An oiread san

This is a brief addendum to my file on chapter 2 of Séadna, which contains some examples of oiread, which I forgot to note:

oiread: “amount”, pronounced /irʹəd/. An oiread san, “as much”; an oiread airgid agus a …, “as much money as …” Oiread is a masculine noun. The usage an oiread san was explained by Gearóid Ó Nualláin in the first part of his Studies in Modern Irish pp214-215 as being an old accusative of time, now applied to other uses as well. I am wondering if this explains the lack of t-prefixation, but my knowledge of t-prefixation and its connection to the accusative is pretty much absent…

Ó Nualláin’s extremely thorough works on Irish grammar are really the only truly in-depth account of traditional Irish grammar. His explanation of the accusative is on pages 213-215 of that work, and can be viewed online at http://archive.org/stream/cu31924026785174#page/n233/mode/2up .

Séadna chapter 2

Caibideal a Dó.

Nóra. ’Sea! —a Pheig. Táimíd anso—arís. Tá saothar orm—bhíos ag rith. Bhí eagla orm—go mbeadh an scéal ar siúl rómham, agus go mbeadh cuid de caillte agam.

Peig. Imbriathar go bhfanfaimís leat, a Nóra, a lao. Níl i bhfad ó tháinig Gobnait.

Gobnait. Mar sin do bhí cuigeann againn dá dhéanamh, agus b’éigean dómhsa dul siar leis an ím go Béal an Gheárrtha, agus nuair a bhíos ag teacht abhaile an cóngar, do thit an oíche orm, agus geallaim dhuit gur baineadh preab asam. Bhíos ag cuímhneamh ar Shéadna agus ar an ór agus ar an bhFear nDubh, agus ar na spréachaibh ’ bhí ag teacht as a shúilibh, agus me ag rith sula mbeinn déanach, nuair a thógas mo cheann agus cad do chífinn ach an rud ’na sheasamh ar m’aghaidh amach—an gallán! Ar an gcéad amharc dá dtugas air, do thabharfainn an leabhar go raibh adharca air!

Nóra. A dhe mhuise, a Ghobnait, éist do bhéal, agus ná bí dhár mbodhradh led ghallánaibh agus led adharcaibh. Adharca ar an ngallán! Féach air sin!

Gobnait. B’fhéidir dá mbeithá féin ann gur beag an fonn magaidh a bheadh ort.

Síle. Féach anois! Cé ’tá ag cosc an scéil? B’fhéidir go gcuirfeadh Cáit Ní Bhuachalla ormsa é.

Cáit. Ní chuirfidh, a Shíle. Táir id chailín mhaith anocht, agus tá ana-chion agam ort. Mo ghrá í sin! Mo ghrá im chroí ’stigh í!

Síle. ’Sea go díreach! Fan go mbeidh fearg ort, agus b’fhéidir ná déarfá “Mo ghrá í sin!”

Nóra. Seo, seo! Stadaidh, a chailíní. Mise agus mo ghallán fé ndeár an obair seo. Caith uait an stoca san, a Pheig, agus scaoil chúinn an scéal. An bhfuair Séadna an sparán? Is mó duine ’ bhí i riocht sparáin d’fháil agus ná fuair.

Peig. Chómh luath agus ’duairt Séadna an focal, “dar bhrí na mionn!” do tháinig athrú gné ar an bhFear nDubh. Do nocht sé a fhiacla thíos agus tuas, agus is iad a bhí go dlúite ar a chéile. Tháinig sórd crónáin as a bhéal, agus do theip ar Shéadna a dhéanamh amach ceoca ag gáirí a bhí sé nú ag dranntú. Ach nuair ’ fhéach sé suas idir an dá shúil air, ba dhóbair go dtiocfadh an scannradh céanna air a tháinig air i dtosach. Do thuig sé go maith nách ag gáirí ’ bhí an díolúnach. Ní fheacaigh sé riamh roimhe sin aon dá shúil ba mheasa ’ná iad, aon fhéachaint ba mhallaithe ná an fhéachaint do bhí acu, aon chlár éadain chómh dúr, chómh drochaigeanta leis an gclár éadain do bhí os a gcionn. Níor labhair sé, agus do dhein sé a dhícheall gan a leogaint air gur thug sé fé ndeara an dranntú.

Lena línn sin do leog an Fear Dubh an t-ór amach arís ar a bhais agus do chómhairimh.

“Seo!” ar seisean. “A Shéadna, sin céad púnt agat ar an gcéad scilling a thugais uait inniu. An bhfuilir díolta?”

“Is mór an bhreis í!” arsa Séadna. “Ba chóir go bhfuilim.”

“Cóir nú éagóir,” arsan Fear Dubh, “an bhfuilir díolta?” Agus do ghéaraigh agus do bhrostaigh ar an ndranntú.

“Ó, táim díolta, táim díolta!” arsa Séadna, “go ra’ maith agatsa.”

“Seo, más ea,” ar seisean. “Sin céad eile agat ar an tarna scilling a thugais uait inniu.”

“Sin í an scilling a thugas don mhnaoi a bhí cosnochtaithe.”

“Sin í an scilling a thugais don mhnaoi uasail chéanna.”

“Má ba bhean uasal í, cad do bheir cosnochtaithe í? Agus cad do bheir di mo scilling do bhreith uaimse, agus gan agam ach scilling eile ’na diaidh?”

“Má ba bhean uasal í! Dá mbeadh ’ fhios agat! Sin í an bhean uasal do mhíll mise!”

Le línn na bhfocal san do rá dho, do tháinig crith chos agus lámh air. Do stad an dranntán. Do luigh a cheann siar ar a mhuineál. D’fhéach sé suas in san spéir. Tháinig driuch báis air agus cló cuirp ar a cheannachaibh.

Nuair a chonaic Séadna an iompáil lí sin, tháinig iúnadh a chroí air.

“Ní foláir,” ar seisean, go neafuiseach, “nú ní hé seo an chéad uair agat ag aireachtaint teacht tháirsi siúd.”

Do léim an Fear Dubh. Do bhuail sé buille dá chrúib sa talamh, i dtreó gur chrith an fód a bhí fé chois Shéadna.

“Cirriú ort!” ar seisean. “Éist do bhéal nú bascfar thu!”

“Gabhaim párdún agat, a dhuin’ uasail,” arsa Séadna go modhúil, “cheapas go mb’fhéidir gur braon beag a bhí ólta agat, tráth ’s gur thugais céad púnt mar mhalairt ar scilling dom.”

“Thabharfainn, agus seacht gcéad, dá dtiocfadh liom baint ón dtairbhe do dhein an scilling chéanna; ach nuair a thugais uait í ar son an tSlánaitheóra ní féidir a tairbhe do lot choíche.”

“Agus,” arsa Séadna, “cad is gá an mhaith do lot? Ná fuil sé chómh maith agat tairbhe na scillinge úd d’fhágáil mar atá sé?”

“Tá an iomad cainnte agat; an iomad ar fad. Duart leat do bhéal d’éisteacht. Seo! Sin é an sparán ar fad agat,” arsan Fear Dubh.

“Ní héidir, a dhuin’ uasail,” arsa Séadna, “ná beadh dóthain na haimsire ann. Is mó lá i dtrí blianaibh déag. Is mó bróg ’ bheadh déanta ag duine i gcaitheamh an méid sin aimsire, agus is mó cuma ’na n-oirfeadh scilling do.”

“Ná bíodh ceist ort,” arsan Fear Dubh, ag cur smuta gáire as. “Tairrig as chómh géar in Éirinn agus is maith leat é. Beidh sé chómh teann an lá déanach agus ’tá sé inniu. Ní bheidh puínn gnótha agat de as san amach.”

Bhí Séadna sásta.

“Trí bliana déag!” ar seisean in’ aigne féin. “Agus neart dom tarrac as ar mo dhícheall. Chuir sé brí na mionn orm, ach bheirimse brí gach mionna agus gach móide dhuitse, a sparáinín, go mbainfar ceól asat! —Slán beó agatsa!” ar seisean leis an bhFear nDubh.

D’iompaigh sé ar a sháil chun teacht abhaile, agus má dh’iompaigh, siúd lena chois an Fear Dubh. Ghéaraigh sé a choisíocht. Ghéaraigh seisean chómh maith.

“Cad a dhéanfad?” arsa Séadna in’ aigne féin. “Chífid na cómharsain é.”

“Ná bíodh ceist ort,” arsan Fear Dubh. “Ní fheicfidh éinne me ach tu féin. Ní foláir dom tu ’ thionlacan abhaile agus eólas na slí do chur, agus radharc d’fháil ar an gcathaoir shúgáin úd, agus ar an mealbhóig, agus ar na húllaibh.”

“Gan rath orthu mar chathaoir agus mar mhealbhóig agus mar chrann úll! Is breá na trí nithe do loiteadh inniu orm dá mbárr,” arsa Séadna.

“Ní hé sin an ceann is measa den scéal,” arsan Fear Dubh. “Ach má thagann aon chómharsa isteach agus go suífidh sé sa chathaoir, ní foláir duit aontíos do thabhairt saor ó chíos do, mar ní bheidh ar do chumas é ’ chur amach agus é ceangailte sa chathaoir agat.”

“A dhrólainn na bhfeart! Cad a dhéanfad má tá triúr ceangailte rómham sa bhaile anois?” arsa Séadna. “B’fhéidir, a dhuin’ uasail, go bhféadfása iad do scaoileadh. Téanam ort. Tá míle fáilte rómhat.”

“Foighne, foighne! a Shéadna,” arsan Fear Dubh. “Níl éinne ceangailte fós. Bhí doicheall ort ó chiainibh, anois tá míle fáilte rómham. Á! a Shéadna, sin í an fháilte mar mhaithe leat féin.”

“’S dó’! Is amhlaidh mar atá sé, a dhuine uasail ——,” arsa Séadna, agus d’fhéach sé suas ar na hadharcaibh agus síos ar an gcrúib.

“Ó, tuigim,” arsan Fear Dubh. “Ní thaithneann déanamh na bróige seo leat, ná an saghas órnáide atá ar mo cheann. Ná bac san. Nuair a bheidh taithí agat orthu ní bhfaighir locht ar bith orthu.”

“’S dó’, go deimhin féin anois, a dhuin’ uasail,” arsa Séadna, “agus creid me leis, ní chúthusan a bhíos. Ach dá bhfeicidís na cómharsain tu do scannróidís, agus bheadh díobháil déanta, b’fhéidir.”

“Thar a bhfeacaís riamh! Ná fuilim tar éis a rá leat nách baol go bhfeicfidh éinne me ach tu féin?” arsan Fear Dubh.

“Tá go maith,” arsa Séadna. “Téanam ort.”

Síle. A thiarcais! a Pheig, ba dhó’ liom, dá bhfeicinn é, go dtitfeadh an t-anam tur te asam.

Cáit. Cad é an mhaith dhuit bheith ag cainnt mar sin? Ná duairt sé ná féadfadh éinne é ’ fheiscint ach Séadna féin?

Síle. Á! a Cháit, a ghrá dhil, cá bhfios duit an raibh sé ag ínsint na fírinne? Ní chreidfinn focal ón rógaire.

Cáit. Nách maith a thug sé an t-airgead do Shéadna?

Gobnait. Cá bhfios duit arbh airgead é? D’airíos duine dhá rá go raibh seana-Mhícheál Réamainn lá i dtigh tábhairne i Sráid an Mhuilinn, agus go raibh a dó agus dá thuistiún ag bean an tábhairne air, agus go raibh sí ag cimeád a hata i ngeall leis an airgead. Do chuaigh Micheál amach sa chlós agus do phioc sé suas a ceathair nú a cúig de licíníbh slinne, agus tar éis diablaíochta éigin a dhéanamh orthu, thug sé chúithi isteach iad, agus nuair ’ dh’fhéach sí orthu cheap sí gurbh airgead dleathach iad, agus thug sí an hata dho. Deirtí gur fhoghlaim Mícheál “freemashun” ón Rudaire, agus go bhféadfadh sé gabhar a dhéanamh díot, ach dá n-aistreódh an ghaoth agus tu id ghabhar, ná féadfadh sé thu ’ chasadh thar n-ais.

Séamas Ó Buachalla: Bail ó Dhia oraibh anso!

Peig. Ó, Dia ’s Muire dhuit, a Shéamais. Do dhriofúr atá uait, is dócha.

Séamas. Dúradh léi teacht abhaile láithreach. Tháinig Neill.

Cáit. Airiú greadadh chút, a Shéamais! Cathain?

Séamas. Ó chiainibh beag.

Cáit. Go dtugaidh Dia oíche mhaith dhuit, a Pheig, agus díbh go léir.

Peig. Go dtéir slán, a Cháit!

Cáit. Ní neósfair a thuilleadh anocht, a Pheig?

Peig. Tá go maith, a Cháit.

Nótaí

Níl i bhfad ó tháinig Gobnait: this can be understood with an omitted ann—níl i bhfad ann ó tháinig Gobnait, “it is not long since Gobnait arrived”.

Ag teacht an cóngar: “coming by the short cut”. The construction is worth noting, as the verbal noun does not govern a genitive here. This was explained by Gearóid Ó Nualláin in part 1 of his Studies in Modern Irish, pp214-215, as an “accusative of space”. Although the accusative case disappeared long ago in Irish, and is now identical to the nominative, its usage can still be identified. Examples given by Father Ó Nualláin include do ghluais é an bóthar ó thuaidh and d’imigh sé an cnuc suas, where accusative noun phrases have an adverbial meaning.

Dá mbeithá féin ann: “if you had been there”. Both dá mbeifá and dá mbeithá were found in the past subjunctive in WM Irish. The second-person singular past subjunctive and conditional forms take broad endings: -fá, -tá, -thá.

I riocht sparáin d’fháil: the use of the genitive case with the object of a verbal noun where the whole noun verbal noun phrase is governed by an antecedent that takes the genitive is not found in Standardised Irish, but is a feature of WM Irish.

Thíos agus tuas: here thuas is delenited after a dental sound (s).

Go dlúite ar a chéile: PUL stated in his Notes on Irish Words and Usages that go is not only used to create adverbs, but also to add emphasis to an adjective. “Really clenched together—and no mistake!”

Do chómhairimh: omission of the personal pronoun governing the verb where the reference is clear is frequently found in Séadna, and is a noted feature of Munster Irish.

Go mbainfar ceól asat: bainfear stood in the original text, but PUL specifically stated that he had a broad f in the future autonomous form. Gearóid Ó Nualláin, in his autobiography, Beatha Dhuine a Thoil, pp137-138, quoted PUL saying, “I have never heard, e.g., buailfear. What I have heard is buailfar, with the l slender and the f as broad as it is in ólfar. But I have always heard buailtear. I dare say some people have heard buailtar. If they have, then they ought to write buailtar, and then we should know that they have heard it.” In the preface to the second part of Séadna, issued separately in 1898, PUL also stated that he had only ever heard bainfar, buailfar and chífar. In later WM Irish, it became common to say buailtar, baintar and chítar, as well as bainfar, buailfar and chífar, but given that PUL specifically outlined his phonological system, the autonomous forms are edited as buailtear and buailfar, baintear and bainfar, and chítear and chífar here.

Chífid na cómharsain: note that PUL regularly uses the plural verb with plural nouns in the present and future tenses (and occasionally in the past tense).

Names

Mícheál Réamainn: pronounced /mʹi:’hɑ:l re:miŋʹ/, this name would be anglicised as Michael Redmond. Réamainn is ultimately from the Norman surname Raymond. Mícheál is frequently given as Micheál, with a short i in the original text, in addition to passages giving it as Mícheál, but Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition confirms the pronunciation is with a long i.
Neill: a feminine personal name and a diminutive form of Eibhlín, ultimately derived from the Latin Helena.
Séamas Ó Buachalla: the brother of Cáit Ní Bhuachalla.

Places

Béal an Gheárrtha: Belingarrha (“the Mouth of the Cutting”), Co. Cork.
Sráid an Mhuilinn: Millstreet, Co. Cork.

Foclóirín

a dhe: “indeed! really!”. A dhe mhuise, “really!”, in the sense of dismissing something as nonsense. PUL indicates in his notes to An Cleasaidhe (p 76) that a dhe may be derived from a Dhé!, although the etymology is unclear.
airím, aireachtaint: “to hear”, or airím, aireachtáil in the CO. Pronounced /a’rʹi:mʹ, i’rʹɑxtintʹ/.
airiú!: arú!, “why! really! indeed!” Pronounced /i’rʹu:~e’rʹu:/.
amharc: “sight”, pronounced /ɑvərk/.
aontíos: “cohabitation”. Aontíos a thabhairt do dhuine, “to let someone move in”.
athrú: “a change”, pronounced /ɑhə’ru:/.
bascaim, bascadh: “to bash, crush, severely injure”.
beirim, breith: “to bear, carry”. Note the preterite here do bheir, where do rug is used elsewhere by PUL. Cad do bheir cosnochtaithe í? “How come she was barefoot?” Cad do bheir di mo scilling do bhreith uaimse? “what made her take my shilling from me? how come she took my shilling from me?” Note that both PSD and FGB show beirim is used in the meaning of “how come” with no preposition, and tugaim in the meaning of “how come” with a following preposition do. However, beirim and tugaim are highly confused, as the seldom-used absolute form of the verb tugaim is bheirim (originally do-bheirim).
ceól: “music”. Ceól a bhaint as rud, “to get full use of something, have a great time with something”.
chun: “towards”. The combined forms of this preposition are distinctive: chúm, chút, chuige, chúithi, chúinn, chúibh, chúthu. The Standard has chugam, chugat, chuige, chuici, chugainn, chugaibh, chucu. Ní chúthusan a bhíos, “I wasn’t referring to those”.
cirrím, cirriú: “to maim; cut short”, or ciorraím, ciorriú in the CO. Spelt ciorúghadh in the original, the spelling has been adjusted to reflect the pronunciation shown in the LS edition. Cirriú ort! “damn you!”
cló: “form, shape”. Cló cuirp, “an emaciated, a corpse-like appearance”.
coisíocht: “pace, gait, footsteps”. The pronunciation is unclear to me, as this is transcribed as coshycht in Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition, with the first vowel pronounced /o/, but is spelt cuisheadheacht in PUL’s Niamh.
cómhairím, cómhaireamh: “to count”, or comhairim, comhaireamh in the CO. Note the preterite here, chómhairimh, reflecting a general tendency in WM Irish for the preterite to have -mh rather than -gh where the verbal noun ends in -mh (compare sheasaimh).
cómharsa: “neighbour”, with the plural here cómharsain where the CO has comharsana.
cóngar: “short cut”.
crónán: “humming, purring”.
cuigeann: “a churning of milk”.
déanamh: “make”. Déanamh na bróige, “the make of the shoe”.
deimhin: “certain, sure”, pronounced /dʹəinʹ/. Go deimhin féin, “in total truth, to be totally honest”.
diablaíocht: “wizardly; the casting of a spell”, or diabhlaíocht in the CO.
díolúnach: “rogue”. Note: originally meant “franklin; hired soldier”. CFBB shows that some speakers of WM Irish, including AÓL, had gíolúnach /gʹi:’lu:nəx/, whereas others had /dʹi:’lu:nəx/.
dleathach: “legal”, pronounced /dlʹi’hɑx/.
doicheall: “inhospitality”.
dranntaím, dranntú: “to snarl”, or drantaím, drantú in the CO. Pronounced /draun’ti:mʹ, draun’tú/.
dranntán: “act of snarling”, or drantán in the CO.
driofúr: “sister”, or deirfiúr in the CO. IWM shows that both drifíur and driofúr are found in WM Irish, but the form with a broad f is found here, /drʹi’fu:r/.
driuch: “sickly appearance”, or dreach in the CO. Driuch báis, “a death-like appearance”.
drólann: “colon”. A dhrólainn na bhfeart! “goodness gracious!” In FdS, PUL does not give a translation of the word drólann other than to say it is used in exclamations, and that the phrase a dhrólainn na bhfeart! stands for a Dhia na bhfeart!, “God of miracles”.
dúr: “dour, surly”.
éidir: “possible”. Éidir is distinguished from féidir by an additional rhetorical nuance: ní héidir (go), “surely it’s not possible, I suppose it’s not possible (that)”.
fágaim: “to leave”, with the verbal noun herefágáilˌ as in the CO. The verbal noun is also found as fágailt and fágaint in PUL’s other works.
feart: “virtue, miracle”. A dhrólainn na bhfeart! “goodness gracious!”
foighne: “patience”, pronounced /fəiŋʹi/.
freemashun:a corruption of the word “freemasonry”, pronounced /fri:’mʹe:ʃən/ according to the LS edition compiled by Shán Ó Cuív.
gáire: “laugh”, or gáir in the CO.
gáirim, gáirí: “to laugh”. Note that gáirí is a verbal noun meaning “laughing, laughter”, corresponding to gáire in the CO.
gallán: “pillar-stone”.
gné: “form, appearance”.
ím: “butter”, pronounced /i:mʹ/.
imbriathar: “really! upon my word!”
iompaím, iompáil: “to turn, change”, or iompaím, iompú in the CO. Iompáil lí, “a change of colour, change of complexion”.
iúnadh: “wonder, surprise”, ionadh. Pronounced /u:nə/.
lao: “calf”. A lao! “my dear!”
leabhar: “book”. Thabharfainn an leabhar go, “I could have sworn that …”.
lí: “colour, complexion”. Iompáil lí, “a change of colour, change of complexion”.
licín: “small tile”.
línn: “period”, or linn in the CO. Le línn na bhfocal san do rá dho, “as he was saying these words”. Note the long vowel here, /lʹi:ŋʹ/, whereas linn, “with us”, has a short vowel, /lʹiŋʹ/.
modhúil: “mild, mannerly”, pronounced /moulʹ/.
móid: “vow”. Móid a thabhairt, “to make a vow”.
neafuiseach: “innocent, nonchalant”, or neafaiseach in the CO. Pronounced /nʹa-fiʃəx/.
ó chiainibh: “just now”, or ó chianaibh in the CO, as it also appeared in the original here. Pronounced with a slender n in WM Irish, /o: xʹiənʹivʹ/. Ó chiainibh beag, “a little while ago”.
os cionn: “above”. Pronounced /ɑs kʹu:n/.
rath: “good luck, bounty”. Gan rath orthu, “damn them!”
riocht: “guise”. I riocht, “looking like, appearing on the verge of something”.
roim: “before”, or roimh in the CO, pronounced /rimʹ/. Roimhe, “before it” is also found occasionally in this work where roimis is generally used in WM Irish.
rud: “thing”, pronounced /rod/. An rud, definite in Irish, frequently corresponds to “something” in English. Rud a chur ar dhuine, “to blame someone for something”.
rudaire: “knight”, or ridire in the CO. This was also given as ridire in the original, but PUL told Osborn Bergin that /rodirʹi/ was the correct pronunciation of this word.
sál: “heel”, or sáil in the CO, where the dative has replaced the historical nominative.
saothar: “labour, exertion”. Saothar a bheith ort, “to be out of breath”.
scannraím, scannrú: “to take fright”, scanraím, scanrú in the CO. I have yet to find an instance of this verbal noun in PUL’s words, and the form may be scannradh.
seo: “this”, but also “now” as a milding scolding interjection. Seo, seo! Stadaidh, a chailíní!, “now, now! come now! that’s enough, girls!”
smuta: “a bit”, or smiota in the CO. Smuta gáire, “a snigger”.
sórd: “sort”, sórt in the CO, /so:rd/.
stoca: “stocking”.
tagaim, teacht: “to come”. With le, “to be able to”: although this is generally known as an Ulster idiom, PUL has dtiocfadh liom baint ón dtairbhe do dhein an scilling here, and mar a thagann liomsa in his novel Niamh.
táim, bheith: “to be”. Go raibh maith agat is edited here as go ra’ maith agat, as the raibh is not given in full in the pronunciation of this phrase.
taithneann, taithneamh:taitníonn, taitneamh in the CO. Generally in the first declension in PUL’s works, pronounced /taŋʹhən, taŋʹhəv/.
tarna: second, or darain the CO; dara was also occasionally found in PUL’s works.
te: “hot”. Traditionally spelt teith, PUL is on record in his Notes on Irish Words and Usages (p127) as insisting this word has a “most distinct” final  h in the pronunciation. However, this is likely to be apparent only before a following vowel. Pronunciation /tʹe~tʹeh/.
téanam: “come along”, part of a defective verb usually found only in the imperative. Téanam appears to be derived from a first-person plural imperative, but is used as a second-person imperative in the form téanam ort, possibly analogous to the first-person singular imperative in English “let’s be having you”.
teann: “taut, well-filled, plump”.
tionlacaim, tionlacan: “to escort, accompany”. I am unclear on the pronunciation of this word, as the LS edition of Séadna by Shán Ó Cuív indicates a short u, whereas the spelling tionnlacan in PUL’s Mo Sgéal Féin indicates the pronunciation is /tʹu:ləkimʹ, tʹu:nləkən/.
tráth: “time, occasion”. Tráth is go, “seeing as, since”, pronounced /trɑ:s gə~trɑ:həs gə/; spelt trá ’s go in the original here. FdS points out that do rá’s go and tré’s go were also found; treás go is the form used in PUL’s novel Niamh.
tuistiún: “fourpence” in predecimal money. A dó agus dá thuistiún, “two and eight; two shillings and eightpence”. This was found as a dó agus dá thistiún in the original, but IWM shows that AÓL pronounced this word with a broad initial t.
tur: “dry”. Tur te, immediately. An t-anam a thitim tur te asat, “to collapse”.

Séadna chapter 1

SÉADNA.

[Note: the best resources for study of Séadna are PUL’s own authorised Foclóir do Shéadna, and  also the official translation of Séadna, published in 1915 “by the author’s wish and authority” by the Irish Book Company, which also published many of PUL’s Irish-language books. That translation can be read at http://archive.org/stream/shianafromirish00oleauoft#page/n7/mode/2up, and the PDF is at http://archive.org/download/shianafromirish00oleauoft/shianafromirish00oleauoft.pdf . Shán Ó Cuív’s Letiriú Shímplí version is an excellent guide to the pronunciation of the entire book.]


Caibideal a haon.

Cois na tine. Peig, Nóra, Gobnait, Síle bheag, agus Cáit Ní Bhuachalla.

Nóra. A Pheig, inis scéal dúinn.

Peig. B’aith liom san! Inis féin scéal.

Gobnait. Níl aon mhaith inti, a Pheig. B’fheárr linn do scéalsa.

Síle. Dein, a Pheig. Beimíd ana-shocair.

Peig. Nách maith nár fhanais socair aréir, nuair a bhí “Madra na nOcht gCos” agam dá ínsint!

Síle. Mar sin ní stadfadh Cáit Ní Bhuachalla ach am priocadh.

Cáit. Thugais d’éitheach! Ní rabhas-sa ad phriocadh, a chaillichín!

Gobnait. Ná bac í féin, a Cháit. Ní raibh éinne dhá priocadh ach í dhá leogaint uirthi.

Síle. Do bhí, is dóin; agus mura mbeadh go raibh, ní liúfainn.

Nóra. Abair le Peig ná liúfair anois, a Shíle, agus neósaidh sí scéal dúinn.

Síle. Ní liúfad, a Pheig, pé rud ’ imeóidh orm.

Peig. Más ea, suigh anso im aice, i dtreó ná féadfaidh éinne thu ’ phriocadh i ganfhios dom.

Cáit. Bíodh geall go bpriocfaidh an cat í. A thoice bhig, bheadh scéal breá againn mura mbeadh tu féin agus do chuid liúirí.

Gobnait. Éist, a Cháit, nú cuirfir ag gol í, agus beimíd gan scéal. Má curtar fearg ar Pheig ní neósaidh sí aon scéal anocht. ’Sea anois, a Pheig, tá gach éinne ciúin ag brath ar scéal uait.

Peig. Bhí fear ann fadó agus is é ainm a bhí air ná Séadna. Gréasaí ab ea é. Bhí tigh beag deas cluthar aige ag bun cnuic, ar thaobh na fothana. Bhí cathaoir shúgáin aige do dhein sé féin do féin, agus ba ghnáth leis suí inti um thráthnóna, nuair a bhíodh obair an lae críochnaithe, agus nuair a shuíodh sé inti bhíodh sé ar a shástacht. Bhí mealbhóg mine aige ar crochadh in aice na tine, agus anois agus arís chuireadh sé a lámh inti agus thógadh sé lán a dhoirn den mhin, agus bhíodh sé dhá cogaint ar a shuaimhneas. Bhí crann úll ag fás ar an dtaobh amu’ de dhoras aige, agus nuair a bhíodh tart air ó bheith ag cogaint na mine, chuireadh sé lámh sa chrann san agus thógadh sé ceann de sna húllaibh, agus d’itheadh sé é.

Síle. Ó, a thiarcais! a Pheig, nár dheas é!

Peig. Ceoca an chathaoir nú an mhin nú an t-úll ba dheas?

Síle. An t-úll, gan amhras!

Cáit. B’fheárr liomsa an mhin. Ní bhainfeadh an t-úll an t-ocras de dhuine.

Gobnait. B’fheárr liomsa an chathaoir, agus chuirfinn Peig ’na suí inti, ag ínsint na scéal.

Peig. Is maith chun plámáis tu, a Ghobnait.

Gobnait. Is feárr chun na scéal tusa, a Pheig. Conas d’imigh le Séadna?

Peig. Lá dá raibh sé ag déanamh bróg, thug sé fé ndeara ná raibh a thuilleadh leathair aige, ná a thuilleadh snátha, ná a thuilleadh céireach. Bhí an taoibhín déanach thuas agus an greim déanach curtha, agus níorbh fholáir do dul agus abhar do sholáthar sula bhféadfadh sé a thuilleadh bróg a dhéanamh. Do ghluais sé ar maidin, agus bhí trí scillinge ’na phóca, agus ní raibh sé ach míle ón dtigh nuair a bhuail duine bocht uime, a d’iarraidh déarca.

“Tabhair dhom déirc ar son an tSlánaitheóra agus le hanman do mharbh, agus tar cheann do shláinte,” arsan duine bocht.

Thug Séadna scilling do, agus ansan ní raibh aige ach dhá scilling. Duairt sé leis féin go mb’fhéidir go ndéanfadh an dá scilling a ghnó. Ní raibh sé ach míle eile ó bhaile nuair a bhuail bean bhocht uime agus í cosnochtaithe.

“Tabhair dhom cúnamh éigin,” ar sise, “ar son an tSlánaitheóra, agus le hanman do mharbh, agus tar cheann do shláinte.”

Do ghlac trua dhi é, agus thug sé scilling di, agus d’imigh sí. Do bhí aon scilling amháin ansan aige, ach do chomáin sé leis, ag brath air go mbuailfeadh seans éigin uime a chuirfeadh ar a chumas a ghnó a dhéanamh. Níorbh fhada gur casadh air leanbh agus é ag gol le fuacht agus le hocras.

“Ar son an tSlánaitheóra,” arsan leanbh, “tabhair dhom rud éigin le n-ithe.”

Bhí tigh ósta i ngar dóibh, agus do chuaigh Séadna isteach ann, agus cheannaigh sé bríc aráin agus thug sé chun an linbh é. Nuair a fuair an leanbh an t-arán d’athraigh a dhealbh. D’fhás sé suas in aoirde, agus do las solas iúntach ’na shúilibh agus ’na cheannachaibh, i dtreó go dtáinig scannradh ar Shéadna.

Síle. Dia linn! a Pheig, is dócha gur thit Séadna bocht i laige.

Peig. Níor thit; ach más ea, ba dhícheall do. Chómh luath agus d’fhéad sé labhairt, duairt sé:–

“Cad é an saghas duine thusa?” Agus is é freagra a fuair sé:–

“A Shéadna, tá Dia baoch díot. Aingeal is ea mise. Is me an tríú haingeal gur thugais déirc do inniu ar son an tSlánaitheóra. Agus anois tá trí ghuí agat le fáil ó Dhia na glóire. Iarr ar Dhia aon trí ghuí is toil leat, agus gheóbhair iad. Ach tá aon chómhairle amháin agamsa le tabhairt duit. —Ná dearúid an Trócaire.”

“Agus an ndeirir liom go bhfaighead mo ghuí?” arsa Séadna.

“Deirim, gan amhras,” arsan t-aingeal.

“Tá go maith,” arsa Séadna. “Tá cathaoir bheag dheas shúgáin agam sa bhaile, agus an uile dhailtín a thagann isteach, ní foláir leis suí inti. An chéad duine eile a shuífidh inti, ach me féin, go gceanglaidh sé inti!”

“Faire, faire, a Shéadna,” arsan t-aingeal; “sin guí breá imithe gan tairbhe. Tá dhá cheann eile agat, agus ná dearúid an Trócaire.”

“Tá,” arsa Séadna, “mealbhóigín mine agam sa bhaile, agus an uile dhailtín a thagann isteach, ní foláir leis a dhorn a shá inti. An chéad duine eile a chuirfidh lámh sa mhealbhóig sin, ach me féin, go gceanglaidh sé inti, féach!”

“Ó, a Shéadna, a Shéadna, níl fasc agat,” arsan t-aingeal. “Níl agat anois ach aon ghuí amháin eile. Iarr Trócaire Dé do t’anam.”

“Ó, is fíor dhuit,” arsa Séadna, “ba dhóbair dom é ’ dhearúd. Tá crann beag úll agam i leataoibh mo dhorais, agus an uile dhailtín a thagann an treó, ní foláir leis a lámh do chur in áirde agus úll do stathadh agus do bhreith leis. An chéad duine eile, ach me féin, a chuirfidh lámh sa chrann san, go gceanglaidh sé ann! —Ó! a dhaoine!” ar seisean, ag scairteadh ar gháirí, “nách agam a bheidh an spórt orthu!”

Nuair a tháinig sé as na trithíbh, d’fhéach sé suas agus bhí an t-aingeal imithe. Dhein sé a mhachnamh air féin ar feadh tamaill mhaith. Fé dheireadh thiar thall, duairt sé leis féin: “Féach anois, níl aon amadán in Éirinn is mó ná me! Dá mbeadh triúr ceangailte agam um an dtaca so, duine sa chathaoir, duine sa mhealbhóig, agus duine sa chrann, cad é an mhaith a dhéanfadh san dómhsa agus me i bhfad ó bhaile, gan bhia, gan deoch, gan airgead?”

Ní túisce ’ bhí an méid sin cainnte ráite aige ná ’ thug sé fé ndeara os a chómhair amach, san áit ’na raibh an t-aingeal, fear fada caol dubh, agus é ag glinniúint air, agus tine chreasa ag teacht as a dhá shúil ’na spréachaibh nímhe. Bhí dhá adhairc air mar ’ bheadh ar phocán gabhair; agus meigeall fada liathghorm garbh air, eireaball mar ’ bheadh ar mhada rua, agus crúb ar chois leis mar chrúb thairbh. Do leath a bhéal agus a dhá shúil ar Shéadna, agus do stad a chainnt. I gceann tamaill do labhair an Fear Dubh.

“A Shéadna,” ar seisean, “ní gá dhuit aon eagla do bheith ort rómhamsa. Nílim ar tí do dhíobhála. Ba mhian liom tairbhe éigin a dhéanamh dhuit, dá nglacthá mo chómhairle. Do chloiseas thu, anois beag, dhá rá go rabhais gan bhia, gan deoch, gan airgead. Thabharfainnse airgead do dhóthain duit ar aon choinníll bheag amháin.”

“Agus greadadh trí lár do scairt!” arsa Séadna, agus tháinig a chainnt do; “ná féadfá an méid sin do rá gan duine do mhilleadh led chuid glinniúna, pé hé thu féin?”

“Is cuma dhuit cé hé me, ach bhéarfad an oiread airgid duit anois agus ’ cheannóidh an oiread leathair agus ’ chimeádfaidh ag obair thu go ceann trí mblian ndéag, ar an gcoinníll seo—go dtiocfair liom an uair sin.”

“Agus má réitím leat, cá raghaimíd an uair sin?”

“Cá beag duit an cheist sin do chur nuair a bheidh an leathar ídithe agus ’ bheimíd ag gluaiseacht?”

“Táir géarchúiseach. Bíodh agat. Feiceam an t-airgead.”

“Táirse géarchúiseach. Féach!”—do chuir an Fear Dubh a lámh ’na phóca agus thairrig sé amach sparán mór, agus as an sparán do leog sé amach ar a bhais carn beag d’ór bhreá bhuí.

“Féach!” ar seisean, agus shín sé a lámh agus chuir sé an carn de phíosaibh gleóite gléineacha suas fé shúilibh Shéadna bhoicht. Do shín Séadna a dhá láimh, agus do leathadar a dhá ladhar chun an óir.

“Go réidh!” arsan Fear Dubh, ag tarrac an óir chuige isteach. “Níl an margadh déanta fós.”

“Bíodh ’na mhargadh,” arsa Séadna.

“Gan teip?” arsan Fear Dubh.

“Gan teip,” arsa Séadna.

“Dar bhrí na mionn?” arsan Fear Dubh.

“Dar bhrí na mionn,” arsa Séadna.

Nótaí

Madra na nOcht gCos: the Irish tale “the eight-legged dog”, for the relating of which Mícheál Ó Loingsigh of Ballymakeera in the Muskerry Gaeltacht won a prize in the 1901 Oireachtas competition.

Am priocadh: this would be do mo phriocadh in the CO. It was pointed out by 19th-century grammarians such as John Donovan and Ulick Bourke that such constructions derived from ag and not do, and so the choice of do mo in the CO is remarkable in that is both etymologically unsound and contrary to the spoken usages of any of the Gaeltacht areas, possibly indicating that the compilers of the CO incorrectly believed the use of go do (gə də) in the Connemara derived, via dho and then gho, from an original do. Also note delenition of a labial (the first letter of phriocadh) following a labial that would otherwise occasion lenition.

A thoice bhig: the vocative singular of feminine nouns and adjectives is generally slenderised in traditional WM Irish, as with bhig here, thus aligning the feminine declension with the masculine. Such usage is not fully consistent in PUL’s works. See also “The Vocative in Modern Irish”, T. F. O’Rahilly, in Ériu, Vol. 9, (1921/1923), pp. 85-91.

Is é ainm a bhí air ná Séadna: note that although ainm is a feminine noun in WM Irish, it is correct to use the pronoun é here, as it refers to the name itself, and not the noun ainm.

Ag ínsint na scéal: note the use of scéal in the genitive plural, where scéalta is more commonly found nowadays.

Bhí an taoibhín déanach thuas: the original text said bhí an taoibhín déanach shuas, as shuas was a variant spelling of suas, given that sh and th are pronounced identically in Irish. Yet Liam Mac Mathúna’s edition of Séadna transcribes this as bhí an taoibhín déanach suas, a schoolboy howler, as suas in Irish means “motion to a higher place”, whereas thuas/tuas means “location in a higher place”. Shán Ó Cuív makes the same mistake in his LS edition of Séadna.

Cosnochtaithe: a poor person might be more likely to go barefoot, but PUL also explained in his Mo Sgéal Féin that most Irish people did not wear shoes, other than on the way to Mass, until the end of the 19th century.

Rud éigin le n-ithe: WM Irish prefixes n to ithe and ól, where other dialects and the CO prefix h.

Bhéarfad: “I will give”. bheirim (originally do-bheirim) is the absolute form to which the dependent form tugaim corresponds. Bheirim has largely been replaced by tugaim in absolute use in PUL’s works.

Go ceann trí mblian ndéag: the original had go ceann trí mbliaghain ndeug, but the genitive plural should be blian here, and it seems the slender nd of ndéag may have influenced the spelling of blian given in the original text.

Feiceam: “let’s see”. The first-person plural imperative can either be in a broad –m or in -mís; feicimís.

Names

An Fear Dubh: a representation of the Devil.
Cáit Ní Bhuachalla: the name Cáit is a diminutive of Caitlín, or Catherine. Ó Buachalla is anglicised as Buckley, a common surname in Co. Cork.
Gobnait: a feminine personal name, spuriously associated with the English names Abigail and Deborah. Pronounced /gobənitʹ/. The sixth-century St. Gobnait is venerated in Baile Mhúirne in the Múscraí Gaeltacht, where the ruins of a church dedicated to her, Cíll Gobnatan, can be seen.
Nóra: a feminine personal name, ultimately derived from the Latin Honoria.
Peig: a feminine personal name associated with the English name Margaret, of which Peg is a traditional English abbreviation.
Séadna: a masculine personal name, pronounced /ʃianə/. Séadna is an ancient Irish name, but has been (spuriously) associated with the English name Sidney.
Síle: a feminine personal name, anglicised as Sheila and Julia. Síle is the Irish form of the Latin name Cecilia.

Foclóirín

sea: “well”, often replaced by the Béarlachas bhuel, which is not found in PUL’s works. ’Sea go díreach, “just so, quite right”, or “that’s all very well!” before a refutation of one’s interlocutor’s views.
abhar: ábhar in the CO. WM Irish distinguishes between abhar (originally spelt adhbhar, now pronounced /aur/), “material”, and ábhar (sometimes written ádhbhar, pronounced /ɑ:vər/), “amount”.
ainm: “name”, feminine here, but masculine in the CO. Pronounced /anʹimʹ/.
airgead: “money, silver”, pronounced /arʹigʹəd/.
aith: ait means “queer, strange, pleasant”, but the t is lenited in pronunciation before l. The spelling ait was used in the original, but the editing approach here aligns it with the pronunciation by showing the lenition. B’aith liom san, /bɑ hlʹum son/, “I liked that”, usually sarcastic in tone. An alternative view is that b’aith liom san is derived from ba mhaith liom san.
amu’: “outside”, or amuigh in the CO. PUL here used the spelling amuich, probably to forestall a pronunciation in /gʹ/, as the pronunciation is /ə’mu/.
anam: “soul”. Note the dative anman in le hanman do mharbh, “for pity’s sake; for the sake of the souls of your dead loved ones”. The dative is generally anam other than in this phrase (cf. do t’anam in chapter 1 here). The historic dative was anmain, the ending of which appears to be broadened by assimilation to the following broad consonant.
ansan: “then”, ansin in the CO.
anso: “here”, anseo in the CO.
aoirde: “height”, or airde in the CO. WM Irish draws a distinction between in áirde, “up on high”, and in aoirde, “in height”.
arís: “again”. PUL used the spelling airís, indicating a slender r, /i’rʹi:ʃ/, whereas Amhlaoibh Ó Loingsigh had /ə’ri:ʃ/, as shown in IWM.
baoch: “grateful”, buíoch, pronounced /be:x/ in WM Irish. Buidheach stood in the original.
bheirim, tabhairt: “to give”. Bheirim is the absolute form of tugaim, not used in the CO, and not always found in PUL’s works. See also under tugaim, tabhairt.
bríc: “brick”. Bríc aráin, “a loaf of bread”.
caibideal: caibidil, “chapter”. PUL seems to have pronounced this word with a broad l, /kabʹidʹəl/, although Shán Ó Cuív transcribes this word as caibidil in his LS edition.
caillichín: “little witch; precocious little girl”.
cainnt: “speech”, or caint in the CO. The traditional double n is preserved here to show the diphthong, /kaintʹ/.
carn: “heap”, pronounced /kɑrən/.
ceanglaim, ceangal: “to bind, tie; get stuck”, or ceanglaím in the CO. Pronounced /kʹaŋə’li:mʹ, kʹaŋəl/.
ceannacha: “facial features”, or ceannaithe in the CO. Pronounced /kʹə’nɑxə/.
céir: “wax”, with céireach in the genitive, where the CO has céarach.
ceoca: “which? which of them?” From cé acu or cé’cu. Pronounced /kʹukə/. Often followed by a relative clause. Spelt ciacu in the original.
chím, feiscint: “to see”, or feicim, feiceáil in the CO.
cimeádaim, cimeád: “to keep”. This word and all cognates (chimeádaidís, etc) have a broad c in the classical spelling and in the CO, but a slender c (as applicable) in WM Irish: /kʹi’mʹa:d/, /xʹi’mʹa:didʹi:ʃ/, etc; PUL used the classical spelling in the original here. PUL’s spelling varied over the years, but he certainly used cimeád in his Irish; cf. cimeád a bhfaighir in Notes on Irish Words and Usages, p117. Also note that the the CO distinction between coimeád, “keep”, and coimhéad, “watch over”, does not obtain in WM Irish: coimhéad is an Ulster word.
cloisim, clos/cloisint: “to hear”. Airím, aireachtaint are more commonly used in WM. Cloisteáil is found as the verbal noun in the CO. Also note the preterite here, do chloiseas, where the CO has chuala mé.
cluthar: “cosy, comfortable”.
cnuc: “hill”, or cnoc in the CO. Pronounced /knuk/. Cnuc air mar scéal, “what nonsense!”
cognaim, cogaint: “to chew”, or cognaím,cogaint in the CO. Pronounced /kogənimʹ, kogintʹ/.
coinníoll: “condition”, pronounced /ki’nʹi:l as with a single n. Coinníll in the dative.
comáinim, comáint: “to drive, drive forward”, or tiomáinim, tiomáint in the CO. Tiomáint is also found here, but comáint is the form generally used in the original text. Comáint leat (tiomáint leat), “to press on, proceed, continue on”.
cosnochtaithe: “barefoot”, or cosnochta in the CO. Also found as coslomrachta.
crios: “flint”, with creasa in the genitive. Tine chreasa, “sparks, frictional sparks”.
crúb: “hoof”. Mar chrúb thairbh, “like an ox’s hoof”, does not give the expected dative crúib here, as crúb thairbh is bracketed together as a noun phrase.
cuirim, cur: “to put”. Rud a chur ar dhuine, “to put the blame for something on someone”. Note the present autonomous form, curtar, where cuirtar would be more likely in later WM Irish.
dailtín: “brat, spoilt child”, pronounced /dalʹ’hi:nʹ/.
dealbh: “appearance, shape”, or deilbh in the CO, where the historical dative has replaced the nominative.
dearúdaim, dearúd: “to forget”, with the imperative/preterite often slenderised, dearúid.
deinim, déanamh: “to do, make”, or déanaim, déanam in the CO. Deinim is a corruption of the historical form do-ghním, whereas déanaim is historically the dependent form of do-ghním. Note do dhein in the past tense, where the CO has rinne sé.
déirc: “alms, charity”, with déarca in the genitive.
deirim, rá: “to say, tell”. A diphthong is used throughout the past tense: duart, duairt sé, dúradh, pronounced /duərt, duərtʹ ʃe:, duərəg/. Note the use of deirir, an older second-person singular form in the present tense, otherwise deireann tú. The verbal noun, , is pronounced with a slender r in the combination á rá, /ɑ: rʹɑ:/, transcribed by Shán Ó Cuív as á reá.
do: “to”. Note that the classical spelling of the preposition pronoun is adopted in the CO, but this form is pronounced /do/ in the dialect and so edited as do here. Forms of this word are often elited in pronunciation, as in is fíor dhuit, “you’re right”, pronounced /əs fʹi:r otʹ/.
dó’: “hope, expectation; source of expectation”, or dóigh in the CO. This occurred as dóigh in the original, but is uniformly edited as dó’ here, in line with the pronunciation. Is dó’, “well, however, indeed”. Is dóin, “well, however, indeed” (PSD states that dóin is a corruption of dóigh). Another variant is dóil: ní dóil, “I don’t think so”. Dar ndó’, “of course”, also found as ar ndó’.
dóbair: “it nearly happened”, originally the preterite of the verb fóbraim. Ba dhóbair dom é ’ dhearúd, “I almost forgot”.
dorn: “fist”, with doirn in the genitive. Pronounced /dorən, dirʹinʹ/.
éistim, éisteacht: “to hear”. Note that éist is normally /e:ʃtʹ/, but a byform eist /eʃtʹ/ may also be heard in the phrase eist do bhéal, “hold your tongue”, or as an imperative meaning “hush”. Éist in chapter 1 here is retained as in the original, as éist is also corrected found in such contexts.
éitheach: “falsehood”. Thugais d’éitheach, “that was a lie; you are lying”, where the slender s of thugais appears to de aspirate the follow t’éitheach, producing d’éitheach.
fasc: “an iota of sense”.
fé ndeár, fé ndeara: thug sé fé ndeara, “he noticed”. This would be thug sé faoi deara in the CO. Pronounced /fʹe: nʹa:r~fʹe: nʹarə/. Fé ndeara also has a additional meaning, “cause, reason”.
féachaim, féachaint: “to look”. As interjections: féach, “can you imagine it? just think of it!”; féach anois, “mind you!”; féach air sin, “just think of it! can you imagine that?” Go bhféachaidh Dia orainn! “God save us!”
feárr, fearra: “better”, the comparative of maith, pronounced /fʹa:r/. Also found in WM Irish as fearra, /fʹarə/.
féin: “self”. This is usually pronounced /fʹe:nʹ/ in WM Irish, although the f is often pronounced as h in other dialects.
foláir: “excessive, superfluous”. Note the difference between ní foláir dom, “I must”, and ní foláir liom, “I feel I ought to”. When Séadna says every local rascal sits in his chair—ní foláir leis suí inti—clearly this is not something they “must” do, but it is something they feel they have to do. Pronounced /flɑ:rʹ/.
fothain: “shelter”, with fothana in the genitive. Ar thaobh na fothana, “on the sheltered side”.
freagra: “answer”, pronounced /frʹagərə/.
gheibhim, fáil: “to get, find”. Gheibhim is the absolute form of the verb faighim; the distinction is not observed in the Standard, which has faighim alone. The imperative faigh is pronounced /fəigʹ/ or /fɑgʹ/. The future form is found here, gheóbhair, pronounced /jo:rʹ/.
gléineach: “glittering”.
gleóite: “lovely, delightful”.
glinním, glinniúint: “to stare, examine closely”, with ar.
greadaim, greadadh: “to scorch”. Greadadh trí lár do scairt!, “may your entrails be scorched!” PUL explains in FdS that the force of this expression was much weakened, and the meaning is rather “confound you!” Greadadh chút! means the same thing.
gréasaí: “cobbler”.
guí: “prayer”, masculine here, but feminine in the CO. Some of PUL’s works have this word as feminine, including the version of An Teagasg Críostaidhe edited by him.
i ganfhios: “unbeknown, unawares”. Pronounced /ə’gɑnis/.
inniu: “today”, /i’nʹuv/. The final consonant heard in the pronunciation is left untranscribed, as it was not indicated in the historical orthography and is not indicated in the spelling adopted in the CO. The spelling aniogh was found in the works of Seathrún Céitinn.
ínsim, ínsint: “to tell”, or insím, insint in the CO. Note the use of d’inis here in the preterite: the spellings d’innis and d’inis are both found in PUL’s works. The future form is neósaidh sé, from an earlier inneósaidh sé.
iúntach: “wonderful”, iontach. Pronounced /u:ntəx/.
ladhar: “the space between the fingers”, pronounced /ləir/.
leanbh: “child”, with linbh in the genitive. Pronounced /lʹanəv, lʹinʹivʹ/.
leataoibh:i leataoibh, or i leataobh in the CO, “to one side”. Pronounced /i lʹa ‘ti:vʹ/.
leogaim, leogaint: “to let, allow”, ligim, ligean in the CO. PUL uses the spelling leigim in the original, influenced by classical norms, but the WM pronunciation of this word is /lʹogimʹ/. PUL’s spelling varied over the years, but he certainly used leogaint in his Irish; cf.rud do leogaint in aiscein Notes on Irish Words and Usages, p3. Shán Ó Cuív transcribed leig as leog in his LS edition of Séadna. Leogaint ort, “to let on; pretend”.
liathghorm: “grey-blue, steel-grey”. Pronounced /lʹiə-ɣorəm/.
liúireach: “shouting”, with liúirí in the genitive.
mada rua: “fox”, or madra rua in the CO.
madra: “dog”, pronounced /mɑdərə/.
mar sin: “that’s because…”.
marbh: “dead; dead person”, pronounced /mɑrəv/.
margadh: “bargain”, pronounced /mɑrəgə/.
me: disjunctive form of the first person pronoun, pronounced /mʹe/ (or /mʹi/ through raising of the vowel in the vicinity of a nasal cononant). Always in the CO.
mealbhóg: “knapsack, small bag”. Pronounced /mʹalə’vo:g/. The diminutive mealbhóigín is also found here.
meigeall: “goatee beard”.
min: “meal, flour”.
mionn: “oath”. Dar bhrí na mionn, “by all that is holy”. Note: the original meaning of mionn was “diadem, crown”, part of a druid’s attire.
mura: “if not, unless”. This is found as both mura and mara in PUL’s works. Mura is the form adopted in the CO, whereas mara appears to be the more dialectal form. Similarly, murab is found here where marab could have been used.
nách: nach in the CO, /nɑ:x/.
nimh: “poison”. With nímhe in the genitive. Pronounced /nʹivʹ, nʹi:/.
nú: “or”, , pronounced /nu:/.
ocras: “hunger”, pronounced /okərəs/.
os cómhair: “in front of”. Pronounced /ɑs ko:rʹ/.
pé: “whichever, whatever”. combines with the copula to produce pé hé féin in the present and pérbh é féin in the past.
plámás: “flattery”.
pocán: “he-goat”. Also pocán gabhair.
priocaim, priocadh: “to prick”.
réidh: “smooth, even”, but also “done for”. Pronounced /re:gʹ/. Go réidh, “easy now, hold on!”
sáim, sá: “to thrust, plunge”. The verbal noun, written sáthadh in the original, is here edited as . This word is one of many that may have an audible “h”, particularly before a following vowel: /sɑ:~sɑ:h/.
scairt: “entrails”. Greadadh trí lár do scairt, “may your entrails be scorched!”
scannradh: “terror”, scanradh in the CO, pronounced /skaurə/ in WM.
sceartaim, sceartadh: “to burst”, or scairtim, scairteadh in the CO. Ag scairteadh ar gháirí, “bursting out laughing”. Note that PUL’s Séadna uses both sceartaim and scairtim.
scilling: “shilling”. The general plural is scillingí, but scillinge is the plural used with numerals.
snáth: “thread, yarn”, with snátha in the genitive. The original text had snáithe in the genitive, but this yields the same pronunciation as snátha and is hard to reconcile in terms of declension pattern.
soláthraím, soláthair: “to get, procure”. Pronounced /slɑ:r’hi:mʹ, slɑ:hər/.
sparán: “purse, pouch”.
spréach: “spark”. ’Na spréachaibh nímhe, “in venomous sparks”.
staithim, stathadh: “to pick, pluck”, orstoithim, stoitheadh in the CO.
súgán: “straw-rope”.
sula: “before”. WM Irish usually has sara, but PUL used sula here in the original.
taca: “peg, pin, nail; point of time, juncture”. Um an dtaca so, “by this time”. Pronounced /tɑkə~takʹi/; PUL’s spelling points to the former pronunciation.
táim, bheith: “to be”. PUL uses táir as the second-person singular present-tense form here; otherwise tánn tú or taíonn tú. Bíodh agat, have it your way!
tairbhe: “benefit”, pronounced /tɑrʹifʹi/.
tairrigim, tarrac: “to pull”, or tarraingím, tarraingt in the CO. Pronounced /tarʹigʹimʹ, tɑrək/. The various forms of this verb exhibit the same changes: the past is do thairrig /harʹigʹ/. This verb was in the first declension in PUL’s works (do thairrigeadar), where modern Munster Irish would have do thairrigíodar. PUL used the classical spellings (tarraingim, etc) in the original, but Shán Ó Cuív transcribed tharaing as hairig in his LS edition of Séadna.
taoibhín: “a small addition; a patch on a shoe-upper”.
thar: “through, across, past”, often delenited to tar after a dental sound (including s). Thar cheann, “on behalf of”. Tháirsi, “beyond or across her”, or thairsti in the CO; pronounced /hɑ:rʃi/. Thar a bhfeacaís riamh! “exactly so!” [literally, “beyond everything you ever saw!”]
tí: “point, mark”. Ar tí, “on the point of, intending to”. tiarcas: found in a thiarcais!, “O God!, my goodness!” FdS explains the exclamation a thiarcais! is a way of avoiding the blasphemous a Thiarna!
tigh: “house”, or teach. The historic dative has replaced the nominative in WM Irish. Note that the pronunciation, usually /tʹigʹ/, frequently becomes /tʹi/ where the noun is qualified, as in tigh ósta /tʹi o:stə/. Tigh tábhairne, inn, pronounced /tʹi tɑ:rnʹi/.
toice: “hussy, wench”, pronounced /tokʹi/. A thoice bhig, “you little wench!”
tritheamh: “fit (eg, of laughter)”, with the plural trithí. In sna trithíbh gáirí, “in fits of laughter”.
trócaire: “mercy”.
tu, thu: disjunctive form of the second person pronoun, pronounced /tu, hu/. Always in the CO.
tugaim, tabhairt: “to give”. Note that tabhair dhom, “give me”, is pronounced /trom/. The verbal adjective here is tabhartha, where the CO has tugtha.
um: “about, round”. PUL uses the /emdéanaimem/emtraditional do bhuail sé uime in preference to do bhuaileas leis to mean “I met him, bumped into him”.

Abbreviations

CO: An Caighdeán Oifigiúil.
FdS: Foclóir do Shéadna, Peadar Ua Laoghaire, 1922.
IWM: The Irish of West Muskerry, Brian Ó Cuív, 1943.
LS: Letiriú Shímplí.
PSD: Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla, Patrick S. Dinneen, 1927.
PUL: Peadar Ua Laoghaire.
WM: West Muskerry.

Notes on Irish Words and Usages

This work is a compilation, published in 1926, of comments by PUL in the Cork Weekly Examiner 1910-15 on readers queries about sentences in his works. Sg. refers to his Scéalaíochta as an mBíobla Naofa, which many of the examples relate to.


Abair, has two senses. It means “say,” i.e., “speak these words.” It also means “bid.” Abair leis teacht, bid him come, or tell him to come. There is a very common expression, Abair é! which means “You may say that!” “Not a doubt about it!”

Tá abartha agam (Sg. II. 2). I have made an assertion. Whereas tá ráite agam means merely that I have said what I wished to say.

Adhal, a large three-pronged fork, used for the purposes of lifting pieces of meat out of a boiler.

Adhart, a bolster.

Ámharach, advantageous, profitable, beneficial.

Adhlacaim, bury. Áit adhlactha, a burial-place.

Aerach. Not at all the same as the English “airy.” It means unstable of character; prone to the pursuit of vain enjoyments.

Ag, with the verbal is quite commonly used to express a purpose, especially after verbs of motion. Chun teacht ag ceannach tuilleadh arbhair (Sg. I. 100). Thánadar dhá iarraidh orainn dul, for the purpose of asking us to go.

Aghaidh. Tímpall na bliana 830, nuair a bhí aghaidh na Lochlannach ar Cíll Dara, etc. The “attention” of the Danes.

Agairt, revenge. Gur dhá agairt sin uirthi a bhí an Tiarna (Sg. III. 315), visiting that upon her, punishing her for that. Nár agraidh Dia air é! May God forgive him!

Agam. Tá grá thar bárr ageam mhac Sicem don inín seo agaibhse (Sg. I. 69). This is pronounced as if written ageam bac. The aspirated m is sounded like a b.

Agus. Seacht ndiasa agus iad go breá agus go lán. Seven ears which were very fine and very full. Note how simply the English relative construction may be turned into Irish by means of agus. Bhí fear ann agus I. ab ainm do, whose name was I. The English words “notwithstanding the fact that” may frequently be expressed in Irish by the single word agus; e.g., Sg. IV. 393-4: Níl aon trua ag éinne agaibh dom agus me ’na leithéid de chás.

Aibidh, ripe. Applied to the eyes means “wide awake.”

Aicíd, a disease.

Aiceanta, natural. Namhaid aiceanta, a natural enemy; such for example, as the wolf-dog was to the wolf.

Aicme, a class of people. The word is often, not always, used in a disparaging sense. Plu. aicmeacha.

Aidhm, an object in view, a pursuit, a purpose.

Aigne, drochaigne, malice, evilmindedness.

Adhsáideach, “handy”.

Áil. Ní háil leis (Sg. II. 9), he does not like to; he will not; he is determined not to. It is stronger than ní maith leis and than ní toil leis. It is like the English “It is against his grain.” Dá mb’áil leat, if you will; in the sense, “I wish you would.” Cad ab áil leat díomsa? What do you want of me? i.e. What business have you of me? (cf. Cad tá uait ormsa? What do you want from me?) B’áil le gach fear acu gur aige féin ba cheart an tiarnas a bheith. Each man of them insisted. B’áil leis gur mise chaithfead é ’ dhéanamh. The force is … Nothing would satisfy him but that I should do it.

Ailteóireacht, any sort of rough play (“horse-play”), especially if it involves a degree of ingenuity.

Aimhréidh, disordered, entangled. One trying to unravel a tangled skein of thread might say Tá sé in aimhréidh orm.

Aimsím. D’aimsigh sí tarainne, she got a nail (Sg. III. 267). The idea of “procuring” is in both the Irish and English words. Do fuair would not express the meaning here. Aimsím means the procuring of something by design.

Ainbhfiosach, ignorant. The word is used in the sense of being deficient in the knowledge of social duties or in common politeness. Fear th’ainbhiosa, a man of your ignorance.

Aincheart, injustice. Is cuma nú aincheart lomcheart. But, ana-cheart, very just. This ana is a separate word, not a prefix. Ana-shlí le faid, a great way for length, i.e. a very long way.

Ainm. Asot ainm na cathrach. The omission of the verb in such sentences as this is quite common. It is a great convenience.

Airchinneach, the manager of a piece of church property.

Áird, a point of the compass. As gach áird, from all quarters.

Airfideacht, a musical performance. It seems to have been something like “opera.”

Airím, hear. An airíonn tú? is the usual mode of asking for a person’s attention. Or, a leithéid seo, when one wishes to tell another that he has some communication to make to him.

Airiú. This expression indicates that the statement which it introduces is spoken with great energy and with intense conviction.

Áirnéis, chattels; a person’s belongings.

Aisce, a free gift; a present. Plu. aisceacha. Rud do leogaint in aisce, to let a thing go unpunished.

Ait, curious, comical, absurd.

Áit. Ní raibh an áit … ní raibh sé (Sg. I. 68). Here, although áit is a fem. noun, the pronoun which represents it is masculine, because it refers, not to the noun “place”, but to the thing, that is, to the place itself. Is maith an áit ’na rabhais (Sg. III. 345). This is the equivalent of the English “Well done!” or, “Bravo!” The phrase is applied not only to a well-timed remark, but also to a well-timed action of any description, an adroit move in a game, for example. Sometimes, maith an áit i rabhais, or go rabhais. The expression is used in a bitterly satirical way when a person attempts to be clever and only succeeds in making a blunder.

Aiteas, intense delight. Áthas is merely pleasure.

Aithis, a disgrace; a deformity, moral or physical.

Aithne. (1) Knowledge—Chuir sí aithne orthu, she came to know them. (2) A commandment. Úll na haithne, “the forbidden fruit.” The form aithin is also in use; Dob aithin dom duine, etc. Aithin is a substantive; it means “a known person”. Níl d’eólas ná d’aithne agam air. Eólas, knowledge about him, i.e., concerning him. Aithne, knowledge of him, the knowledge which a personal acquaintance with him would give.

Aithreachas. Regret plus self-reproach. Remorse.

Aithrí, repentance. Aithrí ’ dhéanamh sa choir. Note preposition. Ré aithrí, a time for repentance. The phrase has come to mean “respite” in a general sense.

Aithris, narrate, tell. It does not mean “recite”. When followed by ar it means “imitate.”

Ál, a brood; a litter; a number of young brought forth at a birth.

Amach. Note the strength of as an dtír amach as compared with amach as an dtír.

Amanarthar, the day after tomorrow. Amainniris, the day after that.