ann le línn na huaire gan teip gan dearúd gan chuireadh.

Chuir Dochtúir mac Suíbhne cuireadh amach lá. Bhuail Diarmuid soir fé dhéin tí an Dochtúra. Bhí sé tamall beag luath. Fuair Diarmuid an geata ar oscailt agus balaithe breá ar an ngaoith. Do lean sé an balaithe. Fuair sé doras an tí mhóir ar oscailt. Chuaigh sé isteach. D’fhéach sé ’na thímpall. Bhí doras ar oscailt ar a láimh dheis. Chuaigh sé isteach arís. Chonaic sé an bórd mór. Chonaic sé an mhias. Chonaic sé an chos chaoireóla. Chuir sé a lámh dheas ’na speir. Chuir sé a lámh chlé ’na húll. Chuir sé a bhéal ’na lár go cluasaibh. Do dhírigh sé ar é féin do thachtach ar a dhícheall le caoireóil. D’airigh an Dochtúir fothram éigin. D’fhéach sé amach an fhinneóg uachtarach. Chonaic sé an geata ar dianleathadh. Cheap sé gur muc a bhí tar éis teacht isteach. Siúd anuas an staighre é, agus isteach sa phárlús. Do leath a shúile air nuair a chonaic sé an rud sáite sa mhéis. Do thóg sé a chos agus do bhuail.

“Och!” arsa Diarmuid, agus é nách mór tachtaithe.

Do buaileadh arís é, ach níor scar lena ghreim. Fé dheireadh, do rugadh air agus do caitheadh ar mhullach a chínn an doras amach é, idir chos chaoireóla agus uile. D’éirigh sé agus thug sé aghaidh ar an nDochtúir agus duairt: “Faire! faire! a Dhochtúir na Smaointe, ná bíodh ceist ort! Beidh ár ndóthain araon ann!”

Ní fhéadfadh an fear bocht “Dochtúir mac Suíbhne” do rá, agus nuair a chuireadh sé chuige, is é rud a thagadh ná “Dochtúir na Smaointe”. Gheibheadh daoine magadh sa méid sin fein, agus deirtí gurbh é Diarmuid an Stoca a thug an ainm cheart ar an nDochtúir, mar gur mhó go mór an machnamh a dheineadh sé ná an leigheas a dheineadh sé.

aithne: “acquaintance”, pronounced /ahinʹi/.
arís: “again”, pronounced, /i’rʹi:ʃ/.
balaithe: “smell”, pronounced /bɑlihi/. This would be boladh in the GC. Spelt baluith in the original, but the pronunciation is given in IWM and the LS version of Ár nDóithin Araon concurs.
béile: “meal”. This word is feminine here, but masculine in the CO.
Boc na Carraige: the nickname of someone here. Boc means “buck, playboy, fellow”.
caoireóil: “mutton”. Cos chaoireóla, “leg of mutton”.
dearúd: “mistake”. Gan dearúd, “without fail”. The pronunciation of this phrase is shown in LS as /gɑn dʹarəməd/. More research required here.
Dia: “God”. Duine le Dia, “a harmless soul”.
Diarmuid an Stoca: Diarmuid of the Stocking.
dínnéar: “dinner”. Dinnéar in the CO. Pronounced /dʹi:’ŋʹe:r/.
Dochtúir mac Suíbhne: Doctor McSweeney. Suíbhne is pronounced /si:ŋʹi/.
fothram: “noise, din”, pronounced /fohərəm/.
freagra: “answer”, pronounced /frʹagərə/.
gaireacht: “closeness, nearness”. This was spelt goireacht in the original. The transcription in LS, giuracht, seems to conflate this with the word giorracht, which has a similar meaning. PUL’s Sgéalaídheachta as an mBíobla Naomhtha has an intermediate form, giorreacht.
glas: “grey”, but also “chilly”.
Magh Chromtha: Macroom, a placename the initial m of which is never lenited in WM Irish. Spelt Mághchromtha in the original, but IWM shows this placename is pronounced /mə xroumhə/.
rud: “thing”. An rud, translated in the notes that accompanied the original as “this extraordinary creature”. A note adds “the def. art. is used in Irish to give emphasis, especially in describing anything unexpected or odd”.
speir: “knuckle, hock, shin”.
tachtaim, tachtadh: “to choke”. Tu féin a thachtadh le caoireóil, “to gorge yourself on mutton”. The participle is tachtaithe here, but tachta in the CO.
taobh: “side”. Ar gach thaoibh in the original is transcribed in LS as if from ar gach uile thaobh, although the dative, while not needed in this phrase as gach uile thaobh can function as as phrase in the nominative absolute, was not incorrect.
tórramh: “wake, funeral”.
úll: “apple”, but also “the thick end of a haunch” (cf. “ball joint” in FGB).

Poem to learn the Dual

In the August 1911 edition of the Letiriú Shímplí newspaper Glór na Ly, there is a short piece on page 2, entited Ghá Cheann, a poem composed by Eóghan Rua Ó Súilleabháin to get a drink from two women milking cows. The poem was taught by PUL to Shán Ó Cuív in order to teach him the dual. This is listed in Fr. Shán Ó Cuív’s bibliography of PUL’s works, but it seems to be Eóghan Rua’s really. Anyhow, this is it:

[Note the plural adjective, lenited, that goes with the dual of both genders. Note the rarish use of bhuin in the dual. Chuin (from cú) and bhuaraigh (from buarach) are also worthy of note.]

Dhá Cheann

Chím dhá chuaich dhúbha ar an móin,

Dhá chapall chóra, dhá chuin,

Dhá mhuic, dhá chaíora, dhá uan,

Dhá mhnaoi, dhá bhuaraigh, dhá bhuin.

Foclóirín

cuach: maybe cuckoo, of which cuaich is the dual.

cóir: just, but is this context decent. Two decent horses.

buarach: spancel (rope for milking cows) – feminine, so buaraigh in the dual.

You could translate:

I see two black cuckoos on the moor,

Two decent horses, two dogs,

Two pigs, two sheep, two lambs,

Two women, two milking-ropes, two cows.

Séadna caib 26

Caibideal a Sé is Fiche.

Do ceapadh an t-am. Sula raibh muíntir an rí imithe as an áit do hínseadh dóibh go raibh an lá ceapaithe agus cad é an lá é. Nuair a chuadar abhaile d’ínseadar don rí é. Chomáin an rí teachtaire ar siúl láithreach le bronntanas fíona don chóisire agus le fáinne do Shadhbh. Dhein an teachtaire dithneas maith. Tháinig sé díreach maidean lae an phósta, agus é tar éis na seachtaine ’thabhairt ar an mbóthar, idir lá agus oíche nách mór. Bhí capall agus trucail aige agus bhí a dhóthain d’ualach ar an gcapall. Bhí ciseán sa trucail aige, ciseán breá mór a bhí déanta de shlataibh loma geala, agus é lán go barra de bhuidéalaibh fíona. Bhí, is dócha, céad dosaen buidéal ann. Mura raibh sé os a chionn ní raibh sé féna bhun. Agus bhí a ndóthain tuí stupaithe tímpall na mbuidéal san sula mbrisfí iad. Níor briseadh aon bhuidéal díobh, agus níor oscail an teachtaire aon bhuidéal díobh. Níor oscail go deimhin. Níor ghá dho é. Bhí a dhóthain mór bídh agus dí aige dá n-éaghmais. In éaghmais an chiseáin agus na mbuidéal bhí bairille mór fíona sa trucail aige. Ní raibh níos lú ná sé fichid galún fíona sa bhairille sin. Geallaim dhuit go raibh a dhóthain d’ualach ar an gcapall.

Bhí fáinne óir ag an dteachtaire do Shadhbh, fáinne a thug an rí féin uaidh le tabhairt di, fáinne a pósta. Bhí cloch uasal sa bhfáinne sin a bhí chómh mór le súil giorrae, ba dhó’ leat, agus dhéanfadh an chloch san solas duit sa doircheacht mar a dhéanfadh tine ghealáin. Nuair a chonaic Sadhbh an fáinne sin, agus an chloch, bhí sí as a meabhair nách mór le haiteas agus le mórtais agus le móráil.

“Ó! a Dhaid,” ar sise, “féach air sin!”

“Chím é, a ghamhain ó,” arsa Diarmuid. “Dá mbeinn id chás,” ar seisean, “ní hé gach éinne go dtispeáinfinn an fáinne sin do. Tá daoine sa tsaol, a Shadhbh, a ’níon ó, agus níorbh fhiú leó biorán agus anam duine seochas greim ’fháil ar a leithéid sin. Chuirfinn fé ghlas é dá mbeinn id chás.”

“Ní deirim ná go ndéanfad rud ort, a Dhaid,” ar sise. “Tá fáinní mo dhóthain agam dá éaghmais.” Agus dhein sí rud air. Chuir sí isteachin arís é sa bhosca bheag ’na raibh sé, agus dhún sí an bosca go daingean mar a bhí sé cheana, agus chuir sí fé ghlas é. Bhí fáinní a dóthain aici dá éaghmais.

Bhí an tráthnóna ag teacht. Na daoine a fuair cuireadh chun na cóisreach bhíodar ag teacht leis. Tháinig Seán Ceatach agus a iníon. Tháinig Báb an Leasa agus a muíntir. Tháinig Nóra an Tóchair agus a beirt driothár, an bheirt rínceóirí dob fheárr a bhí sa dúthaigh. B’í Nóra féin an rínceóir mná dob fheárr a bhí ann. Tháinig fear an bhramaigh, agus nuair ’fhiafraigh duine éigin de cá raibh an chuid eile dá chuid féasóige: “Do staith sí féasóg dob fheárr ná mo chuid féasóigese,” ar seisean, “agus is maith an bhail ar bheirt againn gur dhein. Mura mbeadh gur dhein bheadh an scéal go hainnis againn. Bheinnse gan mo bhramach agus bheifása gan do chuid airgid. Is mó an t-airgead a fuarais mar gheall ar an bhféasóig a staith Sadhbh ná mar a gheófá ar do chapall dá mbeadh sé anois agat.”

“Ach, ní mó,” arsan fear eile. “Ní raibh aon chapall ar an aonach an lá úd dob fheárr ná é.”

“Déarfainn go mbeadh an ceart ansan agat dá n-airínn na ceannaitheóirí dhá rá. Ach pé scéal é ba bheag an mhaith dhuitse a fheabhas mura mbeadh an gníomh a dhein Sadhbh.”

“Abair é,” arsan fear eile.

Tháinig an tíncéir mór ann, agus is é a bhí go grianach agus go gealgháiriteach, go séimh agus go súilaibidh, go hollamh agus go deisbhéalach agus go dea-labhartha. Níor bhaol don chuideachtain tocht ná dochma do theacht ar an gcómhrá agus é láithreach. Ní bhíodh sé choíche gan rud éigin le rá aige do spriocfadh suas daoine agus do bhainfeadh gáirí amach, agus do chuirfeadh daoine ag cainnt, gan aon choinne acu ná gurbh iad féin a chuímhnigh ar an gcainnt. Ach nuair a fuair sé cúpla deoch maith d’fhíon Spáinneach an rí ní raibh aon teóra leis. Rud dob fheárr ná a raibh de dhea-thréithibh eile ar fad ann, níorbh fhéidir fearg do chur air. Agus dá bhfeiceadh sé beirt i riocht titim amach le chéile, bheadh an fhearg soir siar agus bheidís ag gáirí sula mbeadh dhá fhocal cainnte déanta aige eatarthu.

Bhí Séadna ann agus é go ciúin agus go fadanálach, mar ba ghnáth leis. A bhéal dúnta agus a dhá shúil ar dianleathadh. É ag féachaint uaidh agus gur dhó’ leat gurb amhlaidh a bhíodh radharc aige ar an saol eile. ’Na shuí thuas i dteannta an tsagairt agus Sheáin Cheataigh a chaith sé an chuid ba mhó den oíche. Ní labhradh sé puínn uaidh féin, ach nuair a curtí cainnt air ní baol go leogadh sé a cheart féin le héinne.

Imbriathar go raibh Micil ann, agus máthair Mhicil.

Cáit. Ní raibh! Agus é tar éis “cairiún” a thabhairt ar Shadhbh!

Gobnait. Seachain, a Cháit. Níor thug sé cairiún uirthi. Is amhlaidh a bhí cathú air nár thug.

Cáit. Thug sé ainm ba mheasa ná é uirthi. Thug sé stiúsaí sheannda uirthi. Agus ba dhóbair go ndíoladh sé as.

Peig. Nuair a tháinig Sadhbh abhaile ón gcathair is é céad rud d’inis Pails di ná go dtagadh máthair Mhicil agus go gcaitheadh sí an oíche sa tigh go minic, ag tabhairt aire don duine bhreóite an fhaid a bhíodh an bhean fhritheáilte ag cur greas codlata dhi. Dá olcas í Sadhbh do rug san greim ar an gcroí aici. Sula raibh cuireadh fálta ag éinne d’imigh sí siar de shiúl a cos go tigh na bainntrí agus duairt sí leis an mbainntrigh go gcaithfeadh sí teacht. “Agus,” ar sise, “mura dtiocfair féin agus Micil chúinn ní bheidh aon chóisire in aon chor againn. Leogfad orm go bhfuil m’athair rólag fós. Tá sé buailte isteach im aigne, mura mbeadh tusa agus iníon Sheáin Cheataigh gur in iúir a bheadh sé inniu. Ní raibh aon iontaoibh riamh agam a’ mnáibh fritheáilte. Is minic a chuir rógaire acu athiompáil ar dhuine bhreóite d’aon ghnó chun lóistín agus cóir mhaith a chimeád dóibh féin ar feadh tamaill aimsire sa mbreis. An dtiocfair?” ar sise.

“Ambasa féin tiocfad, ní nách iúnadh,” arsan bhean eile. “Cad a bhéarfadh ná tiocfainn!”

“A’ dtiocfaidh Micil?” arsa Sadhbh.

“Tiocfaidh, ná bíodh eagal ort,” arsan bhainntreach.

Chómh maith do thánadar.

Is ar Dhiarmuid a bhí an iúnadh agus an alltacht nuair a chonaic sé Micil ag déanamh críche agus Sadhbh ag órdúchán air agus ag glaoch as a ainm air. “A Mhicil, dein é seo. A Mhicil, dein é siúd. Tair anso, a Mhicil, agus árdaigh é seo im theannta,” aici, thoir, thiar, thall.

“Moladh go deó le Dia!” arsa Diarmuid, in’ aigne féin, “ní fios cad a thiocfaidh as dúinn feasta!”

Bhí cuideachta mhór ann agus má bhí féin bhí tuilleadh agus a ndóthain mór bídh agus dí ann. Dhein Sadhbh agus a hathair an gnó go neam-mion, agus go fial agus go fairseag, agus ní baol gur tugadh aon fhaillí in éinne dá raibh ann. Nuair a bhí an bórd leogaithe amach ba bhreá leat féachaint air. Bórd mór fada leathan dob eadh é, ach níor bhórd é, ach dhá bhórd agus iad curtha as a chéile. Thuas ar cheann an bhúird, ar aghaidh an tsagairt amach, bhí píosa mairteóla agus bhí sé chómh mór chómh leathan le leathbhairille. An mhias a bhí fén bpíosa feóla san ní raibh aon ní ba mhó ab iúnadh leis an dtíncéir mór ná conas a chimeádadh sí gan briseadh agus a leithéid sin d’ualach uirthi. Ar an gceann eile den bhórd, ar aghaidh an tsagairt óig amach, bhí ceathrú chaoireólach gur mó ceathrú mhairt ná beadh chómh mór léi. Ar gach taobh den bhórd, síos agus suas, bhí an uile shaghas méise agus iad ag brú ar a chéile agus an uile shaghas feóla orthu, idir bhagún, agus feóil uain, agus laoifheóil, agus lachain, agus géanna, agus meannáin gabhar, agus giorraithe, agus cearca fraoigh, agus naoscaigh, agus sicíní cearc.

Ceathrar agus daichead do shuigh chun búird in éineacht ann an chéad bhabhta. Do chómhairimh Micil iad. Agus fós is amhlaidh ab éigean don chuideachtain uanaíocht a dhéanamh ar a chéile, bhí an oiread san daoine ar an gcóisire. Fé mar ’éiríodh duine shuíodh duine eile isteach san inead ’fhágadh sé. Níor bhaol, áfach, an fear deirineach a bheith díobhálach. Nuair a bhíodar go léir sásta bhí dóthain oiread eile ’na ndiaidh.

Dá mhéid daoine a bhí ar an gcóisire sin an oíche sin, idir fhearaibh agus mná, idir óg agus aosta, bhí aon smaoineamh amháin acu go léir ’na n-aigne. Bhí an smaoineamh san go glan agus go soiléir ’na n-aigne acu. Dá fheabhas a bhí an bia agus an deoch agus dá mhéid greann agus sult a bhí os cionn an bhídh agus an dí, agus dá mhéid caitheamh aimsire agus gleó a bhí ar siúl, bhí an smaoineamh san istigh acu go léir, bíodh is nár labhair éinne acu oiread agus smiog amach as a bhéal mar gheall air, le héinne eile acu. B’é smaoineamh é ná a luíghead coinne a bhí ag éinne dá raibh láithreach, tar éis na gcleamhnaistí go léir a bhí dá ndéanamh i gcaitheamh na haimsire roimhe sin, agus tar éis na ráflaí go léir a bhí ar siúl, i dtaobh Shéadna, agus Mháire Ghearra, agus Nóra an Tóchair, agus Báb an Leasa, gurbh é Cormac an Chaíncín a bhéadh dá phósadh acu sa deireadh! Bhí a n-aigne lán de, lán de, lán de. Ach geallaim dhuit nách baol gur leog éinne amach aon bhlúire dhe.

Is ag cuímhneamh air sin a bhí Micil nuair ’iarr duine éigin scian air agus ’thug sé pláta bagúin chuige. Is ag cuímhneamh air a bhí Báb an Leasa nuair aduairt sí “nár bheag léi” agus a pláta sínte amach aici chun tuilleadh feóla d’fháil. Is ag cuímhneamh air a bhí Nóra an Tóchair nuair ’fhiafraigh duine éigin di an líonfadh sé gloine fíona chúithi agus aduairt sí “Cá bhfios dómhsa san?” i dtreó gur sceart a raibh láithreach ar gháirí. Is dócha gur ag cuímhneamh air a bhí Máire Ghearra féin nuair ’fhiafraigh sí d’fhear an bhramaigh “an mór a fuair sé ar a chapall lá an aonaigh.”

Bhí éinne amháin sa chuideachtain, áfach, nár chuímhnigh, olc maith ná donaí, ar an smaoineamh san i gcaitheamh na hoíche. B’é duine é sin ná Cormac féin. Ní raibh aon phioc dá chuímhneamh aige go raibh a leithéid sin de smaoineamh in aigne aon duine a bhí láithreach.

Bhí bacaigh agus lucht siúil ón uile thaobh den dúthaigh cruinnithe amu’ ar an mbóthar agus mórthímpall an tí, agus ní nárbh iúnadh, b’fhada gur féadadh féachaint ’na ndiaidh agus rud le n-ithe agus le n-ól a thabhairt dóibh. Bhí an smaoineamh céanna úd ’na n-aigne acu san leis. Chimeádadar istigh é go dtí go ndeigh an ríghneas i bhfaid agus gur neartaigh an t-ocras agus tart an fhíona orthu. Ansan do bhris ar an bhfoighne acu. Chromadar ar an scéal a chíoradh agus ba mhaith chuige iad. Ar ball, áfach, nuair a tháinig an bia agus an deoch, agus nuair a fuaradar go raibh an bia agus an deoch go maith agus go buacach agus go bríomhar agus go dei-bhlasta, níor leogadar orthu gur thráchtadar riamh ar an méid úd—na bithiúnaigh!

Bhí sé ag dridim amach san oíche. Bhí a ndóthain ite agus ólta ag an gcuideachtain istigh agus ag lucht na gcos mbriste agus na cúlchainnte amu’. D’fhéach an sagart ar Dhiarmuid. D’fhéach Diarmuid ar Shadhbh. D’fhéach Sadhbh ar Chormac. D’fhéach Cormac ’na thímpall. D’éirigh an chuideachta ’na seasamh. D’imigh Sadhbh amach. D’fhíll sí láithreach arís agus an clóca dearg uirthi, agus gur dhó’ leat gur choinnle ar lasadh na siogairlíní óir a bhí ar an gcába.

Ansan do chuaigh an lánú suas i láthair an tsagairt agus do pósadh iad.

Nuair a bhíodar pósta agus beannacht na hEaglaise léite orthu do rug Seán Ceatach ar phláta ghlan agus chuir sé giní óir ar an bpláta. Chuir Séadna giní ar an bpláta. Chuir Máire Ghearra giní uaithi féin air. Mar sin dóibh sa tímpall. Ní raibh éinne nár chuir suím éigin airgid air. Nuair a bhí siúlta orthu go léir tháinig Cormac agus chuir sé trí ghiní ar an bpláta. Ba mhaith an mhaise ag Sadhbh é, chuir sí trí ghiní uaithi féin air.

“Imbriathar, a Athair,” arsan tíncéir mór, “gur dó’ liom gur maith an bhail ar t’onóir nách i mBaile-’ bhfad-síos a deineadh an pósadh so.”

“Imbriathar, a Phádraig, gur dó’ liom féin leis é,” arsan sagart, “agus nách lú ná is maith an bhail ar a bhfuil anso anocht é. Agus is dó’ liom leis gurb é is lú is gann dúinn go léir, a iarraidh ar Dhia na Glóire, moladh go deó leis! saol fada fé shéan a thabhairt do Chormac agus do Shadhbh, agus más maith atáid siad anocht i ngrástaibh Dé agus an tsaeil gura seacht feárr a bheidh siad bliain ó ’nocht, agus mura feárr nára measa! Sliocht sleachta ar shliocht do shleachta, a Dhiarmuid!”

“Amen, a Thiarna!” arsan chuideachta go léir, arís agus arís eile.

An fhaid a bhí an t-“amen” san ar siúl do shleamhnaigh an lánú pósta amach. Bhí an dá chapall agus an cóiste gofa ar aghaidh an dorais amach agus an giolla thuas in’ inead féin. Chonaic na bacaigh an cóiste agus bhailíodar ’na thímpall. Nuair a bhí Cormac ag dul isteach sa chóiste chaith sé mám mionairgid i measc na mbacach. Ba dhó’ leat go mbainfidís na píopáin as a chéile a d’iarraidh teacht ar an airgead. An fhaid a bhíodar ag scríobáil agus ag brú agus ag únthairt a chéile do ghluais an cóiste. Nuair a fuair na bacaigh ag gluaiseacht é chuireadar liú fhiaigh astu. Liú árd dob eadh í. Liú chuthaigh, bhríomhar, a chuirfeadh píoparnach id chluasaibh. Ach, ón oíche sin go dtí an oíche atá anocht ann, níor féadadh a dhéanamh amach i gceart ceocu ba liú mhagaidh nú liú mholta an liú.

Ach ba mhar a chéile é. Ba chuma le Sadhbh ceoca. Ní fhéadfadh fear an bhramaigh, ná aon fhear eile, ná bean, a rá feasta gur pósadh í gan spré. Má ba liú mhagaidh an liú níor mhór léi dhóibh bheith ag liúirigh go maidin má b’aon tsásamh aigne leó é. Má ba liú mholta í b’é sin an moladh in aisce. Ní raibh de thoradh aici ar an moladh ach mar a bhí aici ar an ngaoith. I dtaobh Chormaic, níor chuímhnigh sé ar mhagadh ná ar mholadh sa scéal. Bhí sé mar ba ghnáth leis bheith, lom dáiríríbh. Do ghluais an cóiste an bóthar soir ó thuaidh agus níor fhan a thuilleadh cuímhne ag Sadhbh ná ag Cormac ar mhagadh ná ar mholadh.

Bhí Cormac sásta in’ aigne. Bhí ’ fhios aige, as an ngníomh a bhí déanta ag Sadhbh agus as an gcomaoin a bhí curtha aici ar an rí nár bhaol ná go bhfaigheadh a fear muíntearthas agus fabhar ón rí. Bhí Sadhbh sásta ’na haigne. Fé dheireadh thiar thall ba chuma léi cad iad na cleamhnaistí a brisfí ná a slánófí. “Fear stuacach dob ea é, ach má b’ea féin,” dar léi, “cad a bhí le déanamh ach a shlí féin a thabhairt do! Bheadh an donas air nú shásódh san é.” Bhí Diarmuid Liath sásta in’ aigne. Agus aige féin dob fheárr ’ fhios cad ’na thaobh. Bhí na cómharsain go léir ana-shásta ’na n-aigne. Is dócha go raibh ’ fhios cad ’na thaobh acu san leis.

Nuair a bhí Sadhbh ag imeacht thug sí na heochracha do Dhiarmuid. Ach má thug ní rómhór an t-ollmhaitheas d’fhág sí fé chimeád na nglas. Ag gabháil amach di ghlaeigh sí i leataoibh ar mháthair Mhicil.

“Bheadh sé chómh maith agatsa fanúint anso,” ar sise, “agus aire ’thabhairt don áit seo. D’fhéadfadh Micil aire ’thabhairt don tsiopa agus an leathar a dhíol. Tá an duine bocht so ró-aosta. Pé uair is toil le Dia glaoch air chun siúil ní bheidh éinne chun teacht idir thu agus seilbh an tí seo. Tá ’ fhios agam nách baol go ndéanfair éagóir ar m’athair. Pé faid a mhairfidh sé cimeádfadsa suas é. Pé airgead a dhéanfaidh díol an leathair bíodh sé agat féin agus ag Micil. An nglacfair an áit?”

“’ Dhe, glacfad dar ndóin,” arsan bhainntreach. “’Sea, a’ nglacfad! An daighe is greannúr san de! Ní hea,” ar sise, “ach tógfad an áit agus déanfad mo thigh beag féin do chur chun mná mo dhriothár. Tá sí ag fágáilt an tí ’na bhfuil sí. Agus ansan, dá ráineódh go n-oirfeadh dhuitse an tigh seo d’fháil thar n-ais féadfadsa mo thigh féin d’ fháil thar n-ais ar an gcuma gcéanna.”

“Tá go maith,” arsa Sadhbh. “Sin roinnt airgid agat a dhéanfaidh an gnó go gcuiread chút tuilleadh.”

Ar Mhicil a bhí an iúnadh ar ball nuair aduairt a mháthair leis dul siar agus a chuid éadaigh, agus a cuid éadaigh féin, a thabhairt leis aniar agus an glas a chur ar an ndoras ’na dhiaidh mar ná beidís ag dul abhaile in aon chor.

“Cad ’tá ag éirí dhuit, a mháthair?” arsa Micil, “nú cad ’na thaobh ná beimíd ag dul abhaile? Dar ndó’, ní hamhlaidh atá aon éileamh eile ar an áit. Ní fhéadfadh Cormac bheith ag teacht ag éileamh sealbha anois orainn. Measaim go bhfuil a mhalairt de chúram anois air.”

“Níl, a mhic ó,” ar sise, “aon éileamh ar an áit, ná éinne ag teacht ag lorg na sealbha orainn.” Agus d’inis sí dho an socrú a dhéin Sadhbh.

D’fhéach Micil ’na thímpall. “Agus an linn féin an tigh seo feasta?” ar seisean.

“Is ea, a mhic ó,” ar sise, “ach go gcaithfimíd aire mhaith a thabhairt do Dhiarmuid.”

D’fhéach sé ’na thímpall arís. “Is breá mór fairseag an tigh é,” ar seisean. “Is beag dá chuímhneamh a bhí agam go dtiocfainn féin agus mo mháthair chun cónaithe ann! Cad é mar athrú sa tsaol!”

“Comáin leat anois, a mhic ó,” ar sise, “agus féach i ndiaidh na ndaoine, agus ná deintear faillí in éinne, agus ná bíodh tart ná ocras ar éinne i gcaitheamh na hoíche. Beid siad go léir ag rínce láithreach agus cuirfidh an rínce tart orthu. Féach ’na ndiaidh, a Mhicil, agus bíodh an deoch agus
an bia acu sula mbeidh uain acu ar iad d’iarraidh.”

“Tá go maith, a mháthair,” ar seisean.

Nóta

Gura seacht feárr a bheidh siad: “that they may be seven times better off”. PSD shows the correct idiom is seacht bhfeárr, yet devoicing of the bh after the final t of seacht would effectively negate eclipsis here. See for example seacht cathanna in PUL’s novel, Niamh. Gura is go+the present subjunctive of the copula (nára later in the sentence is the negative form of this). Bheidh siad stood so in the original, in place of the expected bheid siad.

Foclóirín

babhta: “bout, turn, round”, pronounced /bautə/.
bacach: “beggar, cripple”, with bacaigh in the plural. Pronounced /bə’kɑx, bɑkigʹ/.
bairille: “barrel”. This spelling shows a slender r, but the glossary to Myles Dillon’s Teach Yourself Irish, which is based on Cork Irish, shows a broad r in this word.
bórd: “table”, with búird in the genitive. These would be bord and boird in the CO.
bríomhar: “powerful, forceful”. In connection with food, “substantial”, and in connection with liquor, “strong, potent”.
bronntanas: “gift, present”, pronounced /brountənəs/.
buacach: “towering, lofty, luxuriant”. FdS notes that this adjectives means “nutritious” when referring to food.
buidéal: “bottle”. As with many borrowed words, éa is realised as /eː/ in this word, /bi’dʹeːl/. Interestingly, while Shán Ó Cuív’s LS version of Séadna transcribes buidéal (i.e., the nominative singular and genitive plural) as buidéal, showing the long e, the dative plural buidéalaibh is transcribed as buidiàluiv, implying /bi’dʹialivʹ/.
caoireóil: “mutton”. The genitive here is caoireólach, where the CO has caoireola. Ceathrú chaoireólach, “a quarter or leg of mutton”.
ceart: “right”. Ceart a bhaint de dhuine, “to cope with someone, deal with someone”. Ceart d’fháil ó dhuine, “to get justice from someone”. Do cheart féin a leogaint le duine, “to allow someone to get the better of you, to fail to hold your own with him”.
cíoraim, cíoradh: “to comb”, and by extension, “to thresh out, to examine minutely in discussion”.
crích: “end, fate”, or críoch in the CO. Críoch is normally found in PUL’s works only to denote the end of a book. A gclann curtha i gcrích acu, “their children married off and settled in life”. Crích an scéil, “the upshot of the story”. An crích a bheireann duine, “the fate that overtakes someone, how someone ends up”. Deanamh críche, “to make yourself useful” (see PSD’s definition of this, “being industrious”).
cuirim, cur: “to put”. Curtha as a chéile, “placed end to end”.
cúlchainnt: “backbiting”.
cuthach: “rage, fury.” The genitive of this word, cuthaigh, is used as an adjective meaning “furious, fierce”. Liú chuthaigh, “a powerful shout”.
dea-labhartha: “well-spoken, eloquent”.
dea-thréith: “good quality”.
dei-bhlasta: “savoury, palatable”, pronounced /dʹəi-vlɑstə/. Dea-bhlasta in the CO.
díobhálach: “harmful, injurious”. FdS notes that this word has the passive sense of “suffering injury, being worse off, being at a loss” only in the proverb bíonn an fear deireanach díobhálach, “the last man comes off badly”, which is alluded to in chapter 26.
dochma: “a gloomy and restrained manner; dullness”.
doircheacht: “darkness”, or dorchacht in the CO. I had thought this word was pronounced /dirʹihəxt/, but the LS transcription, doirihacht, points to /dorʹihəxt/.
donas: “misfortune, mischief”. Bheadh an donas air nú shásódh san é, possibly meaning “there would have to be something wrong with him if that didn’t satisfy him”.
dosaen: “dozen”, pronounced /də’seːn/.
dóthain: “enough, sufficiency”. A dhóthain mór, “more than enough for him”.
driotháir: “brother”, pronounced /dri’hɑ:rʹ/. This is spelt deartháir in the CO, but the original spelling was dearbh-bhráthair. The genitive singular is driothár, and this would also be used in the genitive plural after beirt (beirt driothár) in preference to the weak plural driotháracha.
eochair: “key”, with eochracha in the plural. Pronounced /oxirʹ, oxərəxə/.
fabhar: “favour”, pronounced /faur/.
fadanálach: “slow-breathing”.
fearg: “anger”, pronounced /fʹarəg/.
fial: “generous, liberal”.
fraoch: “heather”, with fraoigh in the genitive, pronounced /freːx, friːgʹ/. Cearc fhraoigh, “red grouse”.
gealán: “sudden brightness, flash or blaze of light”, sometimes referring to intensely bright sunshine. Tine ghealáin, glossed in FdS “glow-worm”; in FGB as “will-o’-the-wisp” or “summer lightning”; and in PSD as “phosphorescent light as from fish or matches in the dark” or “lightning”. Yet the authorised translation of Séadna translates tine ghealáin as “phosphorus”.
gealgháiriteach: “radiant, cheerful”, or gealgháireach in the CO. Pronounced /gʹalə-ɣɑ:rʹitʹəx/.
giní: “guinea”, or 21 shillings in the pre-decimal coinage. The CO has gine in the singular and giní in the plural, but PUL’s form accords well with PSD, who has giní and giníacha (i.e., giníocha).
giorrae: “hare”, or giorria in the CO, with the plural here giorraithe, where the CO has giorriacha. Pronounced /gʹi’re:, gʹirihi/.
glas: “lock”. Fé chimeád na nglas, “under lock and key”. Glas a chur ar an ndoras, “to lock the door”.
gnó: “business, affair”. D’aon ghnó, “on purpose”.
grásta: “grace”. This word is normally used in what is the historic plural form, grásta (PSD shows grás as the original singular).
greann: “fun, pleasantry”.
grianach: “sunny”, used here to refer to someone’s disposition.
iúir: “soil, earth”. San iúir, “dead, in the grave”. This word is úir in the CO, but the original spelling iúir is retained, as CFBB shows that san iúir is pronounced /sinʹ uːrʹ/. Consequently, there is a good reason to have the initial i in this word.
lacha: “duck”, with lachain in the plural here. PUL’s An Guaire had lachainí in the plural.
laoifheóil: “veal” or laofheoil in the CO. Pronounced /liː’oːlʹ/ according to the LS edition of Séadna, but I would like to research this further, as the classical spelling is laoigh-fheoil, and PSD states that a slender g is heard in this word in Munster, i.e. /liː’gʹoːlʹ/, which would justify a spelling of laoigeóil.
mairteóil: “beef”.
maise: “goodness; goodness”. Ba mhaith an mhaise ag Sadhbh é, “Sadhbh did well by doing so, good for her that she did so”.
mart: “slaughtered cow, carcass of beef”. Ceathrú mhairt, “a quarter or leg of beef”.
meannán: “kid, young goat.” Also meannán gabhair.
mionairgead: “small change”, pronounced /mʹun-arʹigʹəd/.
mórtais: “pride, boastfulness”, or mórtas in the CO.
muíntearthas: “friendliness”, or muintearas in the CO.
naoscach: “snipe”, a type of wading bird, with naoscaigh in the plural where the CO has naoscacha. The entry in FdS says that this is feminine, as in the CO, which raises questions over why the plural is naoscaigh. It may be that this word can be masculine in WM Irish, particularly as PSD shows that this word can be masculine. More research required here.
neam-mion: “unstinting, lavish; not by halves”. This would be neamh-mhion in the CO, but the coincidence of labials causes delenition in WM Irish, with the pronunciation being /nʹa-mʹun/.
órdúchán: “an act of ordering about”. Ag órdúchán ar dhuine, “ordering someone about”.
píopán: “windpipe, throat”, or píobán in the CO.
píoparnach: “piping, wheezing; the ringing of a harsh sound”. Liú chuirfeadh píoparnach id chluasaibh, “a shout that would make your ears ring”.
scríobáil: “an act of scratching, clawing”. This is used as a verbal noun here, but seems to be a more sustained act of scratching and clawing than scríobadh, the general verbal noun of scríobaim.
sicín: “chicken”, also sicín circe.
siúl: “walking”. De shiúl a cos, “walking, on foot”. Lucht siúil, “tramps”.
slánaím, slánú: “to make whole, heal, save”. Cleamhnas a shlánú, “to mend a wedding match”.
sliocht: “offspring, progeny”. Sliocht sleachta, “offspring of offspring, grandchildren”. Sliocht sleachta ar shliocht do shleachta!, “may your granchildren have grandchildren, may your progeny continue”.
soir siar: “over, dispersed”.
stupaim, stupadh: “to stop; stop up, stuff up with something”, or stopaim, stopadh in the CO. Stupaithe le tuí, “stuffed with straw”. CFBB shows the pronunciation of these forms is with /u/, /stupimʹ, stupə, stupihi/.
súilaibidh: “bright-eyed, keen-eyed”, or súilaibí in the CO.
tispeáinim/tispeánaim, tispeáint: “to show”, or taispeáinim, taispeáint in the CO. The n is shown slender in chapter 26 (go dtaisbeáinfinn, edited here as go dtispeáinfinn), whereas chapter 12 had taisbeánfadh,edited here as tispeánfadh.
tocht: “silence”.
toradh: “product, fruit, yield”, and by extension, “fruitful regard, heed, attention, respect”. Ní raibh de thoradh aici air, “she paid no attention to it”.
uanaíocht: “taking of turns”, or uainíocht in the CO.

Notes on Nolan (the Relative Clause)

THE RELATIVE CLAUSE

Below are listed the many instances where a direct relative is used where an indirect relative would be more logical:

A. Temporal Clauses. Direct relative particle a is used in temporal clauses where the indirect relative would be more logical, like ón lá úd a ghoibh sé orthu and an fhaid a bhíos ag cuardach. Nuair also takes the direct relative. However the indirect relative clause is also found with other temporal phrases, such as um an dtaca go raibh sé and le línn ha haimsire ‘na rabhadar.

This leads to the surprising discovery, that since nuair takes the direct relative, temporal clauses often contain both direct and indirect relatives in the same clause, such as nuair a tháinig an t-am ‘nar mhithid do é.

Note that in a double relative clause with is dó’ le we have both direct and indirect relatives side by side, but the logical order is inverted by putting the indirect relative with the is dó clause. For example in ag breithniú na haimsire ‘nar dhó’ leó a bheadh sé ag teacht we have a fusion of two clauses:

1) na haimsire ba dhó’ leó (direct relative), and

2) na haimsire ‘na mbeadh sé ag teacht (indirect relative)

but once fused together in a double relative clause, the indirect relative precedes the dó’ clause.

B. Modal Clauses. The direct relative is used where the indirect relative would be more logical in modal clauses of the type mar a bhí, with the doxology used as an example: mar a bhí ar dtúis, mar atá anois, is mar a bheidh go brách.

In the case of mar the use of the direct relative distinguishes meanings:

mar tá: because there is

mar atá: as there is

mar a bhfuil: where there is

Chómh haicillí agus d’fhéadfad é is an example of a direct relative do being used with indirect relative modal meaning.

Note that although conas takes the direct relative in Munster, the indirect relative is used with cad é an chuma…?

C. The direct relative is used where the indirect relative would be more logical following the proleptic a or (“however”): bhí iúnadh a gcroí orthu a fheabhas do dheineadar an gnó.

D. The direct relative is used where the indirect relative would be more logical following proleptic de and other prepositional pronouns used proleptically. The example given is b’fhéidir gur déinide a déanfar an guí an teachtaireacht do chur tímpall uaitse, where a déanfar is equivlaent to an chuma na ndéanfar.

E. The direct relative is used after proleptic amhlaidh and GÓN claims this is logically superfluous (e.g. in is amhlaidh a dhein sé…). It doesn’t appear superfluous to me.

[F. Sar, “before”, takes the indirect relative in Munster (where Keating had used the direct relative).]

G. Emphatic elliptical sentences also have a direct relative where there is no nominative or accusative relationship and therefore an indirect relative might have been expected: is liomsa a bhaineann an chainnt sin.

H. In relative clauses that follow a comparative or superlative, where the comparative/superlative is not relative itself, the meaning is modal and therefore is another instance of the direct relative being used for an indirect meaning. Is feárr is eól dómhsa é ná mar is eól duitse é.

Where the comparative or superlative is itself relative, the relative that follows it is indirect: níl éinne is feárr gurb eól do é ná mar is eól dómhsa é. Here is feárr is relative, and followed by the indirect relative gurb eól. Another example is tá in easnamh fós air an ní is mó na bhfuil gá aige leis.

Where the dative relationship is expressed before the comparative/superlative, however, the indirect relative does not follow the comparative/superlative: is dómhsa is feárr is eól cá luíonn an bhróg orm. An exception to this is clauses with and cad: an example from Niamh is bhíodh an formad ann, leis, féachaint cé aige dob fheárr na mbeadh an t-ollmhúchán déanta.

I. GÓN also says that sentences like cad é an rud a bhí Bruadar ar aigne a dhéanamh?, which he says are rarely found, are an instance of the direct for the indirect relative. It seems straightforward to me, but maybe this sentence can be essentially genitive, with a dhéanamh referring obliquely to an rud. Many of these various types seem straightforward and only become less so by overanalysis.

Other direct relative particles

Do as a relative particle: GÓN shows that the use of do as a relative particle has developed by confusion from the perfective particle (do chuaigh) and the verbal prefix (do-gheibhim). As these were often used without do, the particle came to take over relative functions. This is similar to way the relative atá and adeir aided the spread of a as a relative particle. Originally, lenition alone was enough to give relative force, later on do and a took over this function. It is also possible that in phrases like cad d’oireann dóibh, the relative particle is derived from the final consonant of cad, i.e. cad oireann became cad d’oireann.

A dh’ is also used as relative, either as a combination of a and do or maybe the dh’ is just phonetic padding. An example of an accusative relationship is an té a dh’éiríonn go moch bíonn an rath air. This usage bears a comparison to the use of do and a dh’ as the particule governing verbal nouns: scéal a dh’ínsint.

Finally, the direct relative can simply be understood, with lenition alone showing the relationship: sin é mhíll me.

Indirect relatives

A (with eclipsis) and ar (with lenition):

The relationship is not nominative or accusative. Genitive examples include sid é an fear ar chodlas na thigh aréir and sid í an bhean a bhfuair a fear bas inné.

A and ar as indirect relatives are more commonly used in Munster Irish with sar and mar (in the meaning of “where”). Sula raibh uain ag an marcach é thabhairt fé ndeara: sula here includes the indirect relative particle. Fan mar a bhfuil agat. Is mairg don fhear san trína ndéanfar Mac an duine do dhíol.

Go and gur

Dative examples include is mó duine go mbíonn an tseóid úd aige. A genitive example is ní dó’ liom go mbeidh an fear eile sin le fáil is mó go mbeidh a bhean na cabhair is na cúnamh aige ná mar a bheidh sí agatsa.

Some uses of go appear irregular, because a usage is found that is equivalent to a genitive, and therefore what GÓN calls a virtual genitive. Na hoibreacha gur thug m’athair dom iad le déanamh could be rephrased with a ndéanamh at the end.

In some senses, supplying an unexpressed ’na thaobh will bring out the virtual genitive relatinship: Íosa éigin a fuair bás & go raibh Pól dhá rá [’na thaobh] go bhfuil sé beó.

Na and ’nar

An example is an bhean na bhfuil an t-éadach corcra uirthi.

These can also be virtually genitive: an t-aimhleas na mbeadh duine lánceapaiathe ar é dhéanamh is virtually genitive because é dhéanamh can be replaced by a dhéanamh.

Na and go can be found in the same sentence: brostú chun na háite na mbeidh aoibhneas síoraí againn, & go bhfanfaidh sé againn.

The fact that go is a conjunction in subordinate clauses as well as an indirect relative particle means that in some sentences you could parse go in a number of ways. For example: is aoibhinn don té go dtabharfairse teagasc do, & go múinfir as do dhlí é. This could be the conjunction go with ellipsis of a rá after the ampersand, or you could parse it as a relative particle used with an accusative relationship (i.e., one that should be a direct relative) under influence of the earlier indirect relative in the first clause.

In sid é an té gur leis é and cad é an ceanntar ’narbh as é, the prepositional pronoun has to follow the relative (you can’t say le gur or anything like it). GÓN links this with his earlier discussion of the copula, pointing out that the prepositional phrase is the predicate that follows the copula.

Go as a realtive developed from ag+the indirect relative a, although the connection with ag is no longer felt, and so goaige is frequently found.

In Keating, gach mnaoi dhíobh ag ar mhair a fear ag teacht in Éirinn dóibh does not mean what it would appear to mean in modern Irish, where ag ar mhair a fear would mean “with whom her husband lived”. Keating was using the earlier grammar before ag+a had turned into go, and he means gur mhair a fear (“whose husband lived”).

The conjunction go has also influenced the development of go as an indirect relative, as it is often hard to tell which the writer is intending when he writes go. Take these examples:

Cad é mar dhuine é seo go smachtaíonn sé gaoth & farraige & go ndeinid siad rud air. The first go is a conjunction, and the second appears to be relative.

Cá bhfuil an seómra bídh go n-ithead an Cháisc i bhfochair mo dheisceabal? Here go appears to be a conjunction used with the subjunctive, but by supplying an additional unexpressed ann it would become relative.

Féachaint an bhfaigheadh sé aon rud go bhféadfadh sé greim a bhreith air. Here go could be a conjunction, with the clause meaning “that he might take hold of it”, or a relative particle, with the clause meaning “that he might take hold of”.

A final point on the development of go as a conjunction is that as go and are the affirmative and negative conjunctions leading into subordinate clauses it was natural that an affirmative relative go would develop in contrast to the negative relative .

On the development of the relative na and nar, GÓN points to the way that prepositions combined with the indirect relative to form ina, óna, go n-a (where go means “with”), trína, lena, etc. An example from Catilína is gach treabhchas daoine lenar mian iad féin a bheith os cionn na n-ainmhithe eile, where lenar is used for what would once have been lér’ in older Irish. This constant use of na(r) became relative in feel, producing things like, from Séadna, san áit nar bhain an órdóg leis an dtalamh.

That na(r) has nothing to do with the preposition i or at least not any more is shown by the use of ann after it, e.g. in the phrase saothar a dhéanamh na mbeidh tairbhe ann, where the preposition force of the n- is no longer felt, and na is just the indirect relative.

In his further remarks on the relative, GÓN notes that whereas in Ulster they say goidé tá tu a dhéanadh? this becomes in Munster cad tá agat á dhéanamh?

Double relatives

GÓN claims to be the first to notice the double relative construction in Irish. He gives as an example cé is dó’ leat do scríbh an leitir? This fuses together two separate relative sentences:

Cé (hé an té) is dó’ leat?

Cé (hé an té) do scríbh an leitir?

The two sentences are connected, in that the second of these relative sentences is dependent in thought on the first, and thus combined in the one overall double relative sentence given above.

In tógfar uaidh gach a measann sé atá aige, we have a similar fusion of two relative sentences:

Tógfar uaidh gach a measann sé.

Tógfar uaidh gach a bhfuil aige.

We saw earlier how in sentences like ag breithniú na haimsire ‘nar dhó’ leó a bheadh sé ag teacht the indirect relative is shifted to the dó’ clause, which is then followed by a direct relative. The same process is at work here. As gach a measann sé already has the indirect relative, it is followed by atá aige, even though the separate sentences nested in this double relative sentence show that gach a bhfuil aige with an indirect relative has been subsumed.

Treble, quadruple and quintuple relative clauses

There can be multiple relative clauses nested within the one sentence. Take this: is minic nuair is sia is dó’ leat a bhímse uait gurb ea is giorra bhím duit. This subsumes the following three clauses:

1. an uair is sia

2. an uair is dó’ leat

3. an uair a bhímse uait

The meaning of the first and third clauses is dependent in thought on the second clause, is dó’ leat.

A quadruple relative sentence can be created thus: cad é an uair aduart is sia is dó’ leat a bhímse uait? And you can even have a quintuple relative sentence in cad é an rud is dó’ leat aduairt sé do mheas sé ab fheárr a dh’oirfeadh don scoil? (“What do you think he said he thought would suit the school best?”) This includes the following five relative clauses:

1. Cad é an rud is dó; leat?

2. Cad é an rud aduairt sé?

3. Cad é an rud do mheas sé?

4. Cad é an rud ab fheárr?

5. Cad é an rud a dh’oirfeadh don scoil?

The dependence in thought in this relative sentence is such that the meaning of clause 5 is dependent on the other 4.

As mentioned previously, an indirect relative clause later in the sentence is often transferred to the is dó’ clause. Takes these 5 nested relative clauses (to produce a sentence meaning “in what way do you think he said they thought things would work out to their benefit?”):

1. Cad é an chuma is dó’ leat?

2. Cad é an chuma aduairt sé?

3. Cad é an chuma do mheasadar?

4. Cad é an chuma ab fheárr?

5. Cad é an chuma na raghadh an scéal i dtairbhe dhóibh?

By transferring the indirect relative clause to the first nested question, the final sentence then becomes cad é an chuma nar dhó’ leat aduairt sé do mheasadar ab fheárr a raghadh an scéal i dtairbhe dhóibh? [Compare ag breithniú na haimsire ‘nar dhó’ leó a bheadh sé ag teacht and tógfar uaidh gach a measann sé atá aige above.]

Another example given is ní baol ná go raghadh an tóir sa treó baíll ba lú nar dhó’ leó a tiocfí suas leó, where the indirect relative is also transferred from sa treó baíll na dtiocfí suas leó to the dó’ clause.

Exceptions and abnormalities in the double relative

A large number of cases of unexpected usages are listed.

1. In an té adeir sibhse gurb é úr nDia é (“he whom you say is your God”, from John 8:54), the gur clause (subordinating rather than relative) requires explanation. Without it, you would have had to say an té adeir sibhse is úr nDia (bearing mind that we saw in an earlier chapter that where the relative particle governs the copula as its subject, no additional pronoun or subpredicate is inserted). This construction, while correct, is also a little unusual. GÓN also argues that although adeir sibhse is accusative (“he whom you say”), it seems equivalent to a genitive (“he of whom you say”) and GÓN states that the double relative does not permit a genitival relationship in the first clause, but requires some kind of conjunctional clause to intervene, e.g., an té nar dhó’ libh na thaobh go… [Reading this passage as a whole, GÓN appears to be saying that if you said something like an té go ndeir sibhse na thaobh go..., it would be a viable sentence, but would not be double relative, because once you introduce the genitival relationship into the first clause the second go must be parsed as a conjunction and not a relative.]

2. Many apparent exceptions arise from confusion between go as a relative and go as a conjunction. In canad is toil leat go n

ollmhóimís é? the go appears to be a conjunction, but is actually relative, thus correctly forming a double relative sentence. The nested clauses are:

a) canad is toil leat?

b) canad go n-ollmhóimís é (which is equivalent to canad na n-ollmhóimís é.)

3. In many sentences go and could be parsed either way, as conjunctions or as relative particles, thus making it unclear if they are exceptions to the double relative construciton or not. For example, in buairt nár mheasas riamh gurbh fhéidir a leithéid do theacht ar mhnaoi, gur may be genitive relative (“a sorrow the like of which”), but nár could also be interpreted as the negative conjunction (“a sorrow so great that I did not…”). If nár is a conjunction, then gur must also be parsed as a conjunction, as there could be no double relative in that case. Finally, if nár is interpreted as a negative genitive relative (a truncation of nár mheasas riamh ’na thaobh), then gur must be a conjunction, as, as was stated above, the double relative cannot be used with a genitive relationship in the first clause.

The key issue in double relative sentences is therefore that the direct relative must be used in the first clause. In rud ba dhó’ le héinne nárbh fhéidir a dh’fháil, we see that ba is direct relative and nár is also a relative here (a genitival relative linking up with a dh’fháil), and so this is a double relative sentence. But once you say rud gur dhó’ le héinne nárbh fhéidir a dh’fháil, you no longer have a double relative sentence. This is because gur in the first clause is indirect relative (in a genitival relationship implying gur dhó’ le héinne ’na thaobh), and so there is no double relative here and the nár must be parsed as a conjunction. [The situation, as discussed several times above, where in a multiple relative sentence a later indirect relative is transposed to the ’ clause makes the first clause in such sentences appear dative and therefore indirect, but this does not violate the rule being presented here, as separation out of the nested relative clauses shows the first underlying clause to be direct.]

4. The example is given of cad é a mhinicí do fuaras é san áit nár mheasas a gheóbhainn é, there seems to be a problem that san áit a gheóbainn é has the direct relative, whereas as a separated clause this would be quite wrong, as san áit requires the indirect relative. If we said san áit do mheasas ná faighinn é, it would be quite normal, but when the negative relative is shifted by a process of inversion to the first relative clause, the direct relative of that clause is then shifted to the second clause.

Having noted that with a dó’ clause followed by a temporal or local clause with the indirect relative it is normal to transfer the indirect relative to the dó’ clause and follow with the direct relative, there are examples where the succeeding temporal or local clause retains the indirect relative too: chun gach tíre ’nar dhó’ leis go bhfaigheadh sí a bheag nú a mhór d’aon rud i bhfuirm nirt is an example of where chun gach tíre ba dhó’ leí becomes indirect relative, and yet we still have a go clause afterwards. Another way of parsing it is that the first clause is incomplete and the go is the conjunction to complete the sense.

In an rud gur mheasais gur rud fónta é, this cannot be a double relative, because either the first gur is a conjunction, in which case the second must be a conjunction too, or the first is genitive relative (short for gur mheasais ’na thaobh), which also precludes a double relative as the first clause in a double relative must be a direct relative (except for cases of inversion as mentioned above). To make this into double relative, you have to say an rud do mheasais ba rud fónta.

GÓN argues that use or non-use of the double relative makes for great subtley in PUL’s Irish. Fro example in bímíd go minic ag gáirí nuair ba cheart gur ag gol a bheimís, this is not double relative, and the meaning of nuair is rather “whereas”“we often laugh whereas in all reason we ought to weep”, creating a contrast betwen laughing and crying. If the stress were upon laughing at the very time we ought to be crying, then the double relative would be called for: bímíd go minic ag gáirí an uair ba cheart a bheimís ag gol.

To summarise, therefore, the double relative tends to occur after phrases such as is dó’ le and do mheasas, when they are themselves relative. There are 8 forms of the double relative sentence:

1. Where there is a direct relative in both clauses (i.e., the relatives are both nominative/accusative in nature). E.g. cé is dó’ leat do scríbh an leitir?

2. Where a comparative or superlative stands in a direct relative in the first clause, with an indirect relative in the second. E.g. níl éinne is feárr gurb eól do é ná mar is eól dómhsa é.

3. Where a direct relative in both clauses stands for the indirect. E.g. is dómhsa is feárr is eól cá luíonn an bhróg orm, where because the dative relationship has already been expressed before the comparative clause, both relative clauses are then direct.

4. Where there is a direct relative in the first clause and a direct relative standing for an indirect temporal in the second. Bímíd go minic ag gáirí an uair ba cheart a bheimís ag gol

5. Where there is a direct relative in the first clause and an indirect relative in the second in interrogative sentences. An example from the subsequent section on interrogatives in relative clauses is cad chuige aduairt sí ná raibh aon mhaith inti?

6. Where there is an indirect relative in the first clause and a direct relative in the second by a process of inversion. The underlying nested relative clauses have a direct relative in the first and a temporal indirect in the second. E.g. bhí gach éinne ag breithniú na haimsire ’nar dhó’ leó a bheadh an tÁrdrí ag teacht abhaile, where the indirect relative of the temporal clause na haimsire ’na mbeadh has been switched to the dó’ clause.

7. Where there is an indirect relative in the first clause and a direct relative in the second by a process of inversion. The underlying nested relative clauses have a direct relative in the first and a local indirect in the second. An example is cad é a mhinicí do fuaras é san áit nár mheasas a gheóbhainn é, where the underlying clause is san áit do mheas ná faighinn é.

8. Abnormal double relative clauses with indirect relatives in both clauses. E.g. chun gach tíre ’nar dhó’ leis go bhfaigheadh sí a bheag nú a mhór d’aon rud i bhfuirm nirt, where the indirect relative has been imposed on the dó’ clause via the process of inversion without replacing the subsequent indirect relative with a direct relative.

Negative relatives

, nách, and nár are negative relative pronouns as well as being conjunctions. GÓN arranges examples by case, showing these negative relatives are either direct or indirect:

a) Nominative (or genitive): ar ball do theastódh rud éigin uathu nárbh fhéidir a dh’fháil. Whether this is parsed as nominative or genitive depends on how a dh’ is parsed. If it is just the particle governing the verbal noun, once as a and repeated as do (and lenited), then the relationship is nominative. If a dh’ is understood as the possessive particle, padded out phonetically by dh’, then the relationship is genitive. [This ambiguity stems from the fact that the negative relative does not differentiate between the direct and indirect relatives. The affirmative form mian is ea é gur fuiriste a dh’fháil must be genitive relative following the indirect gur; the affirmative form mian is ea é dob fhuiriste a d’fháil must be nominative following the direct dob.] An example that is clearly nominative is sin rud ná raibh ann lem línnse.

b) Genitive. An unambiguous genitive is rud ab ea é nár ghá labhairt na thaobh.

c) Dative. Dheineadar roinnt cainnte, cainnt ná raibh puínn suime ag éinne acu inti.

d) Accusive (or genitive). Sarar deineadh an teitheadh sin bhí cruatán is brúth is feidhm ar Ultaibh ná féadfaidís a sheasamh puínn eile aimsire. In this sentence, the a could be interpreted as the particle governing the verbal noun (=do sheasamh). This would make the relative accusative. [GÓN states that in a sheasamh, seasamh would then stand in the dative. This seems a confusing point, but he seems to be referring to the fact that do is a dative preposition, and so when it is used as the particle governing the verbal noun, it puts the verbal noun “in the dative”. This may have etymological justification, but it seems easier for me to regard do or a governing the verbal noun as separate from the preposition do.] An alternative parsing would be to take cruatán is brúth is feidhm as a noun phrase that is considered as a whole and referred back to by a genitive a sheasamh. This would make the relative genitive and seasamh would be the accusative object of the verb féadfaidís.

An interesting example is this do measadh sinn a thabhairt ar an slógadh so le bréig, le geallúint nár measadh a chómhlíonadh. He argues that a could be the preposition do (i.e., the particle governing the verbal noun), and if measadh (the second measadh) in the sentence is autonomous n meaning, that would make the relative nár accusative in meaning. He adds that measadh could be seen as passive in meaning, which would make the relative nár nominative. By viewing measadh as either autonomous or passive, GÓN seems to be saying that the autonomous form can be either active or passive in meaning (“people thought” or “it was thought”). Yet PUL stated on a number of occasions that the autonomous form is always active, regardless of its translation into English. Another way of parsing the sentence is to have a as the possessive pronoun. Although bréig and geallúint are feminine, GÓN argues this need not prevent their being referred back to by a chómhlíonadh. This would make the relative nár genitive, and cómhlíonadh would be accusative (or nominative), rather than dative, governed by the verb measadh.

Some instances of the negative relative are virtually genitive. For example in níl bata sa tigh sin nárbh éigin seisreach do gabháil chun é thabhairt abhaile ón gcoíll, chun é thabhairt is equivalent to chun a thabhartha.

Comparative and Superlative adjectives.

Even when adverbial in meaning (GÓN calls them virtual adverbs), Irish comparatives and superlatives are adjectives in formal grammar and the double relative construction is frequently required to express what would in English be comparative and superlative adverbs.

No-one knows better than you how to do that” would become níl éinne is feárr gurb eól do conas é siúd a dhéanamh ná mar is eól duitse é, where feárr is to be parsed as an adjective, although equivalent in sense to an adverb or adverbial phrase. “The work he knows best” would therefore be an obair is feárr atá ar eólas aige.

Interrogatives and the relative

Interrogatives followed by a prepositional phrase, like cad na thaobh, cé dho and cé leis are elliptical. For example cad na thaobh ná rabhais anso inné? is equivalent to cad é an rud ná rabhais anso inné na thaobh, which makes the genitive relative. The subject of the unexpressed copula is an rud … na thaobh, the predicate is cad, and in the full form of the sentence é is the temporary subject.

Note how the prepositional phrase is normally placed next to the interrogative in the truncated sentence. An underlying cé hé an té go bhfuilir dhá thagairt sin do? therefore becomes cé dho go bhfuilir dhá thagairt sin? and cé hé an té gur leis an peann? becomes cé leis an peann?

These sentences require the indirect relative (cé dho go bhfuilir…), although GÓN adds that the Waterford form allows the direct relative, e.g. in sentences like cé leis atá sé ag cainnt?, but this is contrary to West Munster, Connaught and Ulster usage and, he argues, “a corruption of the true idiom”, which shoudl be cé leis go bhfuil sé ag cainnt?

A further reason to object to this “corruption” is that it destroys the distinction between single and double relative sentences, which depends on the distinction between the direct and indirect relative usages. Note for example the difference in nuance between cad chuige aduairt sí ná raibh aon mhaith inti? (a double relative sentence meaning “what did she say she was no good at?”) and cad chuige go nduairt sí ná raibh aon mhaith inti? (a single relative sentence meaning “why did she say she was no good?”) The latter sentence is an elliptical form of the full sentence, cad é an rud go nduairt sí ná raibh aon mhaith init chuige? As the double relative sentence requires the direct relative in the first clause (other than in cases of inversion), the difference in nuance is clearly seen.

Note the distinction between:

cathain aduairt sé a bheadh sé ann? (Double relative: “when did he say he would be there?”)

cathain aduairt sé go mbeadh sé ann? (Single relative: “when did he make the statement that he was going to be there?”)

and

cad na thaobh adeir sibh go mbíonn buaireamh oraibh? [“in connection with what do you say you are troubled?”]

cad na thaobh go ndeir sibh go mbíonn buaireamh oraibh? [“why do you say you are troubled”?]

Brian Ó Cuív’s transcription in CFBB

Brian Ó Cuív’s prefatory essay (réamhaiste)

pix

cunndaethe: seems to point to cúndaetha with a d as the plural of cúndae.

shíolraig: I think the l should be deleted in pronunciation, but BÓC shows it.

cnoc: BÓC prefers to spell this word with an o, and he explains in the appendix (p269) that this is because two pronunciations (cnoc and cnuc) existed in Cork Irish.

fuirist: spelt without a final e.

parróistíocha: a colloquial plural is used here, where paróistí is also found.

i n-agha’ na bliana: with deletion of the -idh of aghaidh.

px

canúinn: canúinn and canúint both existed (see also p65).

luig sé: with the g shown.

cnósach: the local version of cnuasach has ó.

comórtaisí: the plural is with -í, as in most words of this type.

ollú: the pronunciation of ullmhú is clearly shown here.

tugatha: BÓC doesn’t normally show epenthetic vowels in his transcription in CFBB, but maybe he does so here because it is possible for gth to be realised as a k without an epenthetic vowel. Either way, tuca or tugatha are possible realisations of this word.

beart muar: BÓC has this word as masculine.

pxi

fáca: the pronunciation of fágtha is shown clearly.

chuir: the verbal noun is often pronounced with a slender r and this is shown here.

tagarthaí: the plural is given so here, whereas PUL’s gospels (titlepage) have tagartha.

aithneófaí: BÓC seems to eschew giving a slender -fí to these autonomous forms.

pxii

Eanáir: this revived word is given in this form, where Eanair might be more dialectal.

faid sael: I am still trying to work out why, if faid is feminine, it is not faid shael.

Appendix I.

p268

cunsain: BÓC has a feminine cunsain where the CO has consan. He has cunsaine in the genitive, cunsain in the dative and cunsainí in the plural.

áfaig: this is regularly the form of áfach used by BÓC.

mion: BÓC explains that he does not spell this word miun as some people have /mʹin/ in this word, although the transcriptions in this book all show /mʹun/ where this word is used as a prefix.

p269

éamh: has a long e, /e:v/.

He explains on this page that he only uses epenthetic vowels where there would be a possibility of error, e.g. seirbhthean is written by him serithean (I am assuming he means that rth does not always develop an additional vowel, and so it is necessary to show one if it is used).

cnoc: BÓC writes cnoc, rather than cnuc, because the two pronunciations existed in the dialect.

p270

gutha: BÓC has gutha, plural guthaí (written by him guthí) instead of guta, gutaí in the CO. I am not sure why he writes an o in the genitive (“bém an ghotha” on p277).

an t-each: this has a slender t.

an eochair: this has a slender n.

an iumarca: this has a slender n, although some speakers said an umarca.

an iúnadh: this has a slender n in the article.

an eaglais: this has a broad n (as if an aglais).

an t-eólas: this has a broad t (as if an t-ólas).

ag iompar: this has a broad g (as if ag úmpar).

ag aeireacht: this has a slender g, /igʹ eːrʹəxt/, and it is is implied that aeire would also also slenderise the final consonant of a preceding unstressed word (e.g. an t-aeire, “the shepherd”, would be /inʹ tʹeːrʹi/).

ag oibriú: this has a slender g, /igʹ ebʹi’rʹuː/, although some speakers had /əg obʹi’rʹuː/.

meán, meón: these two forms are given corresponding to meadhán and meadhón in the old script. I wasn’t aware that meón existed as a pronunciation.

páig: a g is heard in the genitive of pá.

faoir: the genitive of faor has /i:/.

degh-mheasta: this is pronounced /dʹəi-vʹastə/.

neamhnár: this is pronounced /nʹau’nɑ:r/.

p271

Caraíos: Carghas is pronounced with a long i.

sgíol: the mh is deleted in sgeimheal.

fuaimíotar: BÓC doesn’t appear to have an n in this word.

p272

fuirithe: foirbhthe is pronounced with h.

tisbeáin: taispeáin is pronounced with a slender t.

mineál: muineál is pronounced with a slender m.

datach: deatach is pronounced with a broad d.

p273

ceannàtha:this form of the word ceannaighthe is shown, implying it is /kʹə’nɑhə/ and not the /kʹə’nɑxə/ that I had thought it was (based on the LS of Séadna).

cóthalán: this is how coimhthionól is pronounced.

croicin: this transcription shows that the original croicinn has lax /nʹ/ and not tense /ŋʹ/.

durainn: BÓC transcribes duirn as if pronounced /duriŋʹ/, whereas Shán Ó Cuív had transcribed it as if /dirʹinʹ/ in his LS version of Séadna.

defearaíochtaí: this word has a broad r.

ar fuaid, ar fuid: although PUL was insistent there was a difference between these two words, BÓC states
he has never heard ar fuid.

an chéd-cheann: this implies that céadcheann gains a long vowel in the first syllable.

Appendix II.

p274

fhuaimiú: this confirms the lack of a n in cognates of this word.

p275

úsáidithar: it is worth noting the form of the autonomous in such verbs.

p276

dereannaí: BÓC clearly had a broad n in deireanach, but deirineach is found in many of PUL’s works.

Appendix III

p280

Eón Má Cártha: showing the realisation of Mac Carthaigh in the dialect.

Addenda

p286

an gnáth-thabharthaig: it seems the dative has replaced the nominative in this word.

aderthar: BÓC prefers this form to adeirtear.

ins na habairtibh: with a short dative ending.

Túrfí and déarfí are found on this page with slender endings, contrary to many other transcriptions in CFBB.

Main text

p1

a rá: BÓC does not show the slender r here.

muarán: IWM shows mórán is pronounced /moː’rɑːn/ (line 188 of the text in the middle of the book), but BÓC seems to prefer to transcribe with a diphthong.

p3

gá (nú ’ge n-a): two versions of ag+a are given here.

an ’mó cos tosaig aici (nú oirthe)?: I thought it would be fúithi.

din ar t(h)’aghaig: BÓC shows the possessive particle may be lenited.

ná tarraig: BÓC seems to use a broad r in this word, but Shán Ó Cuív uses a slender r in his LS.

p5

as cóir: here BÓC concedes os is pronounced as, although his IWM had shown the pronunciation as os.

p6

ó Dhiarmaid (mh)ach Séamais (Í Chonchúir): the lenition, and probable deletion of the m of mac is shown here, although I wonder if there is a typo here. Should it not be (mh)ac?

fhraoig: the genitive of fraoch seems to have /i:/ in it and not /e:/, otherwise BÓC would have transcribed it as fhraeg.

tugt(h)ar: here the two forms tugtar and tugathar are clearly shown.

p7

chunnac: the general form is chnuc, but maybe a disyllabic version exists too?

p8

tá sé in (a) am aifrinn: I had never considered it, but BÓC seems to be suggesting that in am contains a hidden possessive particle.

do bhua(ig) sé glan amach air: here BÓC seems to be indicating that with bhuaigh, you can either pronounce or not pronounce the g before the third-person pronoun.

aderthar: the h pronunciation of this autonomous form is shown.

p9

triublóidí, triublóidithe: BÓC seems here to use triublóidí as a singular rather than a plural, generating its own plural in -the.

p11

sgárd: scárd is found here, where Séadna has both scárd and scaird.

an-dóich: this word is transcribed with a final h, /’ɑn’doːh/. This is probably one of those cases where the final h is only heard before vowels.

anis: anois is transcribed here as if with a slender n.

p13

tagrathar: the present autonomous of tagraim is so given, but tagarthar would make more sense (see fógraim, fógarthar).

dá anúinní tháim: the relative form, atáim, is found with a lenited t, especially after a previous word ending in a vowel.

róinte (rónta): two forms of the plural of rón (“seal”) are given.

cuileachta (cuideachta): two forms of this word are given, with the l being more deeply dialectal.

do thógas mh’ao(n)-chuid: mo can be lenited for no apparent reason.

p14

simnéucha: the plural of simné is so given here, whereas simnéitheacha is shown under simné later in the book.

donas (dunas): this word can apparently have a u.

Aifrice: the local form of this word is with a slender f and r (cf. the CO Afraic). PUL had Afric and Africa.

thubaist: the local form of this word is not tubaiste in the nominative.

p15

bhí ’gum: agam loses its initial vowel here.

doit hén: duit féin can have an h with some speakers.

p16

Luimne: Luimneach is so written in the dative here.

finneóga(cha): a variant plural of finneóg is shown here.

p17

ag maíomh à(h) é dhéanamh: where as is reduced to à an h may be heard before a vowel.

p19

satail(t): two forms of this noun/verbal noun are indicated, implying the final h may be devoiced or not.

p20

drid: a slender dr is shown.

p23

gcraoch (gcraíoch): the genitive plural is shown in two forms here, although it is stated that AÓL had craoch.

p25

roidín: this transcription would indicate an o in the first syllable, or else BÓC would have written ruidín according to the spelling system he outlines in the appendix.

p27

srine: the genitive of srian, which was feminine in PUL’s works, is given has as na srine, but Dónall Bán Ó Céileachair had an tsriain.

sé truthe: the plural of troigh, troithe, is shown with a u here.

beárna/beárnain/beárnainn: three versions of the dative are given here.

p28

beart: this is shown as masculine meaning “bundle, load”, and feminine meaning “act”. I believe both were feminine in PUL’s works.

preab m[h]uar: this word is shown as of variable gender here.

cuir-thrí-chéle: note the slender r of cuir.

p29

thorainn: tharainn is shown with an o here.

ní be’ dhoit/ní be’ liom: beag is shown as pronounced just /bʹe/ before prepositional pronouns formed from do and le. As a single phrase response, ní bel is used.

p31

bhuin: the dative of bó is given here.

leogfaí: while this autonomous form fails to give a slender -fí ending, the verb form itself shows leogaim and not ligim is the local form.

chútha: the pronunciation of chucu is shown here.

an ainm a ghlaofaí: feminine ainm; also note lenition of the autonomous form, which was not PUL’s practice.

iniubh: the pronunciation of inniu.

an blosga tháinig un: un seems to mean ann here, the unstressed variant of the pronunciation.

p32

déarfaí: a broad f is shown here, whereas I believed all these should have a slender f.

p33

atfadh: this form seems to come from ataim, but ataithe in PUL’s works seems to come from ataím.

ní glaotar: without lenition of the autonomous form.

cómhrainn: showing the pronunciation of cónrainn (from cónra, “coffin”) here.

p34

phleasgfadh: unless a typo, doesn’t appear to show the éa diphthong.

air hén: shows one speaker had air héin and not air féin.

thisbeánann: I note the medial broad n, where dtaisbeáinfinn is found in one passage in Séadna.

an turas so: doesn’t show a monosyllabic trus.

p37

braitear: a slender t is shown here, contrasting with BÓC’s usage in the appendix.

aithnítear: a slender t is shown here. Compare fuaimíotar.

tríálfad: this seems to be BÓC’s way of showing that in trialfad the vowels are separate (compare triallfad, which is a separate verb with a diphthong).

tuiltíocha: a variant plural of tuile is shown here.

p38

guil: the genitive of gol.

p39

mhiníl: showing a slender m.

briosga: it is stated the word briosgóid does not exist in Muskerry, although PUL had it in his works.

p40

tsalchar: I believe salachar should be pronounced slachar, but I am struggling to reconcile this spelling here.

p42

thiormóidís: this spelling shows that triomú is tiormú in BÓC’s Irish.

cisgém: coiscéim with a slender c here.

thrioslóig: this seems to show a slender r in truslóg.

p44

bun ós ciunn (buinis ciunn): this possibly indicates two variant pronunciations of this phrase.

caoicís: no diphthong is shown in this word.

adéarfí: with a slender f here, in contrast to the same word with a broad f elsewhere in CFBB.

p45

dataigh:
showing the genitive of datach (deatach) is not in -aí.

p46

cadráil (caidreáil): both forms of this word are given, under the entry about cadrán/caidreán.

déleáil: no diphthong is shown in this word.

p48

garú: the plural of garbh.

p49

gairid: BÓC eschews the slender g pronunciation of this word.

caogad (caogaid): this word is shown with a slender d, and this may be part of a wider phenomenon, e.g. where PUL consistently had fichid for fichead.

caor: “glowing object, thunderbolt”. This word is shown with a gentive caora or caorach and plural caortha.

chroidhreach: this word is so transcribed, although the transcription leaves the pronunciation unclear.

p50

air hén: after prepositional pronouns, BÓC consistently uses héin, not féin.

i n-úil: this seems to show a broad n here.

tomáin: showing a broad t in tiomáin.

p51

fé ia ’n tí: some argue this phrase is the origin of fé dhéin an tí, and the transcription here might support that.

do rugadar: there is no attempt to show a slender r here.

p52

ann hén: another example of hén for féin.

ceangail/ceangalacha: two versions of the plural are given.

uileanna: a variant genitive, equivalent to uilinne.

i gciunn/a chiunn/chiunn/chun: all these equivalents mean “in order to”, or are stated as meaning d’fhunn.

p53

gortaíocha & gearraíocha: the plurals of gorta and gearradh.

cirte/cirtisí/córtaisí: three versions of this comparative are given.

dhá thaoibh: the dual of taobh.

p54

cedim: variant of creidim.

p55

chun cónaithe/cónaig: cónaig is given as a variant here.

chun/chuig: the use of chuig for chun is stated as being rare in Muskerry.

áireamh/áiriú: two versions of this verbal noun are given.

dóibh hénig: a variant of féin and another example of h pronunciation.

p56

as ár gciunn: with os given as as.

trí áit fhli(u)ch: this transcription shows the dsf can be flich.

p58

iompathar: I am wondering if this is a form of iompaítear.

p60

fairsinge: this form is shown with ng, not just g.

p61

isna: a form of ins na.

a d’iarraig rod(a) égin a tharrac: the genitive in rud or ruda is shown here.

p62

ag gortú mh’aigne: with lenition of m’.

dertear: a form without th is shown here, unlike other entries.

níosa bhfeárr: níosa lenites, but seems to eclipse an f.

páig: the genitive of pá.

p63

bhfágfaí: a broad f is given here. Usage seems haphazhard.

coircíocha: the plural of coirce.

p65

sgine: the genitive of scian, where Séadna has scéine.

duine le Dia: a simple person who is not all there in the head.

comh-chleamhnaithe: stated as the plural of comh-chliamhain.

p66

comh-throm: an equal weight of something has a long o, /koːrhəm/, whereas a sufficiency of something or a fair opportunity at something is /korhəm/ (see p69).

p67

thurcail: this is usually found as trucail in PUL’s works.

p68

córú: the r is shown as broad or slender here.

cois ar c(h)ois le chéle: lenition or the lack of it shown here.

cosnaím: no epenthetic vowel.

p69

chunnac: equivalent to chnuc.

p70

bairlíní: equivalent to braillíní (sheets).

LS edition of Cúán Fithise

1.

 

gléasadh – transcribed as gliasa, thus rejected Brian Ó Cuív’s argument in IWM that whereas the noun is pronounced /glʹias/, the verb is pronounced /glʹeːs-/. I am thinking that IWM reflects poetical pronunciation of the verb, and that in normal speech, there is indeed a diphthong?

mídheallraithí – mígheouruihí, with typical LS confusion of ou/au. Mígheauruihí would be better.

Conghal – this name is transcribed Conyl /ko’niːl/, and -gh- is sometimes realised as a long vowel, as in Aonghus, /eː’niːs/.

Fheargas – Earagas, with an epenthetic vowel.

Fanat – transcribed Fánad, although PUL had used the Old/Middle Irish version in Cúán Fithise.

Magh Muirisce – transcribed Má Muirishgi. Magh seems to have a long vowel, but IWM shows Magh Chromtha is just /mə xroumhə/.

Laighean – transcribed Layn. I am wondering if this is /lain/ or /ləin/, as LS does not have a good way of differentiating between these two diphthongs.

ghlaeigh sé- ghlaeg shé. In this monosyllabic verb the g retained.

gach éinne – gahéngi, where the ch seems to become h.

 

2.

 

dúradh – transcribed as duarag, but I don’t believe any other parts of the past tense of deirim have /uə/ other than duart and duairt.

dúradar – transcribed as duaradar, but see above.

 

3.

 

do rugadh – transcribed as do rugadh (with no ri-), but rugamair is transcribed as riugamuir. The LS recognises here that the autonomous form is not lenited after the perfective particle, and so no lenition of the r should be heard.

fionnadh – transcribed as fiona.

Laighneach – transcribed as Layineach.

lá ‘rna mhaireach – transcribed as lar n-a váireach, with a short a in lar.

nigh sé – transcribed as nig shé, although Osborn Bergin in an early article in Ériú said that this monosyllabic verb defied expectations by deleting the g in this context.

cimleadh – cimileag – showing an epenthetic vowel.

rómhainne – transcribed as rôingna. In all such emphatic forms, the suffix is -na, although the spelling appears to suffix just a neutral vowel.

 

4.

coisíocht – transcribed as cuishycht. I had long wondered if the vowel in cois- was o or i.

cubus – transcribed as cús. It seems the original spelling missed lenition and should have been cubhus.

gcapaillíbh – transcribed as gapuiliv. I need to check the original text and see where I got the long -íbh from.

ar theacht – transcribed as er hacht. This seems better than the er heacht used in LS version of Séadna.

de thoradh reatha – transcribed as de hora ratha in one place and de hora reatha in another, but I think the broad r is correct.

 

5

 

talamh-chumscú -transcribed as talav-chûsgú, it seems the original spelling missed lenition and should have been talamh-chumhscú.

an t-each san each – transcribed as an t-each, san each, but the issue of when the article is slender before a word starting with e is a complex one. I am wondering if it should be an t-ach, san ach. More research required here.

Ultach – transcribed as Últach, but this seems just wrong. Oulhach is the pronunciation.

uathásach – transcribed as úhásach, but IWM shows the ua- is pronounced ua-. There are a number of such words, and ú- is possibly a variant.

Séadna, caib. 25

Caibideal a Cúig is Fiche.

Um an dtaca san bhí muíntir an rí tar éis túirleacan dá gcapaillibh ar pháirc an aonaigh. D’éaghmais na gcapall a bhí acu féin chun marcaíochta, bhí tréad mór eile capall acu dá dtiomáint, agus giollaí ’na mbun. B’in iad na capaill a bhí le tabhairt tar n-ais do na daoinibh gur ceannaíodh uathu iad an lá úd an aonaigh, agus gur tugadh an t-airgead bréagach dóibh astu in ainm an rí. Bhí muíntir na sráide bailithe ar an gclaí, mórthímpall na páirce, agus bolgshúilí orthu, ag féachaint ar fhearaibh an rí, agus ar na clócaíbh síoda, agus ar na caipíníbh cogaidh, agus ar na claímhtibh móra fada a bhí acu, agus ar na claímhtibh beaga, agus ar na gathannaibh breátha sleamhaine fada a bhí ’na seasamh in áirde, agus ar na ribíníbh a bhí astu thuas ag rínce leis an ngaoith. Ach níor leog fir an rí orthu gurbh aon iúnadh leó aon ní dá raibh ann. Níor dheineadar aon iúnadh díobh féin ná d’éinne eile.

Bhí muíntir na tuatha ag teacht, ’na nduine ’s ’na nduine, mar do cuireadh scéala chúthu sa tímpall, éinne gur ceannaíodh capall uaidh don rí agus gur tugadh airgead bréagach do mar dhíolaíocht ann, ná raibh aige ach teacht go dtí páirc an aonaigh an lá san agus go raibh a chapall le fáil aige, dá n-aithníodh sé é, ach go ndéanfadh duine creidiúnach éigin urrús air.

Thánadar go léir. Níor bhaol go dtiocfadh éinne agus go leogfadh sé air capall a bheith imithe uaidh. Bhí aithne rómhaith acu go léir ar a chéile. D’aithneófí an cleas san láithreach. Go mór mór, ní fhéadfadh duine den tsórd san fear ’fháil a dhéanfadh an t-urrús air. Tháinig fear an bhramaigh, agus tháinig Seán Ceatach ag déanamh an urrúis air. Bhí sé nách mór ar an gcéad duine a fuair a chuid. Sular tugadh a chapall féin d’éinne do deineadh socrú áirithe. Do hórdaíodh gan éinne den mhuíntir ’na mbeadh a gcapaill fálta acu d’imeacht ón bpáirc go dtí go mbeadh an capall déanach tabhartha amach agus an fear déanach sásta. Is é cúis gur deineadh an t-órdú san ná le heagla go ndéanfí aon dearúd i roinnt na gcapall agus, chun an dearúid do leigheas, nárbh fholáir na capaill go léir agus na héilteóirí go léir a bheith ar aon láthair.

Bhí daoine creidiúnacha a ndóthain ag na héilteóiríbh chun na n-urrús a dhéanamh. Bhí an sagart ann agus urrús aige dá dhéanamh ar mhórsheisear in éineacht. Bhí Cormac ann, mar bhí an sagart imithe ón dtigh roimis agus do lean sé é. Bhí Diarmuid ann, mar ní bheadh Sadhbh sásta gan é ’theacht amach go bhfeicfeadh sé muíntir an rí agus áilleacht a n-órnáidí agus méid a ngradaim. Bhí Séadna ann mar bhí an uile dhuine de sna héilteóiríbh dhá iarraidh air an t-urrús a dhéanamh air féin, peoca ’bhí urrús déanta ar dhuine eile aige nú ná raibh.

Do glaodh na héilteóirí agus na hurraí suas i láthair an chínn airm. Bhí fear an bhramaigh ar tosach. Chonaic sé an bramach, i bhfad sular glaodh air, agus d’aithin sé é. Chonaic fear eile leis an bramach agus cheap sé gur leis féin é. Nuair a glaodh ar éilteóir an bhramaigh phreab an bheirt éilteóirí suas.

“Is liomsa é,” arsa duine acu.

“Ní leat ach liomsa,” arsan fear eile.

D’fhéach an ceann airm ar na hurraíbh. Ní fheidir éinne cad ba cheart a dhéanamh. Do labhair Séadna.

“Beirtear an bramach amach i lár na páirce,” ar seisean. “Téadh duine den bheirt éilteóirí seo go dtí taobh den pháirc agus an duine eile go dtí an taobh eile. Scaoiltear ansan den bhramach agus glaeidís araon air. Is é mo thuairim go dtiocfaidh an bramach ag triall ar an éilteoir dleathach.”

Do deineadh mar sin. Chómh luath agus ’fuair an bramach cead a chínn do rith sé anonn ag triall ar an bhfear a chothaigh é.

Ba gheárr go raibh na capaill rannta, ach más ea bhí daoine fós ann a bhí in éaghmais a gcapall féin. Níor fhéad an lucht cuardaigh teacht suas leis na capaillibh go léir. Na daoine a bhí in éaghmais a gcoda bhíodar go dúbhach agus go dobrónach, agus is é aduairt gach éinne ná gur chruaidh an cás é má bheadh thiar orthu an tarna lá chómh maith agus ’bhí thiar orthu an chéad lá. Bhí gach éinne ag déanamh trua dhóibh, agus bhí gach éinne ag cur ’s ag cúiteamh féachaint conas ba cheart an cás ’na rabhadar do thabhairt arís os cómhair an rí. Do thuig an uile dhuine, dá mbeadh fios an scéil i gceart ag an rí, go ndéanfadh sé rud éigin dóibh.

Ansan is ea aduairt fear cínn riain an airm go raibh órdú aige féin ón rí, éinne ná beadh a chapall ann le tabhairt do, fiacha an chapaill a thabhairt do. “Ach,” ar seisean, “conas a déanfar amach fiacha an chapaill agus gan an capall ann!”

Do stad an uile dhuine. Ní fheidir éinne conas ’fhéadfí fiacha an chapaill a dhéanamh amach agus gan an capall ann. Ní bheadh aon chiall le breithiúntas an éilteóra do ghlacadh ar fhiacha a chapaill féin. Ní lú ná ’bheadh aon chiall le cothrom an airgid bhréagaigh do thabhairt, in airgead dílis, do gach éilteóir ná raibh a chapall ann le tabhairt do. Cad a bhí le déanamh? Bhí an scéal ag dul sa mhuileann orthu go léir. Na héilteóirí ag lorg a gcirt go dána fé mar ’órdaigh an rí dóibh é. Fear cínn riain an airm i gcruachás, ná feidir sé an mór ba cheart a thabhairt do gach éilteóir. Agus gan éinne ábalta ar aon tuairim a thabhairt fé luacht dleathach na gcapall a bhí gan fáil.

Do labhair Séadna arís.

“Deintear an scéal do shocrú ar an gcuma so,” ar seisean. “Tugtar anso amach os ár gcómhair an capall is feárr agus an capall is measa ar na capaill seo a roinneadh anois. Curtar meas ó bheirt mholtóirí ar cad is fiú gach capall den dá chapall san. Ansan curtar an luacht mór agus an luacht beag le chéile agus deintear dhá leath den iomláine. Tugtar oiread airgid agus ’bheidh i leath na hiomláine sin do gach duine ná fuil a chapall féin ann le tabhairt do. Leis an socrú san b’fhéidir go mbeidh duine a gheóbhaidh beagán níos mó ná a cheart agus duine a gheóbhaidh beagán níos lú ná a cheart, ach ní mheasaim gur féidir aon tsocrú eile ’dhéanamh a thiocfaidh níos giorra don cheart.”

Do liúdar na daoine go léir agus bhuaileadar a mbasa.

“Sin í an chainnt! Sin í an chainnt!” ar siad. “Sin é an moladh ceart!”

D’fhéach an ceann airm ar Shéadna.

“Airiú,” ar seisean, “ní gréasaí atá againn ionatsa ach breitheamh!”

Do socraíodh an scéal ar an gcuma san agus bhí gach éinne sásta.

Dá mhéid dúil a bhí ag na daoine radharc ’ fháil ar fhearaibh an rí agus ar a n-arm agus ar a n-éide agus ar a ngléas agus ar a ngradam, ba mhó ná san an dúil a bhí ag muíntir an rí radharc maith ’fháil ar Shéadna, mar níor stad béal Chormaic an fhaid a bhí sé sa chathair ach ag trácht ar Shéadna agus ag déanamh iúnadh dhe agus dhá mhaíomh ná raibh a leithéid eile in Éirinn le doimhneas aigne agus le géire íntleachta agus le faidearaí, agus le luas gnímh nuair a bheadh an gníomh le déanamh.

An chéad fhéachaint a fuaradar air, agus é ag teacht isteach sa pháirc i dteannta na ndaoine a thug leó é chun an urrúis a dhéanamh, is amhlaidh a tháinig iarracht de sheirithean orthu. “Ach!” ar siad, “Más é sin é!” Ní raibh ann, dar leó, ach gréasaí mar aon ghréasaí, agus ní raibh i gcainnt Chormaic ach gaoith. Ach nuair ’ airíodar an socrú a dhein sé i dtaobh na gcapall do leath a súile orthu, agus tháinig iúnadh a gcroí orthu a rá nár chuímhnigh éinne acu féin ar an slí sin chun an scéil a shocrú.

Nuair a bhí an scéal socair agus gach éinne sásta agus muíntir an rí ag cuímhneamh ar chasadh abhaile, tháinig an ceann airm ag triall ar Shéadna agus ghlaeigh sé i leataoibh air.

“A leithéid seo, a Shéadna,” ar seisean. “Ag fágáilt an bhaile dhom thug an rí foláramh dom tusa do dhul liom síos nuair a bheinn ag filleadh, mar gur airigh sé tuairisc mhór ort agus gur mhaith leis fear ded cháil a bheith in aice leis thíos aige.”

“Abair leis an rí, a dhuin’ uasail,” arsa Séadna, “gur neamhní liomsa saibhreas saolta agus gur cuma liom beó nú marbh me féin, seochas toil mo rí do chómhlíonadh; gur suarach le rá iad mo dhea-thréithe agus gur beag é m’eólas, ach pé beag mór é mo dhícheall go ndéanfad é ’na sheirbhís. Iarr ar a shoíllse suím beag aimsire ’ thabhairt dom chun an méid cúraim atá ar mo láimh anso do chur i dtreó agus a chur díom.”

“Cad é an méid aimsire a bheadh uait?” arsan ceann airm.

“Bliain agus ráithe, a dhuin’ uasail,” arsa Séadna.

“Tá go maith,” arsan ceann airm.

Is é cúis ’na nduairt Séadna, “bliain agus ráithe”, mar ní raibh an uair sin gan caitheamh de na trí bliana déag ach bliain agus ráithe.

Síle. Ach, Dia linn! An fear bocht! Cad é an mhaith do a shaol! Airiú, nár gheárr an mhoíll ar an aimsir imeacht.

Gobnait. ’Sea, agus gur dhó’ le duine i dtosach na haimsire nárbh fhios cathain a bheadh sí caite.

Nóra. Agus féach, duairt a máthair ná beadh Peig trí bliana déag go Bealltaine.

Cáit. Cathain aduairt sí é sin?

Nóra. Nách cuímhin leat an oíche úd a tháinig an scannradh ar Shíle agus gur ritheamair go léir? Ní rabhas-sa imithe amach ar fad agus d’airíos an méid sin. “Agus gan tu ach trí bliana déag chun na Bealltaine,” ar sise.

Peig. Pé fada gairid iad na blianta bhíodar imithe ach amháin bliain agus ráithe, agus bhí an méid sin féin ag imeacht go tiubh.

Cáit. Ní fheadar ’en tsaol conas ’fhéadadh sé an oíche a chodladh, ná aon bhlúire bídh a chaitheamh. Ba dhó’ liom dá mbeinn ’na chás go maródh sé me bheith ag cuímhneamh ar an lá a bhí ag teacht. Ní fheadar ó thalamh an domhain conas ’fhéad sé an scéal a ghlacadh chómh bog.

Peig. Ba bheag seachtain ná tugadh sé cuaird anonn go tigh an tsagairt, agus an lá a théadh sé anonn thugadh sé féin agus an sagart tamall mór i bhfochair a chéile.

Gobnait. Dar ndóin, níor thug sé a rún don tsagart.

Peig. Ní raibh an rún tabhartha aige dho an lá a bhí sé ag cainnt leis i dtaobh an chleamhnais úd Mháire Ghearra, agus níor thug sé dho an lá san é, ach ní fheadarsa ceoca ’thug sé dho ’na dhiaidh san é nú nár thug.

Nóra. Dar ndó’, ní fhéadfadh sé é ’thabhairt do.

Cáit. ’ Gcloistí uirthi! Dar ndó’, níl sé ceangailte ar dhuine rún a chimeád ó shagart.

Peig. Níl sé ceangailte ar dhuine rún a chimeád ó shagart nuair a bheadh faoistin aige dá dhéanamh leis an sagart, ach d’fhéadfadh sé bheith ceangailte air gan an rún a thabhairt do lasmu’ den fhaoistin.

Nóra. Ó, tuigim. Agus nuair a gheóbhadh an sagart an rún sa bhfaoisdin bheadh sé ceangailte ar an sagart féin an rún do chimeád agus gan scéith air.

Peig. Bheadh go díreach, fé mar atá ceangailte ar an sagart rún na bpeacaí a hínstear dho a chimeád.

Ach ar aon chuma bhíodh Séadna thall go minic ag cainnt leis an sagart agus chaithidís a lán den lá i bhfochair a chéile. Chítí Séadna go minic ag dul chun Comaoine, agus bhíodh áthas ar na daoine dá bhárr san, go mór mór toisc ainm an mhíchreidimh a bheith air i dtosach bára. Ar dtúis chítí ag dul chun Comaoine dhá uair sa mbliain é, um Cháisc agus um Nollaig, ansan uair sa ráithe, agus i ndeireadh bára chítí ag dul chun Comaoine é gach aon chéad Domhnach den mhí.

Bhí sé féin agus an sagart ar pháirc an aonaigh ag cainnt le chéile tar éis na gcapall a bheith rannta. Tháinig fear cínn riain an airm chúthu, ag fágáil slán ag an sagart, agus cé ’bhuailfeadh chúthu, san am gcéanna díreach, ach Cormac.

“’Sea, a Athair,” arsa Cormac, “ó tá an méid sin gnótha déanta agus gach éinne sásta, b’fhéidir nár mhiste dhúinn iarracht a thabhairt ar ghnó bheag eile ’dhéanamh. Ná himigh, a Shéadna,” ar seisean, “ná thusa, a dhuin’ uasail,” ar seisean leis an gceann airm. “Dheineabhair araon an gnó eile úd chómh maith ní miste liomsa sibh araon a bheith i láthair mo gnóthasa anois.”

“Mura mbeadh Séadna bhí sé thiar orainn sa ghnó ó chiainibh,” arsan ceann airm. “Níl uaimse anois ach slán ’fhágáilt ag úr sagart agus agaibh go léir sula dtugad aghaidh ar Bhaile-’ bhfad-síos. Ach pé gnó é seo eile atá agatsa le déanamh, a Chormaic, más maith leat go ndéanfainnse ríghneas beag mar gheall air, déanfad é agus fáilte. Tá súil agam go bhfuil t’aignese sásta, a Athair, le gnó an lae,” ar seisean leis an sagart.

“Ana-shásta, a dhuine uasail,” arsan sagart. “Tabhair mo dhea-mhéinn agus mo chion go dílis agus go dúthrachtach do shoíllse an rí, nuair a bheidh cainnt agat leis, agus abair leis ná féadfainn a ínsint dá shoíllse méid an bhaochais atá agam, agus againn go léir, air, mar gheall ar an ngníomh atá déanta aige ar na daoine bochta so a chaill a gcuid. Abair lena shoíllse gur fada a bheidh cuímhne ag muíntir na háite seo ar an ngníomh uasal san, agus má thagann feidhm ’nar ghá cúnamh uainn–nár leogaidh Dia go dtiocfaidh–ach má thagann, abair leis ná fuil fear sa dúthaigh seo ná himreóidh a anam go fonnmhar ar son an rí.”

“Tá ’fhios ag an nduin’ uasal so, a Athair,” arsa Cormac, “gur minic aduartsa féin an chainnt sin leis, ón lá ’ thug an rí órdú uaidh na capaill seo do sholáthar agus do thabhairt thar n-ais do na daoine bochta so.”

“Dúraís go deimhin, a Chormaic,” arsan ceann airm. “Dúraís chómh minic sin é, ní baol go ndearúdfar é. Ach ní healaí dhúinn do ghnósa féin a dhearúd. Cad é an gnó é seo atá agat féin le déanamh, a Chormaic? Tá súil agam ná cuirfidh sé sinn i bpúnc chómh cruaidh leis an bpúnc ’na rabhamair ó chiainibh go dtí gur réitigh Séadna sinn as.”

“Sin í an chainnt, a Chormaic,” arsan sagart. “Cad é an gnó é seo atá le déanamh agat?”

“Bhíos thall ag an dtigh, a Athair, chun labhartha leat ’na thaobh, ach bhís imithe rómham. Dúradh liom go rabhais tagaithe anso agus do leanas t’onóir.”

“Tá go maith,” arsan sagart. “Táimíd go léir anso anois. Cad ’tá uait, a Chormaic?”

“Tá so, a Athair,” arsa Cormac, “go n-oireann dom athrú beag a dhéanamh ar mo shlí bheatha.”

“Athrú ar do shlí bheatha!” arsan sagart, agus iúnadh a chroí air mar dhea. “Ní dócha, a Chormaic, gurb í an bháillíocht a cheapfá a chaitheamh uait!”

“A dhe mhuise, a Athair,” arsa Cormac, “is dó’ liom gur beag dá mhearathall atá ort nách í an bháillíocht a mheasfainn a chaitheamh uaim, ní nách iúnadh; ach an dúil a bheith riamh ageat onóir sa tsult, agus nách foláir leat anois pas beag magaidh a dhéanamh fúmsa, ó b’annamh liom an chaoi ’thabhairt dot onóir chuige.”

“Go deimhin agus go dearfa, a Chormaic,” arsan sagart, agus é ag gáirí, “ní cúrsaí magaidh ná suilt ar fad an scéal. ‘Athrú beag’, a thugann tú air, Is dó’ liomsa gur b’é rud é ná athrú ana-mhór. Ach bíodh sé beag nú mór, tá aon ní amháin deimhnitheach. Más mar chabhair agus mar chúnamh dá fear a ceapadh an bhean, ní dó’ liom go mbeidh an fear eile sin le fáil is mó go mbeidh a bhean ’na cabhair agus ’na cúnamh aige ná mar a bheidh sí agatsa nuair a bheidh Sadhbh pósta agat.”

“Mhuise, t’r ’om do lámh bheannuighthe, a Athair!” arsa Cormac. “Ag magadh nú dáiríríbh duit is maith í do chainnt, agus is maith an sás fírinne ’dh’ ínsint thu. Agus cathain a bheidh sé caothúil dot onóir teacht agus an ceangal a chur orainn?”

“Pé am is feárr a thiocfaidh isteach led chaothúlacht féin, a Chormaic,” arsan sagart.

Placename

Baile-’ bhfad-síos: this placename is translated in the authorised translation of Séadna as ‘City-far-away’. It seems a generic Irish placename, almost a poking of gentle fun at some of more curious Irish placenames.

Foclóirín

annamh: “seldom”. Is annamh liom (rud a dhéanamh), “I seldom do something”.
báillíocht: “office of bailiff”.
bolgshúil: “a bulging eye”, pronounced /boləg-hu:lʹ/. Bolgshúilí orthu, “staring intently”. FdS indicates that bolgshúilí is the plural of bolgshúil. Súile is the plural of súil, and I had expected bolgshúilí to be the abstract noun meaning “the state of someone’s eyes bulging”.
breithiúntas: “judgement”, or breithiúnas in the CO.
caothúil: “convenient”, or caoithiúil in the CO, pronounced /ke:’hu:lʹ/.
caothúlacht: “convenience”, or caoithiúlacht in the CO, pronounced /ke:’hu:ləxt/.
cion: “affection”.
claíomh: “sword”, with claímhte in the plural. Pronounced /kliːv, kliːtʹi/. Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition of Séadna transcribes claímhtibh as cluitiv, as if there is no long vowel in the first syllable.
dea-mhéinn: “goodwill”, or dea-mhéin in the CO. Pronounced /dʹa-vʹe:ŋʹ/.
dílis: “faithful, proper”. Airgead dílis, “genuine money”. Go dílis, sincerely.
doimhneas: “depth”, pronounced /deŋʹəs/. Doimhneas aigne, “mental depth”.
dúbhach: “gloomy, sorrowful, melancholy”, pronounced /duːx/.
ealaí: “art, skill”. healaí dhúinn, “it is not fitting for us, it does not behove us, it won’t do for us (to do something)”. Ealaí occurs in the CO as ealaín, which is historically the dative.
éilteóir: “claimant, claimer”, or éilitheoir in the CO. Pronounced /e:lʹ’ho:rʹ/.
fadaradhnach: “long-suffering, patient”, or fadaraíonach in the CO. The pronunciation given in IWM is /fɑdɑ’riːnəx/, but Brian Ó Cuív also says that some speakers have /fɑdɑ’rəinəx/, and so in the absence of any direct knowledge of PUL’s pronunciation the original spelling is retained here.
faidearaí: “long-suffering”, but also “foresight, deliberateness of action”, or fadaraí in the CO. PUL’s spelling (faidearadha) implies a pronunciation /fadʹa’ri:/, but /fɑdɑ’ri:/ is also found in WM Irish. The quality of the d is problematic, because fadaradhnach, the cognate adjective, occurs elsewhere in Séadna. Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition of Séadna concurs in a pronunciation faideary. FdS gives fadaradha as a variant. PSD states this word is pronounced fadaraighe.
fáilte: “welcome”, pronounced /fɑːlʹhi/. Déanfad é agus fáilte, “I will gladly do it”.
faoistin: “confession”.
feidhm: “force, effect”, but also “need, emergency”. Pronounced /fʹəimʹ/.
ga: “spear”, with gathanna in the plural. This is one of a number of words where an h may be heard in certain contexts: /gɑ(h), gɑhənə/. Gathanna sleamhaine, “smooth spears”.
gaoth: “wind”, with gaoithe in the genitive and gaoith in the dative. Pronounced /geːh, giːhi, giːh/. Gaoith is also sometimes found in the nominative, with one instance in chapter 25 here: ní raibh i gcainnt Chormaic ach gaoith, “there was nothing but nonsense in what Cormac had been saying”. Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition of Séadna transcribes this gaoith as gäh.
glaeim, glaoch: “to call, cry out”, or glaoim, glaoch in the CO. This verb was originally spelt glaodhaim, glaodhach, and so the spelling changes in the middle of the twentieth century have led to forms such as glaoim that are suboptimal for Cork Irish, as aoi would be pronounced /iː/. As the pronunciation is /gleːmʹ, gleːx/, ae is used in the editing here wherever a form is found that is poorly spelt in Standardised Irish, e.g. glaoidís is edited as glaeidís here. Glaoch ar dhuine, “to call to someone”.
gléas: “arrangement, accessories, trappings”. In chapter 25 (radharc fháil ar fhearaibh an rí agus ar a n-arm agus ar a n-éide agus ar a ngléas agus ar a ngradam), gléas is translated in the authorised translation of Séadna as “martial order”. The noun is pronounced /glʹias/.
gradam: “glory”. Méid a ngradaim is translated in the authorised translation of Séadna as “their imposing appearance”.
luacht: “value”. The CO form, luach, is also found here.
míchreideamh: “unbelief, lack of faith”.
moltóir: “adjudicator, arbitrator”.
pas: “a bit”. Pas beag, “a little bit”.
peaca: “sin”.
ráithe: “a season; a quarter, three months”, pronounced /rɑːhə/.
réitím, réiteach: “to solve”. Réiteach le duine, “to agree to what someone proposes”. Do réitigh Séadna sinn as, “Séadna extricated us from it, got us out of it”.
ríghneas: “slowness”. Ríghneas beag, “a little delay”. Pronounced /riːnʹəs/.
roinnim, roinnt: “to share, divide”. Roinnt na gcapall, “the dividing up/apportionment of the horses”. Pronounced /rəiŋʹimʹ, rəintʹ/. Note the past participle is rannta, /rauntə/, where the CO and PSD have roinnte. This might support a global change in the editing process here to spell roinnim and roinnt as rainnim and rainnt, or rannta can be seen as simply irregular. The verb was variously spelt roinn- and rainn- in the original text, wtih roinnt found as rain(n)t. Interestingly, Liam Mac Mathúna’s edition of Séadna transcribes rannta as roinnte, a word not found in the original text of Séadna.
saibhreas: “wealth”. pronounced /sevʹirʹəs/.
sás: “means; the very person to do something”. Is maith an sás fírinne dh’ínsint thu, “you are just the person to tell the truth”.
seirbhís: “service”, pronounced /ʃerʹi’vʹiːʃ/.
soíllse: “brightness, effulgence”. Soíllse an rí, “His Majesty, His Excellency the King”. A shoíllse, His Excellency. Soíllse is also the plural of solas, “light”.
suarach: “paltry, insignificant”. Suarach le rá, “no big deal, nothing to speak of”.
thiar: “behind; to the west”. An lá a bhí sé thiar, “the day he came over” (cf. PSD, where thiar is glossed as “over at the house, if the direction is west”). Thiar air, “behind hand, set back, disappointed”: mura mbeadh Séadna bhí sé thiar orainn sa ghnó, “if it had not been for Séadna, we would have failed in the job”. Also found impersonally: bhí thiar orthu, “they were left in the lurch, left disappointed, they lost out”.
trua: “pity”. Trua dhéanamh do dhuine, “to express pity for someone”.
tuaith: “the countryside; rural district.” Note the genitive here is given as tuatha, where the CO has tuaithe. Either spelling would yield the pronunciation /tuəhə/, but Dinneen’s dictionary shows that PUL’s spelling was accepted. Muíntir na tuatha, “the country people”.
urra: “warranty, security”, and in particular the person who provides a security or guarantee for another person, with urraí in the plural.
urrús: “security, guarantee”.

A hymn composed by PUL

Muire Mháthair i Lourde

An tAthair Peadar Ua Laoghaire do chúm.

Clog bínn an Aingil, is Aoibhinn a cheól,

Ag fógairt ’s ag freagairt

Is naofacht ’na ghlór.

Ávé, Ávé, Ávé, Maria;

Ávé, Ávé, Ávé, Maria.

Do stiúraigh an tAingeal

An cailín gan chaim,

Mar a raibh Muire Mháthair

Os cionn an tsrutháin.

Ávé, …

Do shéid an tsí gaoithe,

Mórthímpall le neart,

Is do thuig an cailín

Go raibh aoibhneas ag teacht.

Ávé, …

Do tháinig an t-aoibhneas,

Do leath a dhá súil,

Bhí Máthair gheal Íosa

’Na seasamh ansúd!

Ávé, …

Soíllse ’na tímpall

Chómh geal le gealcheó,

Grá na Tríonóide

Ag taithneamh ’na snó.

Ávé, …

Bhí glóire ó Dhia uirthi:

An ghrian ar an ré,

Is duairt sí, le séimhe,

“Ní baol duit, a lao.”

Ávé, …

A hiorra, i ngléigile

Ar lile do bhuaigh,

’S a crios guirmspéire

Ar an spéir ghorm san thuas.

Ávé, ….

Rós óir ar gach troigh léi,

Ba gheal iad, ba mhín,

Chonaic Bernadotte iad.

Chuaigh an radharc trína croí.

Ávé, ….

‘Cad is ainm duit, a Ríogan:’

Aduairt an cailín.

D’fhéach Muire suas is duairt sí:

“Is me Gein gan Teímheal.”

Ávé, …

Foclóirín

ainm: “name”, pronounced /anʹimʹ/.
aoibhneas: “bliss, delight”, pronounced /iːvʹinʹəs/.
Ávé Maria: “Hail Mary”. This is given with a short á in PUL’s An Teagasg Críostaidhe, and it is transcribed with a short a in LS here. Note that PUL does not try to force this Latin phrase to respect Irish spelling rules. The CO has Áivé Máiria.
cam: “crookedness, fraud”. Cailín gan chaim, “a guileless maiden”. The original had gan cháim, with a long a, but this may have been a typographical error.
cumaim, cumadh: “to create, compose”. The preterite has a long u: chúm.
gealcheó: apparently an ad hoc word here, “bright mist”. An epenthentic vowel is not indicated in LS, although many combinations with geal- do have additional vowels.
gein: “foetus”. The LS implies the pronunciation is /gʹenʹ/, and the LS edition of PUL’s An Teagasg Críostaidhe gives geneag as the transcription for geineadh, the autonomous preterite of the related verb. It is a little difficult to believe these are not pronounced as shown in the CO, where the words are gin and gineadh. According to the presentation in paragraph 298 of IWM, /e/ should be raised to an /i/ preceding a nasal. Gein gan teímheal, “the immaculate conception”.
glóire: “glory”, or glóir in the CO.
gorm: “blue”, pronounced /gorəm/.
guirmspéire: “sky-blue”, a genitive used as an adjective, pronounced /girʹimʹ-spʹeːrʹi/. FGB has spéirghorm.
iorra: “apparel, trappings, accoutrements”. This word appears to be a form of earra, but I am relucant to alter the original spelling, as earra is pronounced /ɑrə/, whereas iorra is pronounced /irə/ (or at least the LS edition has iora, and taking into account the relevant section of IWM on the pronunciation of io before r, it seems there is /i/ here). Both FGB and PSD have entries for iorra(dh) as a variant of earra.
lil: “lily”. It seems lile is plural here, and PSD shows a variant form lil, with lile in the plural, did exist. The CO has lile, with lilí in the plural.
Lourde: the French location where the Virgin Mary appeared to St. Bernadette. This would be Lourdes in French, but the original text here has no final s in the Irish, possibly because the s is silent in French.
mín: “gentle, mild”. In reference to golden roses, this probably means “polished, fine”, which are given as further meanings in FGB.
Muire Mháthair: the Virgin Mary. It is notable that máthair is lenited in this phrase, as if of adjectival force.
os cionn: “above”. Pronounced /ɑs kʹu:n/. Given in LS as aish ciún, although I would like to check that the s is slenderised, as this is not shown in other LS works.
: “moon”. Referring here to the way the glory of God illuminated the Virgin as the sun does the moon.
ríogan: ríon in the CO, “queen, princess, noble lady”. Pronounced /ri:gən/.
sí: “blast, gust”. Note that is feminine here, but masculine in the CO. Sí gaoithe, “whirlwind”.
snó: “appearance, complexion, face”. This is a variant of snua, and may indicate that snua is generally pronounced snó in the dialect.
stiúraím, stiúrú: “to guide, direct”, or stiúraim, stiúradh in the CO.
taithneann, taithneamh: “to to shine”, taitníonn, taitneamh in the CO. Generally in the first declension in PUL’s works, pronounced /taŋʹhən, taŋʹhəv/.
teímheal: “stain”. Gan teímheal, “immaculate”. Pronounced /tʹi:l/ according to Cnósach Focal ó Bhaile Bhúirne and the transcription in LS here.
tímpall: “around”, or timpeall in the CO. The broad p in WM Irish is preserved here: /tʹi:mʹpəl/.
Tríonóid: “Trinity”.

PUL’s first published letter in Irish

PUL’s first known work in Irish

The following is the first work in Irish known to have been written by PUL—namely a letter to the Gaelic League, that was published in The Irishman of May 4th, 1878, p693. The letter was for long a mystery. PUL said in his Mo Sgéal Féin (pp152-153) that he had written a letter in Irish to the Gaelic League, with advice on the Irish language movement that they ignored, and that the letter later appeared in the Freeman’s Journal:

Suim aimsire tar éis na h-oibre do thosnughadh i Maghchromtha tháinig leitir chúgham ó Bhaile Átha Cliath, ó’n “gCuman” úd “chun na Gaedhilge do choimeád beó.” Do tráchtadh liom ar an ngádh a bhí leis an obair a bhí ag an gCuman ‘á dhéanamh, agus ar an ngádh a bhí le h-airgead chun na h-oibre do dhéanamh. Dhá fhírinne ghlan ab eadh an dá nídh sin gan amhras. Chuireas púnt airgid chúcha agus do sgríobhas leitir cúcha, agus is i nGaeluinn do sgríobhas í. Thugas iaracht, sa leitir, ar raint neithe do chur ar a súilibh dóibh i dtaobh an chuma ‘n-ar cheart an obair a bhí curtha rómpa acu do dhéanamh. Chuireadar freagra chúgham ar mo leitir ag gabháil buidhchais an airgid liom. Agus chuireadar chúgham cló de’n Freeman’s Journal agus mo leitir Ghaeluinne i gcló air, díreach mar a sgar mo lámh léi. Do thugadar le tuisgint dom, ámhthach, i dtaobh na cómhairle a bhí tabhartha agam dóibh, ná raibh aon ghádh le dithineas. Ba mhar a chéile an sgéal agus a rádh: “A dhuine mhacánta, tabhair-se aire do d’ ghnó féin agus leig dúinne an rud céadna dhéanamh.”

For many years, scholars could not find it, as they searched the Freeman’s Journal for it, and Fr. Shán Ó Cuív’s bibliography of PUL’s works stated that it was still unfound. But Brian Ó Cuív later found it in The Irishman. The discussion on ainm.ie (where an Irish-language biography of PUL may be found) says:

I Maigh Chromtha do chuir sé litir chuig Aontacht na Gaeilge. Foilsíodh í sa Freeman’s Journal (theip ar an Athair Ó Cuív teacht air agus é ag liostú saothar Uí Laoghaire. Deir Brian Ó Cuív in Éigse 1960–61, 1. 247–51 gurbh í an litir a bhí i gceist an ceann a foilsíodh in The Irishman ar 4 Bealtaine 1878).

Thankfully, An Lón Dubh has located this newspaper (click here for the PDF, which also included an English translation—I do not include a transcription of the English translation here, as I am not clear whether PUL submitted it himself or whether it was done by the editors of The Irishman), and the article is as follows (adopting my Muskerry House Style—and not the original spelling, which reflects classical norms, as at such an early date PUL had not yet determined to follow his own spelling rules):

THE IRISH LANGUAGE.

The Rev. Peter O’Leary, C.C., Rathcormac, Co. Cork, has written the following Gaelic letter to Messrs. M. H. Gill and Son, 50 Upper Sackville-street, publishers of the works prepared by the “Society for the Preservation of the Irish Language.” The letter is valuable not only for its correctness and style, but for the signs of progress which it reports for the Gaelic movement in the schools of that locality:—

Ráth Chormaic, Cúntae Chorcaí.

An deichiú lá fichid de Mhárta, 1878.

A dhaoine uaisle,

Cuirim chúibh postórd ar choróinn agus dhá thuistiún mar dhíol as an bhfichid leabhar a fuaras uaibh.

D’iarrabhair orm má bhí aon ní fónta agam le rá mar gheall ar an nGaelainn sa bhall so é ’ chur in úil díbh.

Ar dtús: tá suas le fiche duine ’nár scoil bheag anso, agus tigid le chéile gach tráthnóna ag foghlaim na gceacht, agus bím féin dá múineadh agus is féidir liom a rá go bhfuilid ag dul chun cínn maith go leór. Tá tuilleadh ar an dtaobh amu’ den mhéid sin agus d’éis tosnú go maith do theip a bhfoighne in achomaireacht. San am céanna ceapaim go bfíllfid cuid acu nuair ’ chífid an gnó ag dul ar aghaidh agus a gcómhlaí ag labhairt na Gaelainne. Tá beirt nú triúr agam nár labhair focal di riamh go dtí a bhfuil le leathbhliain, agus is féidir leó anois an rann beag so thíos do ghabháil ar mheabhair agus do thuiscint:

Dreóilín a fuaramar thíos ar an ínse

Fá bhráid carraige is carbhat síod’ air

thugamar chúibh é—lán úr dtíse

’S go mba seacht feárr um an dtaca so arís sibh.

Tá anois machnamh beag agam le cur os úr gcómhair. Do chuir an obair an méad so ’na luí orm. Má thig im láthair fear den choitiantacht os cionn fiche bliain d’aois, nár labhair riamh focal Gaelainne agus ná raibh ’na taithí is cuma í nú bás aon fhocal di ’chur ’na bhéal isteach, ach má chuirim chun linbh deich mbliain do mhúineadh, foghlamóidh sé í chómh tiubh is do labharfad í. Rud eile, an mhuíntir go bhfuil eólas agus taithí acu ar an nGaelainn níl puínn meas acu uirthi, óir ceapaid gur cómhartha uaisleachta ar dhuine bheith dall uirthi. Dá mb’fhéidir an ní sin go chur as a gcroí ba rógheárr an mhoíll orthu í d’foghlaim agus í ’ labhairt go blasta.

Anois dá mbeadh an Ghaelainn dá múineadh in sna scoilibh coiteanna, beadh dhá ghnó dá ndéanamh: bheadh an mhuíntir óg dá foghlaim gan fhios dóibh féin agus beifí dá chur ’na luí ar an muíntir críonna gur mó an náire a hainbhios ná a heólas.

Ba dhó’ liom, dá gcuireadh sibhse chuige go dtiocfadh libh an tír go léir go chur ar aon ghuth ag lorg an mhéid sin ar lucht déanta ár ndlithe; agus ansan do mhúinfidh níos mó Gaelainne in aon bhliain amháin ná a bhfoghlamófí anois ar feadh deich mbliain.

Do tháinig chun lámha go cruínn leabhar scríbhneóireachta a chuireabhair ag triall orm. Tan ’ chonacadar na buachaillí é do tháinig árd-dúil acu air. Cuiridh chúm lenúr dtoil, fiche ceann eile dá leithéidíbh.

Táim ag brath air gur geárr go mbeidh scoil bheag eile againn anso in aice cnucáin na biolraí. Tá cuinne déanta agam le duine ón áit sin i gcómhair an lae amáirigh go dtispéanfainn do An Chéad Leabhar agus An Dara Leabhar Gaedhilge. Béarfaidh sé leis abhaile an dá leabhar agus chífidh a dhaoine muínteartha iad, agus deir sé go dtabharfaid go léir iarracht ar an nGaelainn d’foghlaim. Cuirfeadsa gach misneach is féidir liom orthu, agus ní bheartaim go mbeidh puínn trioblóide ann óir táid go léir i dtaithí Gaelainne ’na gcómhrá coiteann.

Dá iarraidh ar Dhia an rath do chur ar úr saothar agus go n-éirídh an t-ádh libh.

Mise,

Peadar Ua Laoghaire.

Foclóirín

amáireach: “tomorrow”, or amárach in the CO. An lá amáireach, “tomorrow”.
An Chéad Leabhar Gaedhilge: an instructional manual published by the Gaelic League in 1878.
An Dara Leabhar Gaedhilge: an instructional manual published by the Gaelic League in 1878.
anbhios: “ignorance”, possibly pronounced /aŋʹis/.
árd-dúil: “a great desire or liking” for something. Árd-dhúil, with medial lenition, is found in some of PUL’s later works. More research required here.
arís: “again”. PUL often (although not here) used the spelling airís, indicating a slender r, /i’rʹi:ʃ/.
beartaim, beartadh: “to think, estimate”. More usually, beartaím, beartú.
biolrach: “watercress”, or biolar in the CO. Cnucáin na biolraí is Watergrass Hill, thought to be a corruption of Watercress Hill. FGB indicates that biolra is a variant of biolar. PUL’s form is not given in PSD, which does however have biolarach, an adjective meaning “abounding in cresses”: this adjective appears to have become a feminine noun in PUL’s Irish.
bliain: “year”. The genitive plural is given here as deich mbliain, where deich mblian would be expected.
brá: “neck, the front of the neck”, with bráid in the dative. Fá bhráid carraige, “under the front of a rock”.
carbhat: “neck-tie”. Pronounced /kɑrəvət/.
céanna: “same”. San am céanna would generally appear as san am gcéanna in PUL’s later works.
cnucán: “hillock”, adjusted from cnoc- in the original in line with the general approach here to the editing of WM Irish.
coiteann: “general”. Scoileanna coiteanna, “general schools, public schools”.
cómhlach: “comrade, fellow, companion”. The plural cólaighe, transcribed here as cómhlaí, found in the original appears to be an attempt at a less dialectal form (cómhlaigh would make more sense), unless cómhlach and cómhla are some how aligned in PUL’s Irish. In any case, cómhlach does not appear in FGB.
Corcaigh: Cork, a placename found, as with many other placenames, in a fossilised dative, derived from the noun corcach, “moor, marsh, low-lying swamp”.
coróinn: “crown”, or coróin in the CO, pronounced /kroːŋʹ/. A crown was equivalent to five shillings in predecimal currency.
cuinne: “meeting, appointment”. This is usually spelt coinne, but the original spelling was cuinge here, and the u is retained as showing the pronunciation better. Coinne ’ bheith déanta agat le duine, “to be due to meet someone”.
cúntae: “county”, or contae in the CO. Also found as cúndae.
dall: “blind”. Dall ar rud, “in the dark on something, ignorant of it”.
dara: “second”. More generally tarna in WM Irish.
deichiú: “tenth”. Spelt deachmhadh in the original, but I don’t believe that form reflects the local pronunciation.
dreóilín: “wren”.
éis: “track”. This word seems to be rarely used in its original meaning. D’éis found here is equivalent to tar éis, “after”.
fá: “under; against”, or faoi in the CO. This preposition was originally fa, and this is the classical spelling used in the original. This is edited here as , which form is occasionally found in PUL’s works, reflecting historical confusion between fa and (“about”). The prepositional pronoun is more frequently found in WM Irish for the base preposition itself.
feárr: “better”. Go mba seacht feárr um an dtaca so arís sibh, “may you be seven times better this time next year”. Shouldn’t it be seacht bhfeárr?
fiche: “twenty”. The classical genitive was fichead, with fichid in the dative, but PUL consistently uses fichid in the gentive, probably reflecting an underlying variant noun fichead, which is found in PUL’s Séadna. Fichid in correctly used in the dative also in the first line of the letter here.
foghlamaím, foghlaim: “to learn”, or foghlaimím, foghlaim in the CO.
foighne: “patience”, pronounced /fəiŋʹi/. Spelt foighde in the original.
gabhaim, gabháil: “to go”, with many subsidiary meanings. The translation given for rann do ghabhail de mheabhair is “to commit a verse to memory”, but it seems rather to mean “to recite a verse from memory”.
gan fhios: “unwittingly”. I believe gan fhios is two words (cf. i ganfhios, where ganfhios is a noun).
gheibhim, fáil: “to find”. The past-tense form fuaramar is retained as given, although fuaramair is the Cork form. Fuaramar was a historically correct form, which has been adopted in the CO.
i gcómhair: “for, in store for”. This phrase was spelt i g-coir in the original, and generally i gcóir in PUL’s works, in line with PUL’s view (cf. Notes on Irish Words and Usages) that this phrase derives from cóir, “proper arrangement (among other meanings)” and not cómhair, “presence”. He indicated he did not have a nasal vowel in this phrase, but the issue is complex, as his etymology seems faulty (The Dictionary of the Irish Language has i gcomhair) and it is possible that i gcómhair has become conflated with a separate phrase i gcóir, “ready” in WM Irish. In any case, nasalisation is not a noted feature of modern-day WM Irish, and so the CO form produces the correct pronunciation.
ínse: “watermeadow”. This is translated as “island” in the original, but inis, “island”, and ínse, “watermeadow”, are distinct words, and there is no evidence that PUL provided the translation here.
lámh: “hand”. The gentive láimhe in the original is adjusted here to lámha in line with PUL’s later insistence that this is the correct genitive. The nominative is /lɑːv/ and the genitive /lɑː/. Rud a theacht chun lámha usually means “for something to come to hand”, but seems here to mean rather “for something to come in handy”. More research required here.
méad: “amount”. Normally found as méid in PUL’s Irish.
méid: “amount”. This is generally not lenited after den in PUL’s works (cf. den méid in his novel Niamh). Den mhéid here possibly reflects classical norms.
ná: “than”, adjusted from iona in the original.
nú: “or”, or in the CO.
os cómhair: “before”, pronounced /ɑs koːrʹ/.
postórd: “postal order”. The CO has ordú poist.
Ráth Chormaic: spelt Rathchormaic in the original, Rathcormack, Co. Cork. Ráth means “fort, earthen rampart”.
scoil: “school”, with scoilibh in the dative plural here, where scoileanna would be more usual.
tan: “time, occasion”, also used adverbially meaning “when, at the time that”, followed by a relative clause. This usage appears very rare in PUL’s works.
tigim, teacht: “to come”. The older form tigim is used here, where tagaim is more generally found in the dialect. Notice má thig fear, “if a man comes”.
tispeánaim, tispeáint: “to show”, with the slender t of WM Irish inserted in the editing here; the original cleaved to classical norms.
tugaim, tabhairt: “to give, bring”, with thugamar in the preterite here, where thugamair is more common in WM Irish.
tuistiún: “fourpence” in predecimal money.
tús: “beginning”. Ar dtús, “first of all”. More generally ar dtúis, but the original form is retained here as PSD shows both forms existed, and PUL seems to be cleaving to classical norms here.
úil:iúl in the CO, “knowledge”. The word úmhail, “attention”, appears to have become confused with the dative of eól, producing úil. Where anull stood in the original, it has been adjusted in the editing here. Rud a chur in úil do dhuine, “to let someone know something, to make someone realise something”.
úr: “your (pl)”, or bhur in the CO. Le bhur d-toil in the original is adjusted here to lenúr dtoil.