Notes on Nolan 9

Chapter 2 – prolepsis

Prolepsis is the anticipation of what comes later in the sentence and is a significant feature of Irish grammar. Words than can be used proleptically include:

a) pronouns é, í, iad, ea. For example, the use of the subpredicate in copula sentences like is é ainm atá air ná Séadna is proleptic, as the é anticipates the name Séadna.

The pronoun can also function as a subsubject, anticipating the subject in sentences like cad é an rud é sin, where the subject is an rud (is) é sin.

Also note the function of é in sentences like: bhí áthas orthu é ‘ bheith le rá acu go bhfeacadar an rí.

b) sid é: sid é is mó a choisceann sólás ó Dhia ar theacht chút, a dheacracht leat iompáil chun úrnaithe.

c) : cuireann sé áthas orm tu ‘ bheith chómh maith is ‘taoi. Here is proleptic. This produces a by-form where there is no overt prolepsis: tá áthas orm tu ‘ bheith chómh maith is ‘taoi.

Note that ní raibh uain aige (rud a dhéanamh) is a by-form of the proleptic ní raibh sé d’uain aige (rud a dhéanamh).

Is air a bhí an iúnadh ná raibh Séadna a teacht would be a by-form of is air a bhí an iúnadh nuair a fuair sé ná raibh Séadna ag teacht.

d) so: cad a thug so dhómhsa máthair mo Thiarna do theacht ag triall orm?

e) san: so, sid é and é seo normally refers to what afterwards, with san, sin é and é sin referring to what went before. Usually therefore, san is not used proleptically, although it can be: ná cuirimís san de mhasla ar ár nglóíre go dtéifimís ón gcrois.

Similarly é sin can be used proleptically: cad é sin dúinne ceoca ‘táthar socair air nú ná fuiltear?

Note the use of proleptic é sin to anticipate a first or second-person pronoun: cad é sin dúinne thusa, a Íosa, a Mhic Dé?

GÓN argues that é sin has such a strong proleptic quality in such questions than even when it really refers to what has gone before an additional sin may be added at that end in proleptic reference: cad é sin d’éinne eile sin?

f) a: this is the key proleptic word. It is used before a verbal noun/noun to anticipate the object when that is a whole clause. For example: bhí sé tar éis a adhmáil do Shiobhán go raibh a croí dá shníomh le buairt. Also note how i dtaobh governs a rá in this sentenc: bhí buile ar Mhicil i dtaobh a rá go mbeadh sé de phláinéid ar Shéadna go dtug sé geallúint phósta do Shadhbh.

The proleptic a can be followed by a genitive in apposition, such as after a lán and a thuilleadh. Or followed by a partitive de, as in a mhalairt de, a bheag de, a mhór de.

Often the proleptic a is required where nothing of the kind appears in English: é dhá leogaint air gur theastaigh uaidh é féin do ghlanadh. However, bagairt, leogaint and aithint occasionally do not have the proleptic particle as expected: ní miste liom leogaint duit bheith ag imirt do chuid cleas ar dhuine éigin eile. After a vowel, it is frequently unclear if it is just a case of the proleptic a being swallowed up, as in dob fhuiriste aithint air go raibh súil aige.

A is also used proleptically with nouns of quality, quantity, time, etc. As in bhí iúnadh a gcroí orthu a fheabhas do dheineadar an gnó. This means “they were surprised at the excellency of it (the way in which) they accomplished the business”. GÓN notes in an aside that the direct relative is used after phrases like a fheabhas, although logically the indirect should have been expected (“the way in which”).

Note that the noun of quality, quantity, etc, would be followed by a noun in the nominative case: a luíghead airgead. The fact that the argument is in the nominative means that personal pronouns can be used as the arguments of the proleptic a.

Finally a is used proleptically before a noun of quality and condition to anticipate a clause with : bhí iúnadh orm, agus a fhuaire a bhí an aimsir, é ‘ bheith amu’ fén spéir in aon chor. Note here too that the a fhuaire is followed by the direct relative, where the indirect might have been expected.

The a can also take a partitive de, as in this example where the a anticipates a gur clause: a luíghead dá fhios a bhí ag an sagart bocht úd gurbh ar Bhríd naofa ba cheart do a bhaochas a bheith aige. The luíghead causes the use of the partitive de for the same reason that we say beagán aráin, but beagán den arán ab fheárr a bhí in Éirinn.

The abstract nouns governed by the proleptic a need to be studied: you can say a fheabhas, a fhuaire, a theó, whereas the nouns maithe, maitheas, fuacht and teas cannot be used in this way.

g) : meaning “however, in spite of”. GÓN states that this is an extension of the proleptic a, with the preposition de attached to it. He believes it originates from phrases like i gcath dá thruime (“in a battle of its seriousness”) and extended therefrom to dá thruime cath (“however serious a battle”).

Proleptic a always lenites, regardless of the gender and number of the noun it relates to.

has spread from strict to less strict relationships. In dá fhaid a ragham ar aghaidh is ea is giorra ‘ bheimíd don bhaile, the measurement is exact – the further we go, the nearer we will be.

In dá fhaid an lá is ea is giorra an oíche — this would be talking about the lengthening of daylight hours in the summer — the phrase appears to mean that the entire length of the daylight hours is exactly the same as length by which the night is shortened. However, it makes more sense to say that the increase in the length of the day is equivalent to the length by which the night is shortened. And in any case, no exactitude is really implied.

Finally, we come to usage that expresses not meant to be exactly equivalent or measurable. Dá fhaid a leogfar in aisce léi é is ea is dána ‘ leanfaidh sí dhe – here dá fhaid would be a time expression, measurable in days, whereas an increase in boldness cannot be measured in days. But it merely measn “the longer she is allowed to get away with it, the bolder she will remain”, with no real attempt at quantification.

Séadna chapter 12

Caibideal a Dódhéag.

Nóra. Cogar, a Pheig; dar ndó’ ní raibh ceangal ar Shéadna gan pósadh.

Peig. Is dócha, a Nóra, go raibh ceangal air gan an éagóir a dhéanamh.

Nóra. Ní hé sin a thuig Máire Ghearra uaidh, ach go raibh ceangal fé leith i láthair Dé air, mar ’bheadh móid mná rialta nú bráthar.

Peig. Cá bhfios duitse ná dhómhsa ná gur chuir sé móid nú ceangal den tsórd san air féin sula ndeigh sé chun cainnte léi an lá úd?

Nóra. Is mar sin a thuig Máire an scéal, pé in Éirinn é.

Peig. Tá an ceart agat, a Nóra.

Bhí sí ag cainnt le máthair Mhicil cúpla lá ’na dhiaidh san, agus seo mar aduairt sí léi: –

“A Shiobhán,” ar sise, “nách mór an iúnadh nár inis Séadna dhuit an lá fé dheireadh go raibh sé ’na Chéile Dé, agus gan bheith dhár gcur amú mar a bhí?”

Síle. Cad é an rud Céile Dé, a Pheig? Dar ndó’ ní fhéadfadh duine bheith ’na chéile ag Dia, – moladh ’s baochas leis!

Cáit. Ó, go deimhin, a Pheig, d’airíos mo dhaid mór dhá rá go raibh daoine ann fadó, agus ná pósfaidís aon bhean, mar go mbídís pósta ag Dia na glóire féin; agus sin é ainm a thug sé orthu, Céile Dé.

Síle. Airiú, moladh go deó le Dia! conas ’fhéadfaidís bheith pósta mar sin? Dar ndó’ ní pósadh é sin.

Cáit. Mura mbeidís pósta conas a tabharfí “céile” orthu? Nách fear pósta nú bean phósta “céile”? Nách ea, a Pheig?

Peig. ’Sea, gan amhras.

Síle. Agus, a Pheig, airiú, conas ’fhéadfadh fear ’bheith pósta ag Dia? Dar ndó’, ní fhéadfadh fear ’bheith pósta ach ag mnaoi? Ar airigh éinne riamh a leithéid?

Gobnait. Aililiú, a Shíle, nách géarchúiseach ataoi! Airiú, cé ’duairt leatsa ná féadfadh fear ’bheith pósta ach ag mnaoi?

Síle. Duairt Peig liom é an lá fé dheireadh agus í ag múineadh na seacht Sacraimíntí dhom. Agus féach nár ínsis an méid sin dom, a Pheig, go mbíodh daoine ann fadó agus iad pósta ag Dia an uilechómhacht!

Cáit. Do bhíodh, mhuise. D’airíos-sa mo dhaid mór dhá rá seacht n-uaire, – ní hea, ach seacht n-uaire déag ar fhichid.

Síle. Ó, go deimhin is uiriste do Cháit ní Bhuachalla cainnt a dhéanamh. Ní hé gach éinne go bhfuil athair mór aige. Bhí athair mór agamsa leis, tamall, ach do cailleadh é. Rug an t-éagruas chun siúil é. Slán beó mar a n-ínstear é!

Cáit. Éist, a Shíle, a chuid! Féach anois, níor chuímhníos orm féin go raibh an focal ráite agam. Ó, mhuise, níor theip an tuathal riamh orm! Éist, a Shíle, a chuid, maith an cailín! Is cuímhin liomsa do dhaid mór go dianmhaith. Bhí árdchion agam air.

Peig. Do bhí, a Cháit, agus árdchion aige sin ortsa. Is mó an cion a bhí aige ort ná ’bhí aige ar éinne eile ar an dtaobh amu’ de Shíle féin. Is cuímhin liom go maith, nuair a bhítheá anso, agus nuair a chuireadh sé Síle ar ghlúin leis, ná bíodh sí sásta agus ná faighthí suí suaimhnis uaithi, dá óige a bhí sí, go gcurtí thusa ar an nglúin eile. Ansan ní fheacaís riamh ach an spórt a bhíodh aige, agus é dhá leogaint air bheith ag míogarnaigh, agus sibhse a d’iarraidh bheith ag pógadh a chéile i ganfhios do.

Gobnait. Ó, imbriathar, a Pheig, gur thug sí póg do Cháit anois!

Síle. Tabharfad, agus póg eile. Féach!

Gobnait. Ó, ambasa, raid leat iad, a ’níon ó!

Nóra. Níor ínsis dúinn fós, a Pheig, conas a bheadh duine ’na Chéile Dé.

Peig. Cad ’deireadh do dhaid mór, a Cháit?

Cáit. Deireadh sé gurb amhlaidh ’thugaidís an grá céanna do Dhia a thugann an fear dá mhnaoi.

Peig. Sin é díreach é.

Síle. Imbriathar féin, a Pheig, nách le grá do Dhia — moladh go deó leis! — ach le heagla an Fhir Dhuibh do dhein Séadna Céile Dé dhe féin.

Peig. Ní raibh an Fear Dubh le teacht go mbeadh na trí bliana déag caite, agus ní raibh bac air í ’phósadh san am gcéanna.

Síle. Nách in é adeirim? Nuair a thiocfadh sé, b’fhéidir go mbéarfadh sé an bheirt leis.

Gobnait. Agus ná taispeánfadh san, a Shíle, gur le grá do Mháire Ghearra féin ná pósfadh sé í?

Peig. Go díreach, a Ghobnait; agus má thug sé suas do Dhia an grá a bhí aige dhise, nuair ná féadfadh sé é ’thabhairt di féin gan í ’chur ar chumas an Fhir Dhuibh, nách in é díreach an rud a dhéanfadh Céile Dé dhe, fé mar aduairt do sheanathair, a Cháit?

Gobnait. Is dócha é.

Peig. Ní dócha ach deimhin, a Ghobnait. Ach más ea, ní deirim gur thuig Máire Ghearra an taobh san den scéal. Dá dtuigeadh, ní dócha go ndéarfadh sí an méid úd le máthair Mhicil. “Nách mór an iúnadh,” ar sise, “nár inis sé dhuit gur Chéile Dé é, agus gan bheith dhár gcur amú!”

“Ní duairt sé focal ar domhan liom, a bhean uasal,” arsa Siobhán, “ach gur shaoire dhuit an bás ba dhona dá bhfuair daonnaí riamh ná é féin dod phósadh.”

“Bhí sé thiar ag an dtigh againn, tá cúpla lá ó shin ann,” arsa Máire Ghearra, “an lá úd a bhí Micheál thiar, agus duairt sé liom féin go raibh ceangal air i láthair Dé gan pósadh choíche. Féach anois tu, a Shiobhán,” ar sise, “tar fhearaibh an domhain mhóir bhraonaigh, cé ’chuímhneódh go mbeadh ceangal den tsórd san ar Shéadna? Ní raibh a leithéid d’iúnadh orm ón lá a rugadh me. Geallaim dhuit,” ar sise, “gur oscail sé mo shúile dhom. An fear san go ndeirid daoine ná fuil aon chreideamh aige, agus a leithéid sin de cheangal air i láthair Dé; agus mise go bhfuil ainm an chreidimh go léir orm ag briseadh mo chroí a d’iarraidh teacht idir é agus Dia. Nách deas an obair í sin, a Shiobhán? Ní fheadar ’en tsaol ná ’en domhan le chéile cad a bhain dom, nú cad a dhall me; nú cad a chaoch suas m’aigne agus m’íntinn, agus a rá go ndéanfainn a leithéid. Cad ’déarfaid na cómharsain?”

“Ná bíodh ceist ort, a bhean uasal, mar gheall ar an dtaobh san den scéal. Tá sé socair cheana acu gurb é Séadna féin a chuaigh siar dod iarraidh, agus gur dhiúltaís láithreach, agus ansan gur imigh an fear bocht as a mheabhair,” arsa Siobhán.

“Aililiú!” arsa Máire, “nách gairid an mhoíll orthu é ’shocrú! Cad ’deir Séadna leis an socrú san?” ar sise.

“Focal amach as a bhéal,” arsa Siobhán. “Agus geallaim dhuit nách baol go gcuirfidh éinne aon cheist air; nú má chuireann, agus go bhféachfaidh seisean in sna súilibh air, bain an chluas díom má chuireann sé an tarna ceist.”

Is é duine is éagsamhlaí dár bhuail riamh umam é,” arsa Máire. “Bhíos i bhfad sular fhéadas a dhéanamh amach ceoca drochdhuine é nú duine fónta. An chéad uair a chonac an féachaint úd, do cheapas go raibh an tÁirseóir – fíor na Croise idir sinn agus é! – istigh ’na chroí, i dtreó nár mhaith liom bualadh uime ar an mbóthar, ná focal do labhairt leis. Ach bhíos oíche ag teacht abhaile ón sráid, agus ag gabháil i leith an Bóthar Leathan dom, do tháinig iarracht de laige orm, agus do shuíos ar chloich i lúib de chlaí an bhóthair. Do thit mo chodladh orm, agus nuair a dhúisíos bhí an taom beag imithe, ach bhí sé in am mhairbh na hoíche. Phreabas im shuí agus thugas aghaidh ar an mbaile, agus geallaim dhuit ná raibh aon mhairbhití in sna cosaibh agam. Oíche bhreá spéirghealaí dob ea í. Nuair a bhíos, mar ’déarfá, fiche slat ón gcrosaire, cé ’gheóbhadh aníos Bóthar na Bró ach Seán na Gealaí, an ropaire bithiúnaigh!”

Síle. Cérbh é sin, a Pheig?

Peig. Sprid dob ea é, a bhíodh dhá thaispeáint féin ansúd, agus bhíodh sé ag marú na ndaoine.

“Nuair a chonac é,” ar sise, “do cheapas láithreach go rabhas réidh. Lena línn sin d’airíos an duine ag siúl im dhiaidh. D’fhéachas thar mo ghualainn. Cé ’bheadh ann ach Séadna, agus a dhá shúil ar dearglasadh agus scian ar tarrac aige, scian choise duíbhe. Do ghluais sé thorm amach agus thug sé aghaidh ar an sprid. Lena línn sin do chonac splannc lasrach, agus láithreach ’na dhiaidh san do chonac Séadna ar an áit agus é in’ aonar.

“‘’Sea, a Mháire,’ ar seisean, ‘do chuais as go maith anocht. Do chonac ag gabháil i leith thu, agus bhí iúnadh orm cad do bheir amu’ chómh déanach thu. Do leanas thu le heagla na háite seo. Téanam ort anois go seólad isteach abhaile thu.’

“Ní raibh ionam labhairt, agus is ar éigin a bhí ionam siúl. Níor scar sé liom chun gur fhág sé thiar ag doras m’athar me. Ón lá san go dtí an lá atá inniu ann níor airigh éinne, óg nú aosta, focal amach as a bhéal mar gheall ar an ngnó. Ar maidin la’r na mháireach, do fuaradh ag an gcrosaire, mar ’déarfá, oiread mo dhoirn de chnapóig glóthaí agus scian choise duíbhe sáite inti. Agus ní deirim go bhfeacaigh éinne Seán na Gealaí ó shin in san áit. Cheapas gur mhór an obair do Shéadna a anam féin do chur sa chúntúirt sin ar mo shonsa, agus tháinig urraim mhór agam do. Go deimhin, a Shiobhán, ní fhéadfainn a ínsint duit cad é an chuma ’na raibh m’aigne ón oíche sin go dtí an lá úd a chuaigh sé siar dhá ínsint dom go raibh ceangal éigin idir é féin agus Dia, agus nárbh fhéidir do pósadh. Thuigeas ansan gur dhócha gurbh é an ceangal san a thug an bua dho ar an sprid. D’airínn riamh, daoine a bhíodh tabhartha suas mar sin ar fad do Dhia, go mbíodh bua acu ar an Annsprid. Nuair a inis sé dhom go raibh ceangal i láthair Dé air gan pósadh choíche, do ghlacas i láthair Dé an ceangal céanna. Agus féach, a Shiobhán; ní túisce ’ghlacas ná ’cheapas gur scar pé drochní a bhí im aigne liom ar an neómat san. Chonaicís féin an chuma ’na rabhas an lá úd ’dh’iarras ort beart áirithe a dhéanamh dom. Nuair a chuímhním air anois, ceapaim im aigne nách foláir nú bhíos as mo mheabhair rud éigin. Pé rud a bhí orm, tá sé imithe glan, – baochas mór le Dia na glóire dhá chionn!”

“Amen, a Thiarna!” arsa Siobhán.

Síle. Agus cogar, a Pheig; nách greannúr an ainm ar sprid “Seán na Gealaí”? An amhlaidh ná feictí é ach le solas na gealaí?

Peig. Oíche spéirghealaí dob ea an oíche a chonaic Máire Ghearra é.

Síle. Sin é díreach é. Agus más ea, cad ’na thaobh gur tugadh “Seán na Gealaí” air, agus go bhfeictí é nuair ná bíodh an ghealach ’na suí in aon chor?

Peig. Duine saolta dob eadh ar dtúis é, agus bithiúnach ab ea é. Agus is amhlaidh a bhíodh sé amu’ istoíche ag goid, le solas na gealaí. Seán ab ainm do, agus do tugadh Seán na Gealaí mar leasainm air, as an ngoid. Bhíodh sé i mBóthar na Bró istoíche, ag faire ar dhaoinibh a bhíodh ag gabháil an bhóthair déanach san oíche, agus dhá robáil. Fé dheireadh do mhairbh sé duine ann oíche dhorcha, agus fé cheann tamaill duine eile. Ansan thánadar a ndaoine muínteartha san agus chuadar i bhfolach in aice an bhóthair, agus nuair a bhí sé amach go maith san oíche d’imigh duine acu amach ar an mbóthar agus do leog sé air bheith ar meisce. Bhí Seán ag faire, leis, agus nuair a chonaic sé an fear meisce, dar leis féin, do léim sé amach agus thug sé fé. Ansan do léimeadar go léir amach agus do maraíodh Seán na Gealaí. Agus as san amach do chítí an sprid i mBóthar na Bró, agus do lean “Seán na Gealaí” mar ainm ar an sprid.

Nótaí

Dod phósadh: “marrying you”. The usage of dod here contradicts the ad phriocadh in chapter one of Séadna (=do do phriocadh in the CO). Such constructions derive from ag and not do, and so ad would be the better choice here, although the CO has standardised on do do. It is possible that nineteenth-century confusion over the etymology of the particle governing the verbal noun with a pronoun object led to some use of forms in do. The original text of Séadna has ad phriocadh, ad ghortú, ad chosaintse, ad leogaint chun siúil, ad iarraidh, and dod phósadh and dod iarraidh.

Focal amach as a bhéal: an elliptical phrase meaning “there has not been a word out of him on the subject” (=níl focal amach as a bhéal mar gheall air).

Name

Seán na Gealaí: the ghost of a robber mentioned here who would appear to people on the road and kill them.

Placenames

An Bóthar Leathan: Broad Road. I haven’t been able to identify the modern road corresponding to this placename in Séadna.
Bóthar na Bró: Millstone Road. Bró, “handmill”, used in bró muilinn, “millstone”, is undeclined here; the traditional genitive is brón. I haven’t identified the modern road corresponding to this placename in Séadna.

Foclóirín

áirseóir: “adversary; i.e. the Devil”, or áibhirseoir in the CO.
amach: “out”, pronounced /ə’mɑx/. Amach go maith san oíche, “pretty late at night”.
amen: “Amen”, or áiméan in the CO. This word is spelt ámén in the original here, but is often spelt amen in PUL’s works, indicating that he often eschewed an artificial gaelicisation of this non-Irish word. The pronunciation is given in IWM as /amʹenʹ/ and transcribed in the LS edition of Séadna as aimin. LMM’s edition of Séadna also drops the síntíocha fada, which misrepresent the WM pronunciation of the word.
annsprid: “evil spirit; i.e., the Devil”, or ainsprid in the CO.
bean rialta: “nun”. The adjective rialta, “regular”, is pronounced /riəlhə/; compare rialtas, “government”, pronounced /riəltəs/, as lt in more modern words is not always pronounced /lh/.
braonach: “dripping, misty”. An domhan mór braonach, “the whole wide world”.
caochaim, caochadh: “to daze, dazzle”. Cad a chaoch suas m’aigne, “what dulled my mind”.
Céile Dé: Culdee, an ancient order of monks in Ireland. Céile Dé could be translated “companion of God”; some of the later communities of Culdees were not bound by monastic vows.
cnapóg: “lump”.
cros: “cross”, with the genitive croise pronounced /kriʃi/.
crosaire: “crossroads”.
cúpla: “a couple”, taking the nominative singular. Pronounced /kuːpələ/.
daid mór: “grandfather”. Also found here as athair mór.
dearglasadh: found in ar dearglasadh, “blazing”, of eyes. Pronounced /dʹarəg-lɑsə/.
éagruas: “fever, malady”.
fíor: “sign.” Fíor na Croise idir sinn agus é, “may the sign of the Cross protect us from him”, a pious exclamation upon mention of the Devil.
glóthach: “jelly, slime, viscous matter”.
lasair: “flame”, with lasrach in the genitive. Pronounced /lɑsirʹ, lɑsərəx/. Splannc lasrach is translated as “a flash of flame” in the authorised edition of Séadna.
leasainm: “nickname”.
mairbhití: “numbness”, pronounced /mɑrʹivʹitʹi:/.
míogarnach: “act of dozing off”. Míogarnach is a feminine verbal noun that is declined as ag míogarnaigh in the dative.
raidim, radadh: “to give, bestow, shower”, or radaim, radhadh in the CO. Raid leat iad, “give her as many of them as you like”. CFBB shows the verb is raidim, with a slender d.
sacraimínt: “sacrament”. The LS edition of Séadna points to a pronunciation of /sɑkri’mʹi:ntʹ/, although both sacramínt and sácramínt are found in PUL’s works (see his An Teagasg Críostaidhe), and more research is required on the length of the first vowel. There is no epenthetic vowel here, probably because the word is known in its English/Latin versions too.
slat: “yard”.
spéirghealach: “sky brightness”. Oíche spéirghealaí, “a sky-bright sky”, when the moon itself is not visible. This definition is given in FdS; a moon-lit night would be oíche ghealaí.
suím, suí: “to sit”. Tá an ghealach (ghrian) na suí, “the moon (sun) has risen, is up”.
taom: “fit, period of illness”.
uilechómhacht: “omnipotence”, or uilechumhacht in the CO. Pronounced /ilʹi-xo:xt/. The phrase Dia an uilechómhacht is used here, given as Dia an uile chómhacht in the original: the entry in FdS, “God of all powers; God Almighty”, indicates that cómhacht may be genitive plural in this phrase. However, as an uile is given here, and not na n-uile, it may be better to regard it as a noun in apposition to Dia. The phrase is often given as Dia n uilechómhacht, /dʹiən ilʹi-xo:xt/, in PUL’s works, with the a of an elided.

Words from Cnósach Focal ó Bhaile Bhúirne

Cnósach Focal ó Bhaile Bhúirne

 

a ə, i

á ɑː

abhac auk

abhar aur

abhlúir au’luːrʹ

abhraím/úraím, abhrú, abhraithe/úraithe au’riːmʹ, au’ruː, aurihi

abhraíocht au’riːxt

abhras aurəs

ablach ɑbələx

acfaing ɑkfiŋʹ

acfaingeach ɑkfiŋʹəx

acfaingeacht/acfaingíocht ɑkfiŋʹəxt, ɑkfi’ŋʹiːxt

ach ɑx

achamaireacht ɑxəmirʹəxt

acharaí ɑxə’riː

acharaim, achar ɑxərimʹ, ɑxər

achruth ɑxruh

adaím ɑ’diːmʹ

adhaint əintʹ

adharc əirk

adharcach əirkəx

adhb əib, fəib

adhbairne əibirnʹi, fəibirnʹi

admháil ɑdə’vɑːlʹ

ae, aeunna eː, eːnə

aere eːrʹi

aereacht, ag aereacht igʹ eːrʹəxt

ag əg, igʹ

aga ɑgə

aghaig əigʹ

aghnó əi’noː

aghsgaid əiskidʹ

aidhlicí əilʹikʹiː

aifreann afʹirʹən

áig ɑːgʹ

aighean əin

aighneas əinʹəs

aililiú alʹilʹuː

ailp alpʹ

áilteórtha ɑːlʹhoːrhə

aimhleasta ailʹəstə

aimhrég əi’rʹeːgʹ

aimhréuch, aimhréthach əi’rʹeːx

aimléseach amʹi’lʹeːʃəx

aimlithe amʹilʹihi

aimpléseach aim’plʹeːʃəx

aimsir aimʃirʹ

ainifiolach, ainibhiolach anʹivʹələx, anvʹiləx

ainniseacht aŋʹiʃəxt

aip, taip (an t-aip) tɑpʹ

airc arkʹ

aireachas i’rʹaxəs

aireachasú i’rʹaxesuː

áiseach ɑːʃəx

ait: b’ait liom sun atʹ, bɑ hlʹum son

aiteann Muire atʹən mirʹi

aitéte a’tʹeːtʹi

aith-bhearra avʹarə

aith-gheárr a’jaːr

aith-sgéala aʃ’kʹialə

aithne, athanta ahinʹi, ɑhəntə

áitithe ɑːtʹihi

alagar ɑləgər

alait ɑlitʹ

alatán ɑlə’tɑːn

alla-bhog ɑləvog

allasúil ɑlə’suːlʹ

allta aulhə

alltach aulhəx

alltántaíocht aul’hɑːntiːxt

almóir ɑlə’moːrʹ

alpaíol ɑl’piːl

alpraits ‘ɑlpə’rɑtʃ, ‘ɑl’frɑtʃ

alt ɑhl

am aum

ama ɑmə

amach ə’mɑx

amaróidithe ɑmə’rodʹihi

amas ɑməs

amás ə’mɑːs

amh-dhoircheacht auɣorʹihəxt

amhail ɑvilʹ

amháin ə’vɑːnʹ

ámharaí ɑːvəriː

ámharaíocht ɑːvəriːxt

amharc ɑvərk

amhasóir au’soːrʹ

amhasóireacht au’soːrʹəxt

amhlachas auləxəs

amhraistiúil auriʃtʹuːlʹ

amhrán ɑvə’rɑːn

amhras aurəs

amplach aumpələx

amplóir aumpəloːrʹ

amprán aumpərɑːn

an-aiste ɑniʃtʹi

an-aistiúil ɑniʃ’tʹuːlʹ

an-bhás ‘ɑnə’vɑːs

an-chinn ‘ɑn-‘xʹiːŋʹ

an-chor ‘ɑn’xor

an-chúinse ‘ɑn’xuːnʃi

an-chúramach ‘ɑn’xuːrəməx

an-dóchas ‘ɑn’doːxəs

an-dóich ‘ɑn’doːh

an(a)cheart ‘ɑn-‘xʹart

an(sh)ocair ɑ’nokirʹ

ana-cheann ‘ɑni’xʹaun

anabhróidithe, anabhróidí ɑnə’vroːdʹihi

anachain(n) ə’nɑxiŋʹ

anacróir, anacróirín ɑnək’roːrʹ, ɑnək’roːrʹiːnʹ

anagal ɑnəgəl

anairt ɑnhirtʹ

anamúlacht ɑnə’muːləxt

anathúil ɑnə’huːlʹ

angabhr(e)óideach ɑŋə’vroːdʹəx

angaid ɑŋidʹ

angarais ɑŋəriʃ

angarúinneach ɑŋə’ruːŋʹəx

anmhian ‘ɑn-‘vʹian

annlann aunlən

annracht aurəxt

annrachtach aurəxtəx

annrianta aun’riəntə

annróch au’roːx

annsa aunsə

annspianta aunspʹiəntə

annúlacht, annúcht ɑ’nuːləxt, ɑ’nuːxt

anuas ə’nuəs

anúinneach ɑ’nuːŋʹəx

aoibhneas iːvʹinʹəs

aon-láimh eːn’lɑːvʹ

aonarúil eːnəruːlʹ

aonta eːntə

aosáideach əi’sɑːdʹəx

aostacht eːstəxt

aothím, an t-aothó eː’hiːmʹ, (ən t)eː’hoː

ar erʹ

ára ɑːrə

araí ɑ’riː

arán ə’rɑːn

árd ɑːrd

árd-oighimneach ɑːr’dəimʹinʹəx

árdú ɑːr’duː

árrachtaí ɑːrəxtiː

as ɑs, ɑ

ásga ɑːskə

atal ɑtəl, atʹəl

atarabh ɑtərəv

ath-bhuachaill ɑ’vuəxilʹ

ath-eólas ɑ’hoːləs

ath-fheóchta ɑ’hoːxtə

ath-fhille ahilʹi

ath-gharraí ‘ɑɣɑ’riː

ath-ghráinne ɑɣ’rɑŋʹi

ath-iumpáil ɑ’huːmpɑːlʹ

ath-riastáil ɑ’riəstɑːlʹ

áthán ɑː’hɑːn

atharcach ɑhərkəx

atharrach ɑhərəx

áthas ɑːhəs

áthasach ɑːhəsəx

athint ahintʹ

Athir-Mhac ahirʹvɑk

athiriúil ahi’rʹuːlʹ

atón ɑ’toːn

atruach ɑ’truəx

bá, bá dín bɑː, bɑː dʹiːnʹ

bac bɑk

baca-lámhach ‘bɑkə’lɑːx

bacach bə’kɑx

bacachán bɑkə’xɑːn

bacachas bə’kɑxəs

bacaichínteacht bɑki’hiːntʹəxt

bacaim bɑkimʹ

bacán bə’kɑːn

bachall bɑxəl

bachram bɑxərəm

badhbóireacht bəi’boːrʹəxt

baic bɑkʹ

báig bɑːgʹ

báigiúil bɑː’gʹuːlʹ

baile, bailte, bailtíocha bɑlʹi, bɑlʹhi, bɑlʹ’hiːxə

baileach bi’lʹax

bailéagar, bóiléagar bi’lʹeːgər, bɑ’lʹeːgər, bɑ’lʹiagər

bailím bɑ’lʹiːmʹ

báineacht bɑːnʹəxt

báiní bɑː’nʹiː

bainistí bɑnʹiʃ’tʹiː

bainne bɑŋʹi

bainniúil bɑ’ŋʹuːlʹ

báire bɑːrʹi

baisíní teó bɑ’ʃiːnʹiː tʹoː

báisteach bɑːʃtʹəx

baisteachán bɑʃtʹə’xɑːn

baistí bɑʃ’tʹiː

baitíneach bɑ’tʹiːnʹəx

balaithe bɑlihi

balathú bɑlə’huː

balcaire bɑlkirʹi

balcán, balcáinín bəl’kɑːn, bəl’kɑːnʹiːnʹ

ball baul

ball brosdaithe baul brostihi

bálta bɑːlhə

balthach bəl’hɑx

banaltranas bɑnərhlənəs

bangc bauŋk

bannda baundə

banndaing baundiŋʹ

bannlá baun’lɑː

banntracht bauntrəxt

baoch, baechí beːx, beː’hiː

baois biːʃ

baorthach beːrhəx

baorthachán beːrhəxɑːn

baoth-lém beːhlʹeːmʹ

baothacht beːhəxt

baothire beːhirʹi

baothireacht beːhirʹəxt

bára bɑːrə

baramótar bɑrəmoːtər

bárr áig, báraig, buráig, báireáig bɑːr ɑːgʹ

barr-fhalla bɑ’rɑlə

bárr, barraí (na gcraoch) bɑːr, bɑ’riː (nə greːx)

barra bɑrə

barradaíol bɑrə’diːl

barraicín bɑri’kʹiːnʹ

barraíolach bɑ’riːləx

barraoid bɑ’riːdʹ

barrastaíol bɑrəs’tiːl

barrastóireacht bɑrəs’toːrʹəxt

bárrthan bɑːrhən

bas bɑs

basadaer bɑsədeːrʹ

basga, basgaíocha bɑskə, bɑs’kiːxə

basgaitheach bɑskihəx

basgaod bəs’keːd

bastúntaíocht bɑs’tuːntiːxt

bata lang, mata lang bɑtə lauŋg

báth (do bháth) (de) vɑːh

bathalóg bɑhə’loːg

beach ghabhair, beacha gabhair bʹax ɣourʹ, bʹaxə gourʹ

beachair bʹaxirʹ

beachtithe bʹaxdihi

beadaí bʹa’diː

beag-̩thácht, i mbeag-thácht mʹi’kɑːxt

béal bʹial

bealaí, bealaí theó/hó bʹaliː (hoː)

béalbhach bʹialvəx

beann bʹaun

beannachtach bʹə’nɑxtəx

beannachtaí bʹə.nɑx’tiː

bearadóir bʹarədoːrʹ

beargú bʹarə’guː

Béarlóireacht bʹiar’loːrʹəxt

beárna bʹaːrnə

beárrachán bʹaːrəxɑːn

beárrthóir, beárrthóireacht bʹaːrhoːrʹ, bʹaːrhoːrʹəxt

beart, bertín bʹart, bʹir’tʹiːnʹ

beartaím bʹar’tiːmʹ

beatha bʹahə

beathithe bʹahihi

béceachán bʹeːkʹəxɑːn

beghdeán bʹei’dʹɑːn

begheas (dé n-a bhegheas) vʹəis

béle bʹeːlʹi

belithe bʹelʹihi

belteanach bʹeltʹənəx

beog-bheann bʹog-‘vʹaun

beog, ní be’ liom de, ní bel bʹog, bʹe, bʹelʹ

berim bʹerʹimʹ

berím bʹe’rʹiːmʹ

berithan bʹerʹihən

berithirt bʹerʹihirtʹ

beteáil bʹetʹaːlʹ

bherim vʹerʹimʹ

bhí vʹiː

bhog vog

bia bʹiə

biana bʹiənə

biata bʹiətə

billéud bi’lʹeːd

binn bʹiːŋʹ

binn-bhoraíocht bʹiːŋʹvo’riːxt

bíogaim bʹiːgimʹ

bior-shrónach ‘bʹir’hroːnəx

biorach bʹi’rɑx

bioraím, biorú bʹi’riːmʹ, bʹi’ruː

biorbach bʹirəbəx

biorgadán, briugadán, beorgadán brʹugədɑːn

birín beó bʹirʹiːnʹ bʹoː

bith bʹih

bithé bʹi’heː

bithúnach bʹi’huːnəx

bladhbóireacht bləi’boːrʹəxt

blaidhreacht bləirʹəxt

blaidhrig bləirʹigʹ

blaisteóireacht blɑʃ’tʹoːrʹəxt

blas blɑs

blasta blɑstə

bleachtas blʹaxtəs

bléan (blén) blʹian

bléninne blʹeːnʹiŋʹi

bliústar blʹuːstər

bloc blok

bloghtracha bloutərəxə

blonag, blunag blonəg

blosga bloskə

blot blot

bó boː

bocaire bokirʹi

bocht, boichte boxt, boxtʹi

bocs boks

bodaichiúlacht bodə’huːləxt

bodhaire bourʹi

bodhraí bou’riː

bódóir boːdoːrʹ

bogadaíol bogə’diːl

bogaim bogimʹ

bogha leacha bou’ lʹaxə

boghlainní bouliŋʹiː

bogra bogərə

bograchán bogərəxɑːn

boibín hus bobʹiːnʹ hos

bóiceáil boː’kʹaːlʹ

bóiceálaí boː’kʹɑːliː

bóicín, pic bhóicín pʹikʹ ‘voːkʹiːnʹ

boidiarmáil bodʹiərmɑːlʹ, bodʹirʹəmɑːlʹ

bóinn boːŋʹ

boisgíní boʃ’kʹiːnʹiː

bóithreán boːrʹ’hɑːn

bóithreóireacht boːrʹ’hoːrʹəxt

bolg boləg

bolgaire boləgirʹi

bolmac boləmək

bónna, pónna boːnə

bóra boːrə

bora, boraí borə, bo’riː

boraim borim [sic]

bóraim boːrimʹ

bórdraes (bórdairés) boːrdəreːʃ

bóthar bohər [sic]

bóthéme boː’heːmʹi

bouis bouʃ

bouta boutə

brá brɑː

brá gill brɑː gʹiːlʹ

brabhsach, brousach brousəx

brabhsóg, brousóg brou’soːg

brabúsach brɑ’buːsəx

bráca brɑːkə

brácáil brɑː’kɑːlʹ

brach-shúileach brɑ’xuːlʹəx

bracha brɑxə

bradán brə’dɑːn

braic brɑkʹ

bráid brɑːdʹ

braighdéul brəi’dʹeːl

braiglér brɑglʹeːrʹ

braigléreacht brɑglʹeːrʹəxt

braisil, braisile brɑʃilʹ, brɑʃilʹi

braithnisg brɑnʹhiʃkʹ

bramaire brɑmirʹi

bramaireacht brɑmirʹəxt

branar brɑnər

braon breːn

brat brɑt

brathim brɑhimʹ

breá brʹaː

breá breá brʹaː brʹaː

breabhaid brʹaudʹ

brealla gorma brʹalə gorəmə

breallach (bearlach) brʹə’lɑx

breallaíol brʹa’liːl

breallán brʹə’lɑːn, brʹaul’stuːn

breallóg, bearlóg brʹə’loːg

breallsúntacht brʹaul’suːntəxt, brʹaul’suːntiːxt

breáthachtaí brʹaːhəxtiː

breceall (broiceall) brokʹəl

brecidíol brʹekʹi’dʹiːl

brecineóireacht, breathnóireacht brʹekʹi’nʹoːrʹəxt, brʹan’hoːrʹəxt

brédín brʹeː’dʹiːnʹ

breghdeán brʹəi’dʹɑːn

brell brʹəilʹ

bremneach (broimneach) bromʹinʹəx

breóitiúil brʹoː’tʹuːlʹ

breóthartach brʹoːhərtəx

bres brʹeʃ

breth brʹeh

briodar brʹidər, blʹidər

briodarnach brʹidərnəx, brʹidərəx

brios-bhruathar brʹiosk’vruəhər

briosga brʹiskə

briosgaím brʹis’kiːmʹ

briosgarnáil brʹiskər’nɑːlʹ

brisim brʹiʃimʹ

bríste brʹiːʃtʹi

bristeacht brʹiʃtʹəxt

briulla (brealla) brʹulə

briullac brʹulək

briunglóid brʹuŋə’loːdʹ

bró broː

brocach brə’kɑx

bróchán broː’xɑːn

brogha brou

broghais brouʃ

broicín bro’kʹiːnʹ

bruach bruəx

brúán bruː’ɑːn

brúcht bruːxt

brufaire brufirʹi

brufanta brufəntə

bruid bridʹ

bruideóg bri’dʹoːg

brúidreacht bruːdʹirʹəxt

bruimnéseach brimʹi’nʹeːʃəx

bruinne dhearg briŋʹi jarəg

bruinne-árd bri’ŋʹɑːrd

bruinnseachán briːnʃəxɑːn

brúite bruːtʹi

brunacht (brunthacht), a bhrunacht ə vrunəxt, də vurənəxt

brusaire brusirʹi

brusanta brusəntə

brúsgar bruːskər

bruth bruh

brúthireacht bruːhirʹəxt

buac buək

buacach buəkəx

buailteóir buəlʹ’hoːrʹ

buailtíocha buəlʹ’hiːxə

buainmheas, buainmheadas buənvʹəs, buənvʹədəs

buaint buəntʹ

buaircín buər’kʹiːnʹ

buaithreán buərʹ’hɑːn

bualtach buəlhəx

buanaí buə’niː

buanna buənə

buannúil buə’nuːlʹ

buarach buərəx

bucaod bə’keːd

búch buːx

bucóid, cosaidí bucóid bə’koːdʹ, kosidʹi bə’koːdʹ

buí biː

buicinis, buiciris bikʹinʹiʃ

buigeacht bigʹəxt

buigéseach bi’gʹeːʃəx

buigiúlach bi’gʹuːləx, bi’gʹuːnəx

buigiúlacht bi’gʹuːləxt

buigiún bi’gʹuːn

builgeadán bilʹigʹədɑːn

builín bi’lʹiːnʹ

builín breac bi’lʹiːnʹ brʹak

buille bilʹi

buimpés biːm’pʹeːʃ

buineann, buininne binʹən, binʹiŋʹi

buiniceach binʹikʹəx

buinne biŋʹi

buinneach bi’ŋʹɑx

buinneán bi’ŋʹɑːn

buint bintʹ

buíocht biːxt

bula báisín bulə bɑː’ʃiːnʹ

bulán bə’lɑːn

bulcais bulkiʃ

bun bun

bunaíolach bu’niːləx

bunn-luasga buːnluəskə

bunn, bunnaibh, buinn buːn, bunivʹ, biːŋʹ (but /boun/ in the meaning of medal)

bunóc bə’noːk

bunóirseach, bunóirs bə’noːrʃəx, bə’noːrʃ

buntáisteach buːn’tɑːʃtʹəx

bunús bu’nuːs

bura burə

búrdún buːr’duːn

búrdúnach buːr’duːnəx

burúch (brúch) bruːx

buthire buhirʹi

cabanta kɑbəntə

cabhlae(th) kau’leːh

cabhlaoch (cabhlaothach) kau’leːx

cábóg kɑː’boːg

cacamas kɑkəməs

caclach kɑkələx

cad kɑd

cadragáil kɑdərəgɑːlʹ

cadrán (caidreán) kɑdʹi’rʹɑːn

cafarra kɑfərə

cáibleáil kɑːbʹilʹaːlʹ

caighdeán kəi’dʹɑːn

caighséur kəi’ʃeːr

cáil kɑːlʹ

caile kɑlʹi

cailicín (cailicíní) kɑlʹi’kʹiːnʹ, kɑlʹi’kʹiːnʹiː

cailís kɑ’lʹiːʃ

caill kailʹ

cailleach bhasgaithe ki’lʹɑx vɑʃkihi

cailliúnaí kɑ’lʹuːniː

cáimeas, cámas kɑːmʹəs, kɑːməs

cainntiúil kain’tʹuːlʹ

caipín kɑ’pʹiːnʹ

cáirdeas kɑːrdʹəs

cairt, cairteacha kɑrtʹ, kir’tʹaxə

cáis kɑːʃ

caisearbhán kɑʃərəvɑːn

caisleán kiʃ’lʹɑːn

caisne kɑʃnʹi

caistirnín, castairicín kɑʃtʹir’nʹiːnʹ, kɑstirʹikʹiːnʹ

caiteach ki’tʹax

cáithnín kɑːn’hiːnʹ

cál kɑːl

calcaid kɑlkidʹ

calcaithe kɑlkihi

caldar kɑldər

caldarún kɑldə’ruːn

callaí kɑ’liː

callaire kɑlirʹi

callaireacht kɑlirʹəxt

calma kɑləmə

calmacht kɑləməxt

cam-shúileacht kɑ’muːlʹəx

cama-ghaothach kɑmə’ɣeːhəx

camaim kɑmimʹ

camastaíol kɑməs’tiːl

camastóireacht kɑməs’toːrʹəxt

camhaoire (camhaoir) kɑ’viːrʹ

camra kɑmərə

canad kɑnəd

cannta kauntə

canntáil kaun’tɑːlʹ

canntaoir kaun’tiːrʹ, kaun’tʹiːrʹ

canta kɑntə

cantam kɑn-tʹem

canúin(n) kɑ’nuːŋʹ

canúir kɑ’nuːrʹ

cao keː

caochóg keː’xoːg

caogad, caogaid keːgidʹ

caoi kiː

caoilcin kiːlkʹinʹ

caoimhneas kiːvʹinʹəs

caointeóireacht kiːn’tʹoːrʹəxt

caol-aghaigeanach, caol-aghanach keː’ləinəx

caol-rian keːl’riən

caolaím keː’liːmʹ

caor keːr

caorán kəi’rɑːn

caorthaíolach, caorthaíol kiːr’hiːləx, kiːr’hiːl

caothúil keː’huːlʹ

capall kɑpəl

cara aspail kɑrə ɑspilʹ

carabhas kɑ’ruːs

carbas kɑrəbəs

cargáil kɑrə’gɑːlʹ

carra rócháin kɑrə roː’xɑːnʹ

carraig, cairrgín kɑrigʹ, kɑri’gʹiːnʹ

carta kɑrtə

carthannachtúil kɑrhənəxtuːlʹ

carthannúil kɑrhə’nuːlʹ

cás, chás kɑːs, xɑːs

cas-araíonach ‘kɑsɑ’riːnəx

casa kɑsə

casaim kɑsimʹ

cásaim (cásaím, cáisím) kɑː’siːmʹ, kɑː’ʃiːmʹ

cásmhar kɑːʃvər

casóg kə’soːg

castaing kɑstiŋʹ

castaraí ‘wax’ kɑstəriː vʹaks

cat kɑt

cathantacht kɑhəntəxt

cathaoir kɑ’hiːrʹ

cathim kɑhimʹ

caudach kaudəx

caudaichín kaudʹi’hiːnʹ

cauis kauʃ

cead kʹad

ceailis kʹalʹiʃ

céallacan kʹialəkən

ceamlach, ceamalach kʹamələx

ceanainne kʹaniŋʹi

ceanann kʹanən

ceangal, ceangal an chipín kʹaŋəl, kʹaŋəl ə xʹi’pʹiːnʹ

ceann kʹaun

ceannaithe kʹanihi

ceannas kʹanəs

ceannráil kʹau’rɑːlʹ

ceannsacht kʹaunsəxt

ceannsmách kʹaun’smɑːx

ceanúireacht kʹa’nuːrʹəxt

ceap, cip kʹap, kʹipʹ

ceapaire kʹapirʹi

ceapánta kʹə’pɑːntə

ceárd, cérd kʹaːrd, kʹeːrdʹ

ceárna kʹaːrnə

ceart, cirte, cirtisí, córtaisí kʹart, kʹirtʹi, kʹirtʹi’ʃiː, koːrtiʃiː

ceartaos kʹar’teːs

ceartham kʹarhəm

céas kʹias

ceatach, ciotach kʹi’tɑx

ceataí kʹa’tiː

ceathrú kʹar’huː

céle kʹeːlʹi

celiúraim kʹe’lʹuːrimʹ

celméurach kʹelʹi’mʹeːrəx

celméurtha kʹelʹi’mʹeːrhə

celt kʹehlʹ

ceóchán kʹoː’xɑːn

ceóchrán, ceófrán kʹoːfə’rɑːn

ceóchránta, ceófránta kʹoːfə’rɑːntə

ceól kʹoːl

ceólaí kʹoː’liː

ceólán kʹoː’lɑːn

ceólmhar kʹoːlvər

cér, céurach kʹeːrʹ, kʹeːrəx

cesnithach kʹeʃnʹihəx

cest kʹeʃtʹ

chím xʹiːmʹ

chun, chuige xun, xigʹi

ciach kʹiəx

ciachmar kʹiəxvər

ciall kʹiəl

cianóg kʹiə’noːg

ciarach (cíorach) kʹiərəx

ciaramá boc (ciaramá bocs) kʹiərəmɑː bok

ciardhubhán kʹiərəvɑːn

cílér kʹiː’lʹerʹ

cimeádach kʹi’mʹaːdəx

cimil a’ mháilín kʹimʹilʹ ə vɑː’lʹiːnʹ

cineard, cinird kʹi’nʹard, kʹi’nʹirdʹ

ciniúint (cinniúint) kʹi’nʹuːntʹ

cinnte kʹiːntʹi

cíopróp, cíp róp, cí róp kʹiːp’roːp

cíos kiːs

ciotal kʹitəl

cipín kʹi’pʹiːnʹ

cipíneach kʹi’pʹiːnʹəx

circe kʹirkʹi

círép kʹiː’rʹeːpʹ

ciseach kʹi’ʃax

cisgém kʹiʃ’gʹeːmʹ

cisím kʹi’ʃiːmʹ

cithrúthil, cithrúthir kʹi’ruːhilʹ, kʹi’ruːhirʹ

ciúin kʹuːnʹ

ciúir kʹuːrʹ

ciúnú kʹuː’nuː

ciúta kʹuːtə

clabhar klaur

cladán klə’dɑːn

cladrach klɑdərəx

cladraic klɑdərikʹ

cladram klɑdərəm

cladrán klɑdə’rɑːn

clagaire klɑgirʹi

clagairt klɑgirtʹ

clagar klɑgər

clagarnach klɑgərnəx

clag-fhíáin klɑ’gianʹ

claibseach klɑbʃəx

claid klɑdʹ

claimheach kliːx, kloux

claíochtaint kliːxtintʹ

cláir-fhiacla klɑː’rʹiəkələ

cláiríneach klɑː’rʹiːnʹəx

cláirseach klɑːrʃəx

clais klɑʃ

claon-fhód kleːnoːd

clár puiblí klɑːr pobʹi’lʹiː

clárach klɑːrəx

clár-adharcach klɑː’rəirkəx

clasaím klɑ’siːmʹ

cleathinisí klʹahinʹiʃiː

cleatrach klʹatərəx

cléthíneach klʹeː’hiːnʹəx

clethóg klʹe’hoːg

cléurcas klʹeːrkəs

cliabhlach klʹiəvələx

cliath klʹiəh

cliathánach kliː’hɑːnəx

cliotaráil klʹitə’rɑːlʹ

clipim klʹipʹimʹ

clisiam klʹi’ʃiəm

cliub klʹub

cliubaire klʹubirʹi

cliubram hob, cliubaram hob, cliubar hob klʹubərəm hob

cliútach klʹuːtəx

cliútaráil, cliútarálta klʹuːtərɑːlʹ, klʹuːtərɑːlhə

cloch klox

cloch-mhóin klox’voːnʹ

clódóir (clódaer) kloːdoːrʹ

clog klog

clóic kloːkʹ

cloichreán klohi’rʹɑːn

cluain kluənʹ

cluasaíocht kluə’siːxt

cluiche klihi

cluíochán kliː’xɑːn

cluipíd kli’pʹiːdʹ

clúmh kluːv

clúthairt, clúmhthairt kluːhirtʹ

clutharacán kluhərəkɑːn

clutharaím kluhə’riːmʹ

cluthireacht kluhirʹəxt

cnag knɑg

cnag-bherithe knɑg-vʹerʹihi

cnáid knɑːdʹ

cnáideán knɑː’dʹɑːn

cnáidiúil knɑː’dʹuːlʹ

cnáireac knɑːrʹək

cnaist, cnaistirní knɑʃtʹ, knɑʃtʹir’nʹiː

cnaiste knɑʃtʹi

cnáthairt, cnámhthairt knɑːhirtʹ

cnáthartach, cnámhthartach knɑːhərtəx

cnáthartaí, cnámhthartaí knɑːhərtiː

cnáthartáil, cnámhthartáil knɑːhərtɑːlʹ

cnaoiteóir kniːtʹoːrʹ

cnapach knə’pɑx

cnapaíol knɑ’piːl

cnapán knə’pɑːn

cnap-shúilí knɑ’puːlʹiː

cneamhaireacht knʹaurʹəxt

cnéreacht kʹi’nʹeːrʹəxt

cníopaire knʹiːpirʹi

cnó knoː

cnoc knuk, knok

cnuba knubə

cnuimh knivʹ

cobhltach koulhəx

cocaireacht kokirʹəxt

cóch, ceóch kʹoːx, koːx

cogansach kogənsəx

cogar kogər

cognaim, cognaím kogənimʹ, kogə’niːmʹ

cóid-i-bhfaid koːdʹ i vɑdʹ

coidhín kəinʹ

coillim, coill kolʹimʹ, kəilʹ

cóip koːpʹ

cóir koːrʹ

cóir máireach koːrʹ mɑːrʹəx

coirce korkʹi

coirim korʹimʹ

coirtheacht korʹhəxt

cos: cois, cuis (im chuis) kos, koʃ, kuʃ

coiseann koʃən

coisgim koʃgʹimʹ

coisinne koʃiŋʹi

coiteann kotʹən

coitianta ko’tʹiəntə

col kol

colan kolən

colán kə’lɑːn

colapa koləpə

colapach koləpəx

collamán, luch chollamáin lux xolə’mɑːnʹ

colla-phoc koləfok

collóid kə’loːdʹ

colmóir kolə’moːrʹ

comandracht kə’maundrəxt

comhairce koːrkʹi

comh-fhaid ‘koː’ɑdʹ

comhairle koːrlʹi

comhairleach koːrlʹəx

comhar koːr

comhartha, comharthaí, comharthaí sóird koːrhə, koːr’hiː, koːr’hiː soːrdʹ

comharthaím koːr’hiːmʹ

comh-chliamhain koːx’lʹiənʹ

comh-fhada ‘koː’ɑdə

comh-ghearra ‘koː’jarə

comhraicí koːrikʹiː

comh-sholas ‘koː’holəs

comh-throm koːrhəm

cumrádaíocht kumə’rɑːdiːxt

conach kə’nɑx

cónaím koː’niːmʹ

cónggaraíocht koːŋgəriːxt

conntráth koun’trɑːh

cor kor

córaid koːridʹ

corchán korə’xɑːn

corp korp

corrabhuais korə’vuəʃ

corra-ghlic korijlʹikʹ

corraiceach (curraiceach, cruiceach) korikʹəx

corrán krɑːn

corra-thónach korə’hoːnəx

corriasg ko’riəsk

córú koː’ruː, koː’rʹuː

cosaidí kosidʹiː

cosaint kosintʹ

cosamars kosəmərz

cosgairt kosgirtʹ

cosmhalacht kosvələxt, ko’suːləxt

cosnaím kos’niːmʹ

cosnaíoch kosniːx

cosráil, cosrálta kosə’rɑ’lʹ, kosə’rɑːlhə

cóthalán koːhəlɑːn

cothrom korhəm

cothromúil korhə’muːlʹ

crabhaitéul krau’tʹeːl

crabhaitélín krau’tʹeːlʹiːnʹ

cráic krɑːkʹ

cáiceachán krɑːkʹəxɑːn

cráin mhíolach krɑːnʹ vʹiːləx

crampán kraum’pɑːn

crampánach kraum’pɑːnəx

cranndacht kraundəxt

cranndúir kraun’duːrʹ

crannóg krə’noːg

craobh, craoibhe, craobh kreːv, kriːvʹi, kreːx

craobh aonaig kreːv eːnigʹ

craobh-abhar kreː’vaur

craoibhín kriː’vʹiːnʹ

craos kreːs

crapaithacht krɑpihəxt

crathín krɑ’hiːnʹ

crausta, crústa kraustə, kruːstə

cré krʹeː

creabhar caoch krʹaur keːx

creachail krʹaxilʹ

creachán krʹə’xɑːn

creag krʹag

creagach krʹə’gɑx

credim: chred, credithe xrʹedʹ, kredʹihi (typo?)

créúil krʹeː’uːlʹ

crib (cruib) kribʹ

críl (cruíl) kriːlʹ

críonán krʹiː’nɑːn

cromán krə’mɑːn

cruaig kruəgʹ

cú kuː

cuach, cuaiche kuəx, kuəhi

cúig kuːgʹ

cuinnle kiːnlʹi

cuir, cuirfead kirʹ, kirʹhəd

cúl kuːl

cuma kumə

cumha kuː

cúng kuːŋg

degh-mheasta dʹəivʹastə

deoch dʹox

Dhia jiə

dlí dlʹiː

domhan doun

donn doun

dubh duv

duibh-re diː’rʹeː, dəi’rʹeː

each, an t-each ɑx, inʹ tʹax

eaglais, an eaglais ən ɑgəliʃ

easgar, ag easgar əg ɑskər

eochair, an eochair oxirʹ, inʹ oxirʹ

eólas, an t-eólas oːləs, ən toːləs

érí əi’rʹiː

fágtí fɑːg-tʹiː

fáil fɑːlʹ

fairseag fɑrʃəg

faoir fiːrʹ

fás fɑːs

fear fʹar

feárr fʹaːr

fíántas fʹiantəs

file fʹilʹi

fiunn fʹuːn

fómhar foːr

formhór forə’voːr

fós foːs

frathacha frə’hɑxə, frɑhəxə

fuil filʹ

gaghar gəir

gaol geːl

garbh gɑrəv

garraí gɑ’riː

ger gʹerʹ

ghlas ɣlɑs

ghrem jrʹəimʹ

ghuí ɣiː

gibileaits gʹibʹi’lʹatʃ

gníomh gnʹiːv

gobha gou

hata hɑtə

iasg iəsk

im iːmʹ

inse iːnʃi

iumarca, an iumarca inʹ umərkə, ən umərkə

iumlasg umələsk

iumpar, ag iumpar əg uːmpər

iúnadh, an iúnadh inʹ uːnə

jicéud dʒi’kʹeːd

lá lɑː

lag lɑg

lámh, lámha lɑːv, lɑː

luaith luəh

lúithr luːhrʹ

maga mɑgə

maol meːl

meán mʹaːn

mian mʹian

milis mʹilʹiʃ

min mʹinʹ

mín mʹiːnʹ

mion mʹun, mʹin

molt mohl

muill miːlʹ

nád nɑːd

naofa neːfə

nea-dhíobhálach ‘nʹajiː’vɑː’ləx

neamh-áiseach nʹa’vɑːʃəx

neamhnár nʹau’nɑːr

ngort ŋort

nóitíos ‘noːtʹiːs

oibriú, ag oibriú igʹ ebʹi’rʹuː, əg obʹi’rʹuː

orchóid orə’xoːdʹ

peata, pheata pʹatə, fʹatə

póg poːg

poll poul

post post

preab prʹab

puinn piːŋʹ

riail riəlʹ

rith rih

rogha rou

roinn rəiŋʹ

sásta sɑːstə

sgian ʃgʹiən

sheasaimh hɑsivʹ

shláinte hlɑːntʹi

shnámh hnɑːv

shnáthad hnɑːhəd

shníomh hnʹiːv

sine ʃinʹi

síol ʃiːl

siúl ʃuːl

sleamhain ʃlʹaunʹ

smior smʹir

sneachta ʃnʹaxtə

soibhir sevʹirʹ

solas soləs

spér spʹeːrʹ

sprúinn spruːŋʹ

srian sriən

talamh tɑləv

te tʹeh

thráth hrɑːh

thrég hrʹeːgʹ

timpall tʹiːmʹpəl

tinte tʹiːntʹi

tiubh tʹuv

tomhas toːs

tríáil trʹialʹ

trian, thrian trʹiən, hrʹiən

uan uən

Gníomhartha na nAspal, caib. 1

Caibideal 1.

Deasgabháil Chríost. Maitias dá thoghadh in inead Iúdáis.

Do dheineas an chéad chainnt, a Theophiluis, ar na nithibh go léir a thosnaigh Íosa ar dhéanamh agus ar theagasc, Go dtí an lá nar deasgabháladh é tar éis a aitheanta thabhairt do sna hAspalaibh a thoibh sé, tríd an Sprid Naomh.

Agus tar éis é féin a thaispeáint beó dhóibh i ndiaidh a pháise, le mórán dearbhaithe, i gcaitheamh daichead lá, dhá thabhairt féin le feiscint dóibh agus ag labhairt leó ar ríocht Dé.

Agus d’ith sé bias na dteannta agus d’órdaigh sé dhóibh gan imeacht a’ Ierúsalem ach fanúint le geallúint an Athar, an gheallúint, (ar seisean) a chloiseabhair óm béalsa: Gur dhein Eóin baiste le huisce ach go ndéanfar sibhse do bhaisteadh leis an Sprid Naomh laistigh de bheagán laethanta. Agus an méid a bhí i bhfochair a chéile dhíobh do chuireadar ceist chuige agus dúradar: A Thiarna, an san aimsir seo a thabharfair an ríocht thar n-ais d’Israél? Ach duairt sé leó: Ní hagaibhse atá fios d’fháil ar na haimsiribh ná ar an tráthannaibh a chimeád an tAthair féna chómhacht féin. Ach glacfaidh sibh neart an Sprid Naoimh ag túirleacan ionaibh, agus beidh sibh in úr lucht fiadhnaise dhómhsa in Ierúsalem agus in Iudéa go léir agus i Samaría, agus go himeall an domhain ar fad.

Agus nuair a bhí an chainnt sin ráite aige go tógadh suad é os cómhair a súl agus do ghlac scamall as a radharc é. Agus an fhaid a bhíodar ag féachaint air agus é ag imeacht suas ar neamh, féach, bhí beirt fhear na seasamh na n-aice agus éadach geal orthu, Agus dúradar: A fheara Ghaililiacha, cad ab áil libh in úr seasamh ag féachaint suas chun neimhe? Íosa so atá tógtha suas ar neamh uaibh, tiocfaidh sé ar an gcuma gcéanna, fé mar a chonacabhair ag dul suas ar neamh é.

Ansan do thánadar thar n-ais go Ierúsalem ón gcnuc ar a dtugtar Olibhet, cnuc atá i ngiorracht siúl lae sabóide do Ierúsalem. Agus nuair a thánadar isteach chuadar suas go dtí an seómra uachtarach mar a raibh Peadar agus Eóin ag fanúint, agus Séamas agus Aindrias, Pilib agus Tomá, Bartolomaeus agus Maitiú, Séamas Alphéis agus Símón Sélotés agus Iúdás mac Shéamais. Bhíodar san go léir ag leanúint do thoil a chéile in úrnaithe mar aon leis na mnáibh agus le Muire Máthair Íosa agus lena bhráithribh.

In sna laethibh sin d’éirigh Peadar i measc na mbráithre agus duairt sé (agus bhí tímpall le céad agus fiche duine cruinnithe ann): A fheara, a bhráithre, ní foláir cómhlíonadh an Scriptiúra do thargair an Sprid Naomh trí bhéal Dáibhid i dtaobh Iúdáis, an fear a threóraigh an mhuíntir a ghoibh Íosa, an fear a háiríodh orainne agus do raibh páirt aige sa tseirbhís seo. Do fuair an fear san talamh le tuarastal a dhrochgnímh, agus do crochadh é agus do scoilt air na lár agus do thig na hinní go léir amach as. Agus tháinig fios an ní sin dá bhfuil de dhaoine in Ierúsalem, i dtreó gur tugadh ar an bpáirc sin, na dteangain sin, “Haceldama”, sé sin; páirc na fola. Agus tá scríofa i leabhar na Salm: “Deintear fásach dá n-áit cónaithe, agus ná bíodh duine a dhéanfaidh cónaithe ann”, agus, “Tugtar a chathaoir easpaig do dhuine eile”. Ní foláir dá bhrí sin, as na fearaibh seo atá i gcómhluadar linne i gcaitheamh na haimsire go léir na raibh an Tiarna Íosa isteach agus amach nár measc. Ag tosnú ón mbaiste a dhein Eóin go dtí an lá do tógadh suas uainn é, duine acu san do bheith in’ fhínné ar a aiséirí in éineacht linne.

Ansan do shocraíodar ar bheirt, ar Ióseph ar a dtugtí Barsabas agus go mba shloinne dho Iústus, agus ar Mhaitias. Agus dheineadar úrnaithe agus dúradar: Deinse, a Thiarna, ós agat atá fios croí gach duine, a thaispeáint ceoca den bheirt seo is rogha leat, Chun go nglacfadh sé an t-inead seirbhíse agus aspalachta so do chaill Iúdás, ionas go raghadh sé in’ áit féin. Ansan do chuireadar ar chrannaibh dóibh é, agus do thit an crann ar Mhaitias agus do háiríodh é i dteannta an éinne-déag Aspal.

The preface to part 2 of Séadna

The early chapters of Séadna first appeared in Irisleabhar na Gaedhilge. Fr. Shán Ó Cuív’s very useful bibliography of Canon Ua Laoghaire’s works shows that the first publication of a larger block of Séadna was the publication of part 2 of the work, with a translation, in 1898, and what I transcribe below is the preface to that, as PUL gives some useful comments on his approach to the language and its spelling. So part 1 of Séadna was published in journal articles, part 2 as a book, and then part 3 as journal articles once again, and this was the situation until the English noblewoman, Norma Borthwick, edited the whole as a book published in 1904. Corrections were made in a second edition of teh whole book published in 1910. Parts 1, 2 and 3 were also published as separate volumes around 1909. The Foclóir do Shéadna compiled by Norma Borthwick was published in 1908.

Séadna: An Dara Cuid, with translation.

An tAthair Peadar Ua Laoghaire do shaothraigh

Dublin: Bernard Doyle, Gaelic Printer, 1898.

The First Part of SÉADNA appeared in the Gaelic Journal, Nos. 56 to 84. The vocabulary which was to have accompanied this Second Part is being embodied in the Dictionary now being compiled by the Irish Texts Society.

PREFACE.

In the following pages the story of Séadna is continued from the point at which it ceased to appear in the “Gaelic Journal.”

Throughout the entire story there is not a single word, nor a single turn of expression, which has not been got directly from the mouths of living people who knew no English. There has been no word-building. Not a single phrase has been either invented or introduced from any outside source. The reader can rest assured that while reading the story he is reading the actual speech of living Irish people who knew no English.

In the spelling the use of double letters is avoided as much as possible. It is, of course, impossible to avoid it when the double letter is heard and makes a difference in the sense. For example—an=“the”, ann=“there”, gan=“without”, gann=“scarce”. In the spoken language this difference is distinctly expressed by the pronunciation. The double letter should not be written except when it is heard.

“What about the authority of the past?” someone will ask.

Those double letters were written in the past because they were heard then. This is proved by the fact that nn and nd were written one for the other, and that rr and rth were written one for the other.

The word atá means “who is”, or “which is”. It never means “is” simply. What it may have meant 300 years ago has nothing to do with the present time. To write atá an lá breá now, as Irish for “the day is fine”, is utterly intolerable to me.

What has been called the “Rule” caol le caol is not a rule. It is a phonetic fact or truth. It arises from the nature of Irish speech. In English speech the consonants are the bones. The vowels are mere filling in. Sometimes the vowels are mere intervals between the consonants. In Irish speech the vowel is the principal element. It is in it all the force is. The consonant is constantly made to yield to it. The consonant has to become slender or broad according to the effect on it of the vowel which comes into contact with it. That is not a rule. It is a truth which belongs to the nature of Irish speech. It is a natural characteristic of the spoken language. It is not a matter for the eye primarily, but for the ear. The only reason why it is written is because it is heard. Hence it has nothing to do with orthography properly so called. The word slat and -ín are the orthographical component parts of the word slaitín. The i which has been introduced before the t has nothing to do with the orthography. The t of slat is a broad letter. The t of slaitín is a slender letter. In order to sound it slender the voice has to introduce a slight i sound between it and the a, in order to fit it for the í of -ín. That is in order to make it caol le caol. The word cuid has the d naturally slender. Hence the slight i sound is already between it and the u. In the plural of it we have coda. That is the voice has to drop the slight i sound in order that the d should be sounded broad to fit it for the broad vowel a which follows it. That is, leathan le leathan.

If the Irish Language were the sole speech of the people, these phonetic changes need never be written on the paper at all. Every reader would read the language as he spoke it. He could not dream of reading it otherwise. No person dreams now of marking on the page, for English readers, the phonetic differences between such words as “rough”, “cough”, “plough”, &c. Apart from peculiar instances of that sort, it is a general truth that the powers of the same letters are entirely different in different languages. The changes in Irish consonants from broad to slender and from slender to broad are, to the foreign ear, unknown changes made in unknown elements. Who knows now what Roman articulate sounds were like? Who has any conception of the modifications which they suffered in Roman speech? It has been a most fortunate thing for us and for our language that our ancestors, when they saw the encroachments of a foreign tongue, took the precaution of putting those phonetic effects down upon the page for us. It is a most beautiful system; but it is a purely phonetic system. It should be used as such, and as such alone. For example: I have never heard buailfear, nor bainfear, nor chífear. I have always heard buailfar, bainfar, and chífar. Why should I write into the word a phonetic effect which I have never heard? “Oh, but”, someone will say, “I can perceive no phonetic difference between your buailfear and your buailfar”. You cannot! Well, I can. And the difference is so glaring, that the utmost rapidity of utterance cannot hide it from me. The sooner you turn your attention to recognising, by the naked ear, the difference between a broad Irish consonant and a slender one, the better. Then you will find this much-abused, and still more misunderstood, caol le caol—one of the most exquisite guides to pronunciation that human beings have ever adopted.

Of course in order that the guide should be useful it must be consistent. It will not do to show you a consonant written as if it was slender and pronounced broad into your ear.

In the following pages you are to pronounce slender every consonant which you find in contact at all with i, or placed before e. You are to pronounce all other consonants broad. There is one solitary exception—the s of is is broad.

By far the most important matter for consideration in connection with the revival of our language is the SYNTAX. If the syntax be good, we have good Irish, even if half the words were foreign. If the syntax be bad, the language is not Irish at all, even though each separate word may be the purest Irish. The most beautiful as well as the most subtle element of Irish syntax is that which has its existence around those little words which express relation. They are called by the general name of prepositions—a which which has no particular meaning.

Our grammarians seem to know very little about those small words—at least they give very little information concerning them. Even our “classic” prose writers appear to have contented themselves with mastering a few of the relations expressed by those small words, and throughout whole volumes they hold on to those few with unvarying tenacity. Keating almost always says the same thing in the same way.

Our lyric poets understood well the syntax of the small words, and they used it with great dexterity and effect. But poetical usages are too subtle for students whose childhood was not steeped in Irish.

In the spoken language of the people it is that this element of Irish syntax gets full scope. There, it is off the stilts of the prose writers and free from the fetters of poetry, and the people revel in its subtlety, variety and beauty. These characteristics of it, together with its long, continued use, give to the spoken Irish an exactness, a vigour, a combined strength and litheness unknown in English speech.

The language of the story of Séadna has been framed specially for the purpose of giving learners an opportunity and a means of becoming acquainted with this particular element of Irish syntax. That is why this story consists almost entirely of dialogue.

Peadair Ua Laoghaire.

Séadna chapter 11

Caibideal a hAondéag

Lena línn sin do bhí Micil agus a mháthair ag críochnú an chleamhnais ar a ndícheall. Is beag ná go raibh sé socair acu cé hiad a bheadh ar an gcóisire.

D’airíodar an duine ag teacht chun an tí. Phreabadar ’na suí. Bhíodar ag féachaint an doras amach. Cé ’gheóbhadh thar an ndoras ach Séadna! D’fhéach sé isteach ar an mbeirt. Níor bhog sé a bhéal. Níor dhein sé ach féachaint orthu. Ba dhó’ leat gurb amhlaidh a cheangail an fhéachaint sin den talamh iad. Níor stad sé dá shiúl. Níor dhein sé ach féachaint orthu agus comáint leis.

Níor labhair éinne den bheirt go ceann i bhfad. Fé dheireadh do labhair an mháthair.

“’Sea!” ar sise. “Cad ’deirir anois leat féin?”

“Deirim gur neamhchoitianta an suirí é,” arsa Micil. “Duine réidh chun a phósta, agus é ag dul chun cainnte leis an mnaoi óig, agus é tar éis bheith ag cainnt leis an sagart, gan casóg gan hata air, aprún gréasaí air, céir ar a mhéireannaibh, agus coinneal ’na dhá shúil! Tá an sceál ag dul sa mhuileann orm.” Agus do bhuail sé amach agus suas chun a ghnótha. Agus geallaim dhuit ná raibh an misneach céanna sa chois bhacach ag gabháil suas a bhí inti ag gabháil síos aige.

Bhí Seán Ceatach ’na shuí sa phárlús, ’na thig féin, in aice na finneóige. Bhí Máire ’na suí ar a aghaidh amach. Cé ’chífidís ag teacht chun an dorais ach Séadna. Do phreab Seán amach ’na choinnibh.

“Airiú, míle fáilte rómhat, a Shéadna!” ar seisean.

“Go mairir slán, a Sheáin!” arsa Séadna. “D’oirfeadh dhom focal nú dó do labhairt le Máire, más é do thoil é.”

“Sin í ansan istigh agat í. Tá súil agam gur feárr an chainnt atá agat le rá léi ná a bhí agat le rá liomsa ar maidin.”

D’imigh seisean isteach.

“Ó, míle fáilte rómhat, a Shéadna!” arsa Máire Ghearra.

“A leithéid seo, a Mháire,” ar seisean. “Tá rún agam le tabhairt duit. Níor cheapas go mbeadh orm é ’thabhairt d’éinne choíche. Ach ceapaim anois ná fuil an ceart déanta agam agus gan teacht níos túisce agus é ’thabhairt duitse. Tá sé ceangailte orm i láthair Dé gan pósadh.”

Do stad sé. Níor labhair sise go ceann tamaill.

“Is ceangal uasal é,” ar sise ar ball. “Is ceangal uasal é,” ar sise, “agus is ceangal naofa é. Más ceangal uasal duitse é,” ar sise, “ba chóir gur cheangal uasal dómhsa é. Ná bíodh ceist ort,” ar sise. “Cimeádfadsa do rún. Tá oiread eile de chroí agam agus do bhí le tamall. Is mór an tabharthas a thug Dia dhuit nuair a sprioc sé t’aigne chun ceangail den tsórd san a ghlacadh ort.”

“Tá an gnó a thug me déanta agam. Beannacht Dé leat, a Mháire!” ar seisean. Agus d’imigh sé gan labhairt le fear an tí.

Nuair do chuaigh sé amach fén spéir, do cheap sé gur luigh scamall anuas ar mhullach a chínn. Do dhoirchigh an spéir agus do dhoirchigh an talamh. Tháinig barróg ar a chliabh. Shamhlaigh sé go raibh a chroí imithe as a chliabh amach, agus gurbh é rud a bhí in inead a chroí aige ná mar ’bheadh cloch mhór throm. D’fhéach sé soir fá dhéin a thí féin, agus má fhéach, tháinig gráin mhíllteach aige ar an dtigh agus ar an áit, ar an gcrann agus ar an gcathaoir agus ar an mealbhóig, ar an obair, ar a raibh os cionn talaimh ann, istigh agus amu’. In inead aghaidh a thabhairt ar an mbaile, thug sé aghaidh ar an gcnuc. Ag gabháil thar tigh cómharsan do bhí beirt leanbh ag spórt sa chlós, agus chómh luath agus ’chonacadar é do ritheadar isteach ag screadaigh.

“Ó a mham!” arsa duine acu. “Tá duine buile amu’ sa chlós agus d’ fhéach sé orm!”

Chuir Séadna an cnuc amach de. Nuair a shrois sé an fiaradh bhí iúnadh air a luíghead tuirse a bhí air agus an cnuc chómh dian. Bhí radharc álainn ón mullach. Do chonaic sé an tsráid, agus páirc an aonaigh, agus tigh Dhiarmuda Léith, agus tigh na bainntrí. Do chonaic sé a thigh féin agus tigh Sheáin Cheataigh. Dá mbeadh an radharc seacht n-uaire níos aoibhne, ní bhainfeadh sé an chloch as a chliabh ná ní thógfadh sé an scamall dá cheann. Bhí plásóg bhreá mhór leathan chúnlaigh ar bhárr an chnuic, chomh tirim le leabaidh chlúimh éan, agus chómh bog san go raghadh duine go glúinibh inti. Do chaith sé é féin sa phlásóig sin ar a bhéal agus ar a aghaidh, agus ní dócha go raibh ar thalamh tirim na hÉireann an lá san fear eile chomh brúite chómh bascaithe aigne leis.

Fé cheann tamaill do thóg sé a cheann agus d’fhéach sé siar fan chliatháin an tsléibhe. Chonaic sé an bhean ag gabháil aniar. Cheap sé ar dtúis gur bhean éigin de sna cómharsanaibh í, a bhí ag gabháil cóngar an chnuic. Ba gheárr gur thug sé fé ndeara go raibh sí ag déanamh ceann ar aghaidh ar an áit ’na raibh sé féin. Phreab sé ’na shuí. Ba gheárr gur aithin sé í. An bhean chosnochtaithe is í a bhí ann!

“Síocháin Dé ort, a Shéadna!” ar sise.

“D’oirfeadh san dom,” ar seisean, “má oir sé d’éinne riamh.”

“Féach!” ar sise, ag oscailt láimhe léi. “Sin í an scilling úd a thugais dom ar son an tSlánaitheóra.”

“Is cuímhin liom é,” ar seisean. “Is mó scilling a ghoibh tríom láimh ó shin, agus is suarach an sólás dom inniu iad. Ba shuaimhneasaí ’bheadh an saol agam dá mba ná feicfinn riamh iad.”

“Is mó maith atá déanta agat leó ná beadh déanta agat dá mba ná feicfá riamh iad,” ar sise.

“B’fhéidir go bhfuil roinnt díobhála déanta ná beadh déanta dá mba ná feicfinn riamh iad,” ar seisean.

“Is treise ar an maith ná ar an ndíobháil,” ar sise.

“Is treise ar dhíobháil an lae inniu,” ar seisean, “ná ar an maith go léir.”

“Conas é sin?” ar sise.

“Dá ndeininnse mo ghnó an lá úd leis an scilling sin agus leis an dá cheann eile a bhí agam ’na theannta,” ar seisean, “ní chuímhneóinn riamh ar Mháire Ghearra, ná í orm. Ní chuirfinn aithne ar bhuairt an lae inniu. Ní bheadh mo chroí ’na chloich agus mo cheann ’na cheó agus m’aigne ’na tulach cheártan mar atá. Ní bheadh mo shaol geárrtha amach ar thrí blianaibh déag, agus a leath san féin imithe anois.”

“Féach, a Shéadna,” ar sise, agus d’oscail sí an lámh eile léi, agus do thaispeáin sí dho, ar chroí a deárnan, liathróidín gloine. Agus is amhlaidh a bhí an liathróidín sin agus í chómh solasmhar agus ná féadfá féachaint díreach uirthi nú do dhallfadh sí thu. Agus do bhí cáithníní solais ag imeacht aisti mórthímpall, mar ’bheadh as an ngréin. Bhí crios beag óir uirthi, agus slabhra óir as an gcrios.

“Cad é an rud é sin?” arsa Séadna, agus é a d’iarraidh féachaint ar an liathróid, agus neart an tsolais ag baint na súl as.

“Is leatsa é,” ar sise.

“Cad do bhéarfadh gur liomsa é?” ar seisean.

“Sin é an gníomh a dheinis ar maidin inniu,” ar sise, “an gníomh is uaisle dár deineadh in Éirinn le fada.’

“Cad é an gníomh uasal so a dheineas-sa ar maidin inniu, airiú?” ar seisean.

“Do dheinis,” ar sise, “an bhean is feárr in Éirinn do chur ód chroí ar son an tSlánaitheóra.”

“Cad é mo leigheas air?” ar seisean. “Conas ’dh’fhéadfainn a leithéid d’éagóir a dhéanamh ar a leithéid de mhnaoi?”

“Do scarais lena leithéid de mhnaoi níos túisce ná ’dhéanfá a leithéid d’éagóir,” ar sise.

Lena línn sin do dhein sí air suas agus do chuir sí an slabhra ar a mhuineál. agus do chuir sí an tseóid isteach ’na bhrollach, ar aghaidh a chroí.

“Cimeád ansan é,” ar sise, “agus an cás is crua a bhéarfaidh choíche ort, agus an greim is géire a thiocfaidh ort, ní chaillfidh ar do mhisneach.”

Ní túisce a chuir sí a lámh isteach ’na bhrollach ná ’mhothaigh sé mar ’phléascfadh rud éigin ’na dhá chluais. D’imigh an ceó. Do gheal an spéir agus an talamh. D’imigh an bhuile bhuartha as a aigne, agus bhí a chroí féin arís aige.

Ní túisce ’bhí an focal deirineach ráite aicise ná ’tháinig ceó éigin bán ’na tímpall a chlúdaigh óna radharc í, agus ansan do leath an ceó amach agus ní raibh sí ann.

D’fhéach sé ’na thímpall ar an spéir agus ar an dtalamh. Bhí a aigne chómh suaimhneasach agus ’bhí sí riamh i gcaitheamh a shaeil aige. D’fhéach sé anonn ar an sráid, anonn ar thigh Dhiarmuda Léith, soir ar thigh na bainntrí, anonn ar a thigh féin, síos ar thigh Sheáin Cheataigh. Chuir sé smut de gháire as agus thug sé aghaidh ar an mbaile.

Gobnait. Ní fheadar cad ’duairt Micil nuair a chonaic sé ag teacht é.

Peig. Níor labhair duine acu focal nuair a chonacadar ag teacht é. Dá ghiorracht an aimsir ó tháinig Seán Ceatach ar maidin, bhí an scéal, um an dtaca san, leata ar fuid na dútha go raibh Séadna ar éadromacht. Go raibh an cleamhnas nách mór déanta, gur dhiúltaigh Máire Ghearra don phósadh, agus gur imigh Séadna as a mheabhair. Go bhfeacthas é i gcaitheamh an lae ag gluaiseacht tríd an ndúthaigh ’na bhríste agus ’na léine. Gur mhairbh sé leanbh thuas i mbarr an bhaile. Ansan gur chuir sé an cnuc amach de mar ’chuirfeadh fia buí ón Mangartain. Go raibh sé imithe go Gleann na nGealt, agus gur dhócha nárbh fhios cathain a chasfadh sé. Go raibh gasra ar gach baile de sna seacht mbailtibh mórthímpall ag briseadh adhmaid agus ag déanamh geaitirí ag ollmhú soíllse i gcómhair na hoíche chun dul ar a lorg, agus gan amhras go bhfaighfí sáite ar mhullach a chínn i bpoll éigin é báite, nú i bpluais charraige, leata le fuacht agus le hocras.

Cáit. Nár chúitíthear a saothar leó! B’fhéidir, dá mbeadh fuacht agus ocras air, gur bheag ag cuid acu gan puínn suime ’chur ann.

Peig. Is fíor dhuitse sin, a Cháit. Ach más ea, ní raibh puínn sa mbreis acu ar Shéadna féin sa méid sin. B’in é an buachaill ná cuirfeadh puínn suime ’na gcuid saothair ná ’na gcuid ollmhúcháin, dá mbeadh ’ fhios aige é ’bheith ar siúl, rud ná raibh ’fhios aige.

Gobnait. Ba mhór an spórt iad ag imeacht san oíche trí phortachaibh agus trí chnucaibh dhá chuardach, agus é go seascair sa bhaile ag déanamh a chuid bróg, agus an “Chailleach Ruainneach” mar chrónán aige.

Peig. Fágaim le huacht, a Ghobnait, gur as mo bhéal a bhainis é.

Ní túisce ’tháinig Séadna isteach ná do luigh sé ar obair, agus ní raibh an tríú greim curtha aige go raibh an “Chailleach Ruainneach” ar siúl chómh haibidh agus ’bhí sí riamh, i dtreó gur fhéachadar na fir ar a chéile, agus gur sháigh Micil an meanaith go daingean isteach i súil a órdóige.

Síle. Cad ba ghá dho é sin a dhéanamh, a Pheig?

Peig. Ní fheadar ’en tsaol, a Shíle, murab amhlaidh a bhí sé ag cuímhneamh ar rud éigin eile an fhaid a bhí an meanaith aige dá thiomáint.

Síle. Tá ’fhios agamsa cad air go raibh sé ag cuímhneamh.

Peig. Cad air, a Shile?

Síle. Bhí sé dhá chuímhneamh gur mhaith leis ’fhios a bheith aige cad ’duairt Máire Ghearra nuair a chonaic sí an chéir ar mhéireannaibh Shéadna, agus an aprún air, agus ceann-lomrachta, nú ar briseadh an cleamhnas mar gheall ar an méid sin.

Peig. Agus dar ndó’, a Shíle, má bhí an oiread san ar a aigne, ní hiúnadh é ag cur an mheanaithe trín’ órdóig.

Síle. Duairt a mháthair go raibh sé go maith chun cleamhnais a dhéanamh, agus is dó’ liomsa ná raibh aon mhaith ann.

Peig. Cad ’na thaobh go ndéarfá ná raibh aon mhaith ann, a Shíle?

Síle. ’ Dhe greadadh chuige, an tuathalán! B’fheárr go mór an díol air cleamhnas a thabhairt do le briseadh ná cleamhnas a thabhairt do le déanamh.

Gobnait. Fan go fóill, a Shíle, a chuid. Dar ndó’ ní fhéadfadh éinne beó an cleamhnas úd a dhéanamh. Ní fhéadfadh Diarmán féin é ’dhéanamh. Ná raibh aigne Shéadna socair ’na choinnibh ó thosach? Ná duairt sé gur shaoire dhi í ’loscadh ’na beathaidh ná é dhá pósadh?

Síle. Ní fheadar, a Pheig, cad é an chúis go nduairt sé an focal san.

Peig. Cad is dó’ leat féin, a Shíle?

Síle. Cheapas gurb amhlaidh nár mhaith leis í ’fhágáil ’na dhiaidh ’na bainntrigh nuair a bheadh na trí bliana déag istigh. Ach dar ndó’ ní hionann sin agus í ’loscadh ’na beathaidh.

Peig. Ceapaimse go raibh níos mó ná san ann, a Shíle. Níorbh fholáir scéal an Fhir Dhuibh d’ínsint di ó thúis go deireadh, nú é ’cheilt uirthi ó thúis go deireadh. Dá neósfí dhi é, agus ansan go bpósfadh sí Séadna, rud a dhéanfadh sí, do bhrisfeadh a mhachnamh a sláinte. Bheadh sí dá snoí ag galar dóch, agus ba gheárr a mhairfeadh sí. Dá mba ná neósfí dhi é, do bheadh an feall déanta ag Séadna ba mheasa dár deineadh riamh. Ní fhéadfadh sé an feall san a dhéanamh, agus bhí a rian air do theip orthu go léir an cleamhnas a dhéanamh.

Gobnait. D’airíos-sa go raibh aon chleamhnas amháin agus gur theip ar Dhiarmán é ’dhéanamh.

Síle. Cad é an cleamhnas é, a Ghobnait?

Gobnait. Cleamhnas an Chaoiltigh.

Cáit. Ó, imbriathar ’s ambasa, a Ghobnait, gur airíos é ’bheith ar siúl. Ach más ea, níor airíos é ’bheith briste. Cad a bhris é, airiú? Bhí iúnadh ar gach éinne a rá go bpósfadh sé Siún.

Gobnait. Is amhlaidh a bhí scata áilteóirí cruinnithe thoir ag ceártain Mhicil Gabha, agus bhí Diarmán ann. Bhíodar dhá rá go raibh feircín óir fé cheann na leapan ag an gCaoilteach tar éis teacht thar farraige dho. “Níorbh fhearra dhuit rud a dhéanfá, a Dhiarmáin,” arsa duine acu, “ná cleamhnas a dhéanamh do.” – “Cé leis go labharfainn?” arsa Diarmán. – “Le Tadhg Bán,” arsa fear eile. Do liúdar go léir agus do gháireadar. Cheap seisean gur ag moladh an chleamhnais a liúdar. Siúd amach é agus soir go tigh an Chaoiltigh. “A Chaoiltigh,” arsa Diarmán, “tá cleamhnas déanta agam duit.” – “Go bhfágaidh Dia do shláinte agat, a Dhiarmuid!” arsan Caoilteach, “agus gan a fhaid sin de luíochán na bliana ort! Cé hí féin?” – “Go réidh, go réidh, a Chaoiltigh! Is cuma dhuit fós cé hí féin. Ní neósfad duit cé hí féin. Ní thráchtfad ar a hainm leat chun go mbeidh ’fhios agam an bhfuilir ollamh agus ceapaithe ar phósadh.” – “Táim ollamh agus láncheapaithe,” ar seisean. – “Tá go maith,” arsa Diarmán. “Neósfad an méid sin dóibh,” agus d’imigh sé. Siúd siar é go tigh Thaidhg Bháin. Ní raibh istigh roimis ach Siún. “A Shiún,” ar seisean, “tá cleamhnas déanta agam duit.” – “Nár chúitíthear do shaothar leat!” ar sise. – “Cúiteófar,” ar seisean. “Tá feircín óir fé cheann na leapan aige.” – “Tá, agus feircín gaoithe fé chosaibh na leapan agatsa! Cá bhfaigheadh sé é?” – “É ’thabhairt leis tar farraige,” ar seisean. – “Airiú, an é an Caoilteach atá ar siúl agat?” ar sise. – “Is é an fear céanna san díreach atá ar siúl agam,” ar seisean. – “An rabhais ag cainnt leis?” ar sise. – “Anois díreach a thánag uaidh,” ar seisean. “Duairt sé,” ar seisean, “go raibh sé ollamh agus láncheapaithe ar thusa ’phósadh.” – Ní raibh aon lá ar feadh seachtaine ’na dhiaidh san ná gur cheap sí an uile neómat gurbh é an Caoilteach a bhíodh chúithi an doras isteach nuair ’airíodh sí éinne ag teacht. Fé dheireadh do bhris ar an bhfoighne aici. Siúd soir í go tigh an Chaoiltigh.

Peig. Níor chuaigh!

Gobnait. Deirim leat gur chuaigh, agus a ceann in áirde chómh baoth agus ’bhí sé riamh. Bhí iúnadh ar an gCaoilteach cad a thug í. Bhí sé chómh fada as an ndúthaigh, níor aithin sé cérbh í.

“Fy don’t you marry me?” ar sise.

“Fot does I want you for?” ar seisean, “you head of a fool!”

Cáit. Tuigim an scéal go léir anois. Níor ghoibh Diarmán thar an ndoras ó shin acu, agus níor lú air saighdiúir dearg do bhualadh uime ar an mbóthar ná éinne den bheirt, Siún ná a hathair.

Síle. Abair as Gaelainn é, a Ghobnait.

Gobnait. “Cad ’na thaobh ná pósann tú mise?” ar sise. “Cad é an gnó ’bheadh agam díotsa, a phlaosc óinsí?” ar seisean.

Síle. Sin é. Tuigim anois é. Nách gránna an chainnt an Béarla san! Ní fheadar féin ’en tsaol cad é an dúil a bhíonn ag daoinibh ann. Níl acu ach “fot? fot? fot?” mar ’bheadh cearc go mbeadh diuc uirthi.

Names

Diarmán: a rare Irish name, usually anglicised as Diarmaun. Diarmán is a person mentioned in chapter 11, also called Diarmuid, known for his matchmaking.
Micil Gabha: the name of a blacksmith mentioned here. Gabha, “blacksmith”, is pronounced /gou/.
Siún: an Irish female name, derived from Siobhán, associated with Ulster. Siún refers here to the proposed wife of a certain Mr. Ó Caoilte.
Tadhg Bán: the name of someone briefly mentioned here.

Places

Gleann na nGealt: Madman’s Glen, a placename mentioned here. Gealt means “crazy person, lunatic”. Gealt is pronounced /gʹahl/ according to CFBB.
Mangarta (an Mhangarta): the Mangerton, a mountain in Kerry. An Mangartain in the dative. Pronounced /mɑŋgərtə, mɑŋgərtinʹ/.

Foclóirín

aibidh: “ripe, mature”, but also “lively, keen” (as here in reference to the humming of a tune); aibí in the CO. Pronounced /abʹigʹ/.
áilteóir: “practical joker, trickster”, pronounced /’ɑ:lʹho:rʹ/ according to IWM, with unexpected stress on the first syllable.
aondéag: “eleven”, pronounced /e:ŋʹiag/.
aprún: “apron”, or naprún in the CO.
baoth: “vain, silly”.
barróg: “tight grip; impediment”.
cáithnín: “particle”, pronounced /kɑ:nʹ’hi:nʹ/. Cáithníní solais, “particles of light”.
Caoilteach: a person surnamed Ó Caoilte, or Quilty.
ceárta: “forge”, with ceártan in the genitive and ceártain in the dative.
cliabh: “bosom, chest”.
cliathán: “side, flank”, pronounced /klʹi:’hɑ:n/.
cloch: “stone”, with cloich in the dative. Pronounced /klox, klih/.
coinneal: “candle”, pronounced /kiŋʹəl/. Coinneal na dhá shúil, “his eyes ablazing”.
cúnlach: “moss”.
dioc: “pip”, a disease in poultry. Pronounced /dʹuk/.
dóch: “burning”. Galar dóch, “melancholy”.
doirchím, dorchú: “to darken”.
duine: “person”. An duine is often to be translated as “someone”, as in d’airíodar an duine ag teacht chun an tí.
éadromacht: “lightness”, or éadroime in the CO. Ar éadromacht, “out of his senses”.
feircín: “ferkin”.
fiaradh: “the skyline, top of a hill”.
geaitire: “splinter”, referring here to the use of splinters of wood to serve as torches.
istigh: “inside”, but also “complete; up”, of a time period.
leathaim, leathadh: “to spread, widen”, but also “to perish”. Leata le hocras, “famished”.
lomrachta: “bare, stripped, pronounced /lomərəxtə/. Equivalent to lomnacht in the CO. Ceann-lomrachta, “bareheaded”, would be ceann-nochta, ceann-lomnocht, ceann-lomnochta, or a number of other versions in the CO.
luíochán: “lying down, confinement”. Gan a fhaid sin de luíochán na bliana ort!, an expression of gratitude for services rendered, literally expressing the hope that the person’s periods of illness in the current year will be even shorter than the period required for the service rendered.
méid: “amount”. Generally not lenited by sa in PUL’s works: sa méid sin, “that, all that, that much, etc”.
muileann: “mill”. Ag dul sa mhuileann orm, “getting beyond my grasp, baffling me”.
mullach: “summit, ridge”, pronounced /mə’lɑx/. Ar mhullach a chínn, “on his head”.
órdóg: “thumb”. Súil órdóige, “centre of a thumb”, according to FGB. FdS glosses this word as “the point [at] the top of the thumb where the nerves meet”.
párlús: “parlour”.
plaosc: “skull”, or blaosc in the CO.
plásóg: “plot, level plot”.
pléascaim, pléascadh: “to burst, explode”.
pluais: “cave”.
portach: “bog”, i.e., the springy turf. The dative plural found here is portachaibh, implying a nominative plural portacha, where portaigh stands in the CO. Note, however, that the plural portaithe was found in PUL’s autobiography, Mo Sgéal Féin. Pronounced /pər’tɑx, pər’tɑxə, portihi/.
rian: “sign”. Bhí a rian air, “it was obvious, it looked very much like (something had happened)”.
saighdiúir dearg: “redcoat”, i.e., an English soldier. Pronounced /səi’dʹuːrʹ dʹarəg/.
scata: “crowd, group”.
seascair: “cosy, snug”.
slabhra: “chain”, pronounced /slaurə/.
spriocaim, spriocadh: the verb spriocaim exists in the CO only in the meaning “fix, arrange”, but PUL uses this verb to mean “inspire”, a meaning that is covered by spreagaim in the CO. PUL also uses spreagaim in this meaning too, so the relationship between these forms is complex.
sráid: “street”, but also “town”.
suirí: “act of wooing or courting”.
tabharthas: “gift”, or tabhartas in the CO, pronounced /tourhəs/.
tuathalán: “blunderer”, pronounced /tuəhəlɑ:n/.
tulach: “blacksmith’s hearth/forge”, or teallach in the CO. Pronounced /tə’lɑx/.
tús: “beginning”. The dative is túis here (ó thúis go deireadh), possibly implying this word is feminine in the dative. Munster Irish seems to prefer tosach to tús in most circumstances.

Lughaidh Mac Con chapter 2

Caibideal a Dó.

An Dos Iúir.

Bhí Art mac Cuínn in’ Árdrí ar Éirinn. Chuaigh sé siar go Cúige Connacht ar chuaird. Bhíodh sé ag bronnadh séad nuair a bhíodh sé ar a chuardaibh mar sin. Eachra agus srianta ab ea cuid de sna séadaibh a bhronnadh sé. Bhí sé dhá mbronnadh san i gConnachtaibh an uair sin.

“Tá sé chómh maith agam dul ó thuaidh go dtí pé áit ’na bhfuil an tÁrdrí i gConnachtaibh,” arsa Eóghan mac Ailealla. “B’fhéidir go dtabharfadh sé each maith dhom agus srian álainn. Is mó m’éileamhsa air ná éileamh aon fhir i gConnachtaibh, ó is é driotháir mo mháthar é.”

“Is fíor san,” arsa Sadhbh, “gluais ort,” ar sise.

“Raghadsa leat,” arsa Lúghaidh Mac Con. “B’fhéidir go dtabharfadh sé each maith agus srian ghreanta dhómhsa, leis, ós ar aon ghlúin agus ar aon chígh do hoileadh sinn araon.”

“Tá go maith,” arsa Eóghan. “Téanam ort. Tá áthas mór orm tu’bheith in éineacht liom, a Lúghaidh. Ní mhothóimíd faid na slí an fhaid a bheimíd i bhfochair a chéile.”

“Má tá aon teachtaireacht agat, a mháthair,” arsa Eóghan, “le cur ag triall ar an Árdrí anois an t-am agat.”

“Níl, a mhic,” arsa Sadhbh, “aon teachtaireacht agam le cur ag triall air. Níl agaibh le déanamh ach a ínsint do go bhfuilimíd go léir go maith anso, agus go bhfuil súil againn go bhfuil an scéal céanna acu san.”

“Tá eagal orm,” arsa Eóghan, “go mbeidh mé bodhar aige féin ag daoine nách é am cheistiú i dtaobh Áine Cliach agus na gcapall úd a rugadh uainn.”

“Éist, a Eóghain,” arsa Lúghaidh, “ar neóin sin mar is feárr é. Má bhodhraid siad sinn leis an bhfiafraí níl againn ach iad san do bhodhradh leis an ínsint. Nuair a neósfar d’Art i dtaobh na gcapall a rugadh uainn is móide an fonn a bheidh air capaill mhaithe do thabhairt dúinn b’fhéidir.”

“Maith an áit i rabhais, a Lúghaidh, a mhic!” arsa Ailill. “Is dó’ liom gur maith an bhail ar Eóghan tu’bheith ag dul in éineacht leis.”

Chruinníodar dírim marcach agus chuadar chun bóthair.

Do ghluais an bheirt agus a ndírim marcach fan na habhann siar ó thuaidh. Bhí an lá go breá agus a dheallramh air go leanfadh sé breá, agus go leanfadh an aimsir breá go ceann tamaill. Chuir san suilbhreas ar an mbeirt agus ar a gcuallacht.

Thánadar chun áite’na raibh fánaidh leis an abhainn agus an t-uisce ag gluaiseacht go mear. Deir an seanaleabhar go raibh easach san áit agus raibh dos iúir, nú crann iúir, ag fás ar bruach na habhann, os cionn an easaigh. Nuair a bhíodar ag gabháil thar an ndos iúir do thosnaigh an ceól ba bhreátha agus ba bhinne agus ba mhísle dár airigh éinne acu riamh, ar sheinnt istigh sa chrann iúir. Do stadadar go léir ag éisteacht leis an gceól. Bhí an ceól chómh hálainn sin gur fhanadar gan labhairt ná aon chor a chur díobh ar feadh tamaill mhaith. Fé dheireadh do léim Eóghan agus Lúghaidh anuas dá gacapaillibh in éineacht agus siúd isteach san iúr iad. Fuaradar firín ana-bheag istigh ann agus tiompán aige agus é ag déanamh an cheóil. Do rug Eóghan ar ghualainn air. Do rug Lúghaidh ar an ngualainn eile air.

“Liomsa an ceól!” arsa Lúghaidh.

“Liomsa an ceólaí!” arsa Eóghan. Chrom an bheirt ar an bhfirín do tharrac óna chéile.

“Má mharaíonn sibh me,” arsan firín, “ní bheidh an ceól ná an ceólaí ag éinne agaibh.”

Ghlacadar socair é ansan ach do chimeád gach duine acu a ghreim féin air.

“Conas a shocróimíd an scéal?” arsa Eóghan.

“Tá an scéal socair cheana,” arsa Lúghaidh. “Is liomsa an ceól agus dá bhrí sin is liom an té a dhéanfaidh an ceól.”

“Is liomsa an ceólaí,” arsa Eóghan, “agus dá bhrí sin is liom gach ceól dá ndéanfaidh an ceólaí.”

“Fágtar fé bhreith Ailealla an scéal,” arsan firín.

“Táim sásta,” arsa Lúghaidh. “Ní foláir do an ceól a thabhairt dómhsa.”

“Táim sásta,” arsa Eóghan. “Ní foláir do an ceólaí’thabhairt dómhsa.”

D’iompaíodar go léir agus thugadar aghaidh thar n-ais ar Bhrú Rí chun a iarraidh ar Ailill an scéal do bhreithniú eatarthu. An fhaid a bhíodar ag teacht thar n-ais bhí fearg agus mioscais ag éirí go fíochmhar idir an mbeirt, bíodh gur ar aon ghlúin agus ar aon chígh do hoileadh an bheirt. Cheap Lúghaidh go raibh gníomh ana-ghránna ag Éoghan dá dhéanamh air agus a rá ná fágfadh sé an firín aige féin. Cheap Eóghan gur chion in aistear an cion go léir a bhí aige ar Lúghaidh, agus mura mbeadh gurbh ea go bhfágfadh Lúghaidh an firín aige. Thánadar abhaile gan puínn cainnte’dhéanamh lena chéile an fhaid a bhíodar ag teacht ach gach éinne acu ag machnamh, go dúr agus go dorcha, ar olcas an ghnímh a bhí ag an bhfear eile dá dhéanamh air.

“Ó!” arsa Ailill nuair a chonaic sé iad. “Airiú cad a thug thar n-ais sibh?”

“An firín seo,” ar siad.

“Agus cad’na thaobh gur thug sé sin thar n-ais sibh? Nú cad é an saghas firín é?”

“Ceólaí breá is ea é,” arsa Eóghan, agus d’innis sé dho conas mar a bhí an ceól iúntach istigh sa dos iúir agus gur chuadar araon isteach san iúr agus gur rugadar in éineacht ar an bhfirín, agus ansan gur éirigh imreas eatarthu féachaint cé aige go mbeadh an firín.

“Cad is ainm duit, a fhir bhig?” arsa Ailill.

“Fear Fí mac Eóghabhail, a rí,” arsan firín beag.

“Seinn cuid ded cheól dúinn, a fhir bhig,” arsa Ailill, go bhfeiceam an fiú thu an t-imreasán atá ag an mbeirt seo dá dhéanamh mar gheall ort.”

“Déanfad, a rí,” ar seisean. Do thairrig sé chuige a thiompán agus do ghléas sé é. Ní raibh sa tiompán ach trí téada. Do sheinn sé an ceól a bhí aige dá sheinnt nuair a tugadh as an ndos iúir é. Bhí an ceól go hálainn agus go haoibhinn. Bhíodar go léir’na stad ag éisteacht leis. Ní leogfadh eagla d’éinne oiread agus cogar cainnte’dhéanamh ná cor a chur de chois ná de láimh leis le heagla go n-imeódh aon bhlúire d’aoibhneas an cheóil sin uaidh. Bhí Lúghaidh agus Eóghan ag éisteacht leis an gceól agus bhíodar ag machnamh.

“Is liomsa an ceól so,” arsa Lúghaidh in’ aigne féin, “agus ní bheidh a leithéid eile de cheól le fáil in Éirinn!”

“Is liomsa an ceólaí,” arsa Eóghan in’ aigne féin, “agus ní bheidh a leithéid de cheólaí le fáil in Éirinn!”

Personal names

Art mac Cuínn: Art mac Cuinn, son of Conn Céadchathach and high king of Ireland. He was defeated by Lúghaidh Mac Con and died in the battle of Maigh Mucraimhe.
Fear Fí mac Eóghabhail: also known as Fear Hí, the son of Eogabail, who avenges his father’s death at Ailill’s hand.

Placename

Connachta: Connaught or Connacht, the western province of Ireland. Note that as a plural noun, the genitive is Connacht and the dative is Connachtaibh.

Foclóirín

ag: “at”. Am: the combination of ag, the particle governing the verbal noun, with a first person singular pronoun object. This would be do mo in the CO (an extremely inauthentic form).
airiú!:arú!, “why! really! indeed!” Pronounced /i’rʹu:~e’rʹu:/.
aistear: “roundabout journey”. Cion in aistear ar dhuine, “wasted affection for someone”.
am: “time”, pronounced /aum/. Anois an t-am agat, “now is your chance”.
ar ndó’: a variant of dar ndó’ (dar ndóigh in the CO), “of course, no doubt”. The variant form ar neóin is also found here. Dóin (whence nóin/neóin) is given in PSD1927 as a corruption of dóigh.
bodhar: “deaf”, and by extension “bothered by, tired of something”. Pronounced /bour/.
breithním, breithniú: “to consider, examine”, breathnaím, breathnú in the CO. Pronounced /brʹenʹ’hi:mʹ, brʹenʹ’hu:/. However, IWM has breathnaigh; both forms are likely to have co existed in WM.
ceól: “music”. I think it worthy of notice that we have gach ceól dá ndéanfaidh sé here: in English, “music” is uncountable, showing that ceól also means “song; piece of music”.
ceólaí: “musician”, more usually ceoltóir in the CO.
cimeádaim, cimeád: “to keep”, or coimeádaim, coimeád in the CO. This word and all cognates (chimeádaidís, etc) have a broad c in the classical spelling and in the CO, but a slender c or ch (as applicable) in WM Irish: /kʹi’mʹa:d/, /xʹi’mʹa:didʹi:ʃ/, etc. Also note that the the CO distinction between coimeád, “keep”, and coimhéad, “watch over”, does not obtain in WM Irish: coimhéad is an Ulster word.
deallramh: “appearance”, dealramh. Pronounced /dʹaurəv/. The original spelling was deallradh, adjusted in the editing here.
dírim: “band, posse, squadron”, díorma in the CO.
do: “to”. Note that the classical spelling of the preposition pronoun is adopted in the CO, but this form is pronounced /do/ in the dialect and so edited as do here. Note that the emphatic form dómhsa has a long vowel, /do:sə/.
dó’: “hope, expectation; source of expectation”, or dóigh in the CO. This occurred as dó’ and dóich in the original, but is uniformly edited as dó’’ here, in line with the pronunciation.
dos: “thicket, clump of trees”. Dos iúir, “clump of yew-trees”.
driotháir: “brother”, deartháir.
dúr: “dour, surly”.
each: “horse, steed”, pronounced /ɑx/.
eachra: “horses”, pronounced /ɑxərə/. This is a collective word, used in the singular with a plural meaning.
eagal: “fear”, a variant of eagla.
easach: “waterfall”, pronounced /ə’sɑx/.
éileamh: “claim”, with ar, “claim on something”.
faid: “length”, fad.
fánaidh: “slope”, or fána in the CO. Pronounced /fɑ:nigʹ/. The historical dative has replaced the nominative in WM Irish.
fiafraí: “enquiry, question”, pronounced /fʹiər’hi:/.
glacaim, glacadh: “to accept, take”. Ghlacadar socair é, the notes in the original text show this means something like, “they relaxed their grip on him, they held him gently”.
gléasaim, gléasadh: “to equip, make ready”.
greanta: “graven, polished, beautifully done”, pronounced /grʹantə/.
imreas: “strife, discord”, pronounced /imʹirʹəs/.
imreasán: “discord, quarrel”, pronounced /imʹirʹəsɑ:n/. Both imreas and imreasán are found in PUL’s works, but FGB appears to recommend the use of imreas over imreasán in the CO.
ínsim, ínsint: “to tell”, or insím, insint in the CO. Note the use of d’innis here in the preterite: the spellings d’innis and d’inis are both found in PUL’s works. IWM shows the pronunciation of inis to be /i’nʹiʃ, nʹiʃ, ‘inʹiʃ, ‘iŋʹiʃ/. The autonomous future form neósfar is found here, from an earlier inneósfar.
iúntach: “wonderful”, iontach. Pronounced /u:ntəx/.
iúr: “yew”.
leogaim, leogaint:“to let, allow”, ligim, ligeanin the CO.
marcach: “rider”, pronounced /mər’kɑx/.
me: disjunctive form of the first person pronoun, pronounced /mʹe/ (or /mʹi/ through raising of the vowel in the vicinity of a nasal cononant). Always in the CO.
mear: “quick, fast”.
milis: “sweet”, with mísle in the comparative, where the CO has milse.
mioscais: “malice, ill-will”.
móide: “all the more”. This is a “second comparative” form, similar to feárrde, usaide, miste, meaning “all the more X for it”.
nú: “or”, , pronounced /nu:/.
os cionn: “above”. Pronounced /ɑs kʹu:n/.
pé: “whichever”.
séad: “treasure, valuable gift”. This is the noun from which seoid developed as a by-form according to PSD.
srian: “reins on a horse”, with srianta in the plural. Note this word is feminine here, but masculine in the CO.
suilbhreas: “pleasantness, joviality”, or soilbhreas in the CO. The original spelling is maintained here, but CFBB gives /solʹivrʹəs/ as the pronunciation, and more research is required as to whether /silʹivrʹəs/ is possible too.
tairrigim, tarrac: “to pull”, or tarraingím, tarraingt in the CO. Pronounced /tarʹigʹimʹ, tɑrək/. PUL’s spelling in the orginal, as edited by Eleanor Knott, were influenced by classical norm, with, for example, tarrang as the verbal noun.
téanam: “come along”, part of a defective verb usually found only in the imperative. Téanam would be first-person plural imperative here, but the second-person imperative is often téanam too (téanam ort; possibly analogous to the first-person singular imperative in English “let’s be having you”).
tu, thu: disjunctive form of the second person pronoun, pronounced /tu, hu/. Always in the CO.

Lúghaidh Mac Con chapter 1

Lúghaidh Mac Con

An tAthair Peadar Ua Laoghaire

Canónach, S.P.

do scríbh ón seanascéal

“Cath Muighe Mucrime”

Eleanor Knott do chuir in eagar

Caibideal a hAon

Áine

Bhí rí ar an Múmhain fadó agus Ailill ab ainm do, Ailill Ólom. Sadhbh, iníon Chuínn Chéadchathaigh, an bhean a bhí aige. Bhí triúr mac acu, Eóghan mac Ailealla, agus Cian mac Ailealla agus Cas mac Ailealla. Ón dtriúr san is ea do shíolraigh na trí cineacha móra san an Eóghanacht agus an Chiannacht agus Dál gCais. I mBrú Rí, ar bruach Máighe, a bhí rítheaghlach Ailealla. Bhí priúnsa óg de Chorca Laoighde ar oiliúint ag Ailill agus ag Sadhbh. Lúghaidh Mac Con ab ainm don phriúnsa san. Deir an seanaleabhar gur “ar aon ghlúin agus ar aon chígh” do hoileadh an priúnsa san agus Eóghan mac Ailealla. Mac do Shadhbh ab ea é.

Ta cnuc ná fuil i bhfad ó Bhrú Rí agus Cnuc Áine a tugtar anois ar an gcnuc san. Áine Cliach a tugtí roimis seo air. Cnuc sí ab ea é. Bhí slua sí ann. Bhí rí ar an slua sí sin agus Eóghabhal ab ainm do, agus bhí iníon ag an Eóghabhal san agus Áine ab ainm di. Is uaithi sin a tugadh “Áine Cliach,” agus “Cnuc Áine,” ar an gcnuc.

Bhíodh féar ana-bhreá ar chliathánaibh an chnuic sin agus is ann a curtí capaill an rí chun fosaíochta. Oíche Shamhna áirithe do fágadh na capaill ann agus ar maidin amáireach a bhí chúinn ní raibh aon chapall acu le fáil! Do cuardaíodh an chómharsanacht. Ní raibh aon mhaith ann. Ní raibh aon tuairisc ag éinne orthu agus ní raibh a rian le fáil ag imeacht ón gcnuc. Do cuireadh tuilleadh capall ann agus do cuireadh lucht faire ’na mbun. Níor imigh aon ní ar aon chapall acu go dtí go dtáinig Oíche Shamhnaarís. Anoíche sin do thit a gcodladh ar an lucht faire. Nuair a tháinig an lá ní raibh tásc ná tuairisc ar aon cheann de sna capaillibh. Do cuardaíoch ins gachaon bhallmórthímpall na dútha i gcian agus i gcóngar. Níraibh aon mhaith ann. Ní bhfuaradh capall ná rian capaill in aon treó baíll.

Do cuireadh capaill eile ar an gcnuc agus do cuireadh lucht faire ’na mbun. D’imigh an bhliain agus níor imigh bascadh ná bárthan ar aon chapallacu, de ló ná d’oíche, i gcaitheamh na bliana. Tháinig Oíche Shamhna. Tháinig Ailill féin chun na faire’dhéanamh an oíche sin. Do socraíodh inead sínte dho ar an gcnuc. Bhí na capaill’na thímpall agus iad ag inníor. Ag éisteacht leis an inníor do do thit a chodladh air. Choidil sé go sámh go dtáinig an lá. Nuair a dhúisigh sé as a chodladh bhí an ghrian ag éirí. D’fhéach sé’na thímpall. Ní raibh capall ná searrach le feiscint ach mar’bheadh an talamh tar éis iad do shlogadh. Ansan is ea’bhí an iúnadh i gceart ar Ailill. Ní fheidir sé ó thalamh an domhain cad a bhí ag imeacht ar na capaillibh ná cad a bhí dhá mbreith chun siúil, ná cá rabhthas dhá mbreith chun siúil chómh glan san ná raibh aon phioc dá rian le feiscint beó ná marbh.

Bhí fear’na chónaí thíos i gcúige Laighean an nuair chéannaagus Feircheas ab ainm do. Fáidh ab ea an fear san,agus féinní abea é leis. Bhí eólas ar dhraíocht aige agus bhí eólas ar arm aige. Cara ana-dhílis ab ea é do rí Múmhan, d’Ailill. Chuir Ailill teachtaireacht síos ag triall air dhá iarraidh air teacht chuige go Brú Rí, go raibh gnó ana-mhór aige dhe. Tháinig Feircheas. D’innis Ailill do an scéal go léir ó thosach go deireadh; conas mar a beirtí chun siúil na capaill gach aon Oíche Shamhna agus ná deintí baint le haon chapall acu an chuid eile den bhliain. Cheistigh Feircheas é i dtaobh na ndaoine a bhí sa chómharsanacht agus i dtaobh an chuardaigh a deintí. Ní raibh sé sásta go dtí gur thug sé féin agus an rí cuaird na tíre mórthímpall, ag féachaint ar an dtír agus ag cainnt leis na daoine agus dhá gceistiú i dtaobh aon daoine iasachta’bheith ag teacht san áit ó am go ham. Ní bhfuair sé aon eólas uathu. Ansan duairt sé le hAilill go raghadh sé abhaile agus go dtiocfadh sé Oíche Shamhna a bhí chúinn.

Tháinig Oíche Shamhna agus tháinig Feircheas fé mar a bhí geallta aige. Do chuaigh Ailill agus do shín sé ar an gcnuc, ag faire. D’fhan Feircheas in aice an chnuic, ag á bhun. Thit a chodladh ar Ailill, díreach mar a thit gach uair dá raibh sé ann roimis sin agus é ag éisteacht leis na capaillibh ag inníor. Nuair a bhí sé’na shámhchodladh tháinig an slua sí amach. Do ghluaiseadar amach agus Eóghabhal’na ndiaidh. Bhí Áine roimh Eóghabhal amach agus tiompán aici agus an ceól sí aici dá sheinnt ar an dtiompán. Nuair a bhíodar chómh fada amach le bun an chnuic agus iad ag tosnú ar na capaillibh do bhailiú leó isteach do rith Feircheas chúthu agus bhuail sé Eóghabhal. Do rith Eóghabhal thar n-ais chun dul isteach arís sa chnuc. Do rith Feircheas’na dhiaidh agus chaith sé ga leis agus bhuail sé é sarar fhéad sé dul isteach. Chuaigh an ga trína dhrom agus amach trína chliabh. Do thit sé marbh, díreach san áit’na raibh Ailill’na chodladh. Do léim Ailill as a chodladh. Le línn léimt as a chodladh dho bhí Áine ag rith thairis agus do rug sé uirthi.

“Bog díom!” ar sise.

“Ní bhogfadh!” ar seisean.

“Díolfair as!” ar sise.

“Cad as go ndíolfad?” ar seisean.

“As an olc atá déanta agaibh orm,” ar sise.

“Cad é an t-olc atá déanta agamsa ort?” ar seisean.

“Mo shárú agus marú m’athar,” ar sise; “agus déanfadsa sárú ortsa,” ar sise. “Geallaim duit,” ar sise, “gur róbheag an sárú ná an marú a bheidh ar do chumas a dhéanamh um an dtaca’na mbeadsa scartha leat!” Lena línn sin bhí sí imithe as a radharc.

Tháinig Oíche Shamhna’na dhiaidh san agus bhí na capaill ar an gcnucán gcéanna agus an lucht faire ag tabhairt aire dhóibh, ach má bhíodar níor thit aon chodladh ar an lucht faire agus níor rugadh chun siúil aon chapall. Chuaigh gach aon rud chun suaimhnis. Chuaigh Feircheas síos abhaile agus tháinig gnóthaí eile ar Ailill agus d’imigh an scéal as a chéann.

Personal names

Ailill Ólom:Ailill Aulom (Oilioll Olum in PUL’s novel, Niamh) in early forms of Irish, the son of Mogh Nuadhat (or Mug Nuadat), legendary king of Leath Mogha in second century Ireland. Ailill Ólum became king of Southern Ireland. Ailill Ólum was the ancestor of the Eóghanacht dynasty through his son Eóghan.
Áine: the name of a fairy or goddess mentioned here and the daughter of Egobail. Irish legends recount how she was ravished by Ailill Ólom, upon which she bit off his ear (Ólum or Aulom is said to mean “one-eared”).
Cas mac Ailealla: also known as Cormac Cas. Son of Ailill Aulom and reputed ancestor of the Dál gcCais, or Dalcassian dynasty of Northern Munster.
Cian mac Ailealla: son of Ailill Aulom.
Conn Céadchathach:known as Conn Cétchathach (“Conn of the Hundred Battles”) in early forms of Irish, Conn Céadchathach is a legendary high king of Ireland who took the northern half of Ireland, Leath Chuínn, in a legendary second century carve up with his foe, Mogh Nuadhat (Mug Nuadat).
Eóghabal: Egobail, foster-son of the sea-god, Manannán mac Lir, and father of Áine.
Eóghan mac Ailealla: also known as Eóghan Mór, Eógan, son of Ailill Aulom and king of Munster in the second or third century. The ancestor of the Eóghanacht dynasty of kings of Munster.
Feircheas mac Comáin: Ferches mac Commáin, the sage who killed Lúghaidh Mac Con.
Lúghaidh mac Con: son of Sadhbh and Macnia mac Lugdach, known in history as Lugaid Mac Con, or simply as Mac Con. After his father died and his mother married Ailill Aulom, he became the latter’s foster son, becoming known as Mac Con after being suckled by a greyhound called Eloir Derg. He became high king of Ireland after defeating and king Art mac Cuínn in the battle of Maigh Mucraimhe in Connacht. Lúghaidh mac Con is said to have been the ancestor of the Ua Laoghaire’s, which may explain PUL’s interest in him. Pronounced /luːgʹ/.
Sadhbh: known as Sadb ingen Chuinn in early Irish, Sadhbh was the daughter of Conn Céadchathach and the wife of, firstly, Macnia mac Lugdach, to whom she bore Lúghaidh mac Con, and then of Ailill Aulom, king of southern Ireland. In the Cath Muige Mucraime, she appears as wife of Ailill Ólum and foster-mother of Lúghaidh mac Con. Pronounced /səiv/.

Placenames and territorial groups

Brú Rí: Bruree, Co. Limerick (“the king’s residence”, referring to an ancient royal fortress). Brugh is generally pronounced /brog/ in WM Irish, but in this particular placename the -gh- is not pronounced, and so the generally accepted spelling is used in the editing here. Brugh Ríogh stood in the original.
Ciannacht: the Ciannachta, a population group in early Ireland that claimed descent from Tadhg mac Céin, son of Cian mac Ailealla. They first appear in the historical record in the sixth century, in connection with a defeat in battle in Co. Meath.
Cnuc Áine: Knockainy, Co. Limerick. Also Áine Cliach; I am not sure what the significance of cliach is.
Corca Laoighde: a kingdom in west Cork, descended from Lugaid Loígde, high king of Ireland and ancestor of Lúghaidh mac Con. Some scholars argue that Lúghaidh mac Con is partly confused with his ancestor Lugaid Loígde in the Irish annals.
Dál gCais: the Dalcassians, a powerful dynasty who held a kingdom in Thomond, or North Munster, in the 10th century. Dál means “people, sept, tribe”. The Dál gCais claimed descent from Cormac Cas. The eclipsis of Cais reflects calcification of the name, according as it does with the grammar of an earlier form of Irish. The Dál gCais are believed to be the descendants of a Decies group (the Déisi Tuaisceart) who settled in Co. Clare in the early eighth century, and later claimed a spurious genealogical connection with the Eóghanacht dynasty that held sway in Southern Ireland from the seventh to the tenth century.
Eóghanacht: the Eóghanachta or Eugenians, an Irish dynasty centred around Cashel from the seventh to the tenth century that claimed descent from Eóghan, son of Ailill Ólum.
Laighin: Leinster, the eastern province of Ireland. A fifth declension masculine plural noun with genitive Laighean.
Máigh (an Mháigh): the River Maigue, Co. Limerick. This placename means “the plain”, magh in modern Irish.
Múmhain (an Mhúmhain): Munster, the southern province of Ireland. This is one of many words where there historic dative has replaced the erstwhile nominative (an Mhúmha) in Cork Irish. The genitive is na Múmhan.

Foclóirín

ag: “at”. The combination ag á, corresponding to ag a in the CO, is pronounced /i’gʹɑ:/.
amáireach: amárach in the CO, “tomorrow”. Pronounced /ə’mɑ:rʹəx/.
arís: “again”. PUL used the spelling airís, indicating a slender r, /i’rʹi:ʃ/.
bárthan: “harm”.
bascaim, bascadh: “to bash, crush, severely injure”. As a noun, bascadh means “injury”.
bun: “bottom, base”. I mbun ruda, “in charge of/looking after (something)”.
capall: “horse”. Note the dative plural has a slender l in Cork Irish: capaillibh.
chun: “towards”. The combined forms of this preposition are distinctive: chúm, chút, chuige, chúithi, chúinn, chúibh, chúthu. The Standard has chugam, chugat, chuige, chuici, chugainn, chugaibh, chucu.
cine: “race”. Note the plural used here is cineacha, where ciníocha is used in the CO.
cíoch: “breast”, with cígh in the dative.
cliathán: “side, flank”, pronounced /klʹi:’hɑ:n/.
cnuc: “hill”, or cnoc in the CO. Pronounced /knuk/. The spelling cnoc was found in the original.
codlaim, codladh: “to sleep”. Note the preterite here, choidil, where chodail is also found in PUL’s works.
cú: “dog”, with con in the genitive. This word is indeclinable in the CO.
cuaird: “visit”, cuairt.
cuirim, cur: “to put”. The imperfect autonomous forms is curtí (found as curtaí in the original), as the t is slender in WM Irish (cuirtí is the more usual form).
draíocht: “magic”.
drom: “back”, or droim in the CO. PUL uses drom (in the nominative and dative) for the actual back of a person or an animal, but druím for more derived usages (druím lámha, “the back of a hand” etc). Pronounced /droum/.
dúthaigh: “land, region, district”, with the genitive singular dútha. Dúiche in the CO.
éirím, éirí: “to rise”. Pronounced /əi’rʹi:mʹ, əi’rʹi:/.
fáidh: “prophet”, pronounced /fɑ:gʹ/.
feadar: “I don’t know, I wonder”. While this verb is spelt ní fheadair sé in both the present  and past tense meanings in the CO, there was traditionally a distinction between ní fheadair sé, present tense, and ní fheidir sé, past tense, pronounced /nʹi: edʹirʹ ʃe:/.
féinní: “warrior, soldier”. Féinnidh stood in the original.
fosaíocht: “grazing; grazing land”.
ga: “spear”. Spelt gath in the original, this is one of a number of words where a final h may be discernible in the pronunciation in certain contexts and not in others.
gheibhim, fáil: “to get, find”. This is the absolute form of the verb faighim; the distinction is not observed in the Standard, which has faighim alone. Note the autonomous form of the preterite here, ní bhfuaradh, where PUL’s novel, Séadna, has níor fuaradh.
i gcian: i gcian agus i gcóngar, “far and near”. It is worth noting that PUL did not use the traditional dative singular form céin. In the CO this would be i gcéin agus i gcóngar.
i: i becomes ins before the article (in sna), and before gach in WM Irish.
inead: ionad in the CO, “unit”. Pronounced /inʹəd/ in WM Irish. Inead sínte, “a place to lie down”.
inníoraim, inníor: “to graze”, or iníoraim, iníor in the CO. Pronounced /i’ŋʹi:rimʹ, i’ŋʹi:r~i’ŋʹe:r/.
iúnadh: “wonder, surprise”, ionadh. Pronounced /u:nə/.
lá: “day”. The archaic dative appears in de ló, /də ‘lo:/, “by day”.
léimim, léimt: “to leap”, or léimim, léim in the CO.
mórthímpall: mórthimpeall. The broad “p” in WM Irish is preserved here: /muər hi:mʹpəl/. Sometimes found as mórdtímpall in other writers of WM Irish.
priúnsa: “prince”, prionsa.
Samhain: “November”. Oíche Shamhna, “Halloween”. Irish myths tell how fairies do good and evil to mortals on this night of the year.
sáraím, sárú: “to infringe, violate”. Mo shárú, “attacking me”.
searrach: “foal”, pronounced /ʃə’rɑx/.
seinnim, seinnt: “to play music”, or seinnim, seinm in the CO. Pronounced /ʃəiŋʹimʹ, ʃəintʹ/.
síolraim, síolradh: “to breed, propagate”, or síolraím, síolrú in the CO. Do shíolraigh sé ó (dhuine), “he is descended from (a certain person)”. I am unclear whether the l is pronounced in this word.
sloigim, slogadh: “to swallow”, or slogaim, slogadh in the CO.
tásc: “report of a death”. Ní raibh tásc ná tuairisc air, “there was no news of him”.
tímpall: timpeall. The broad p in WM Irish is preserved here: /tʹi:mʹpəl/.
tiompán: “lyre”.


PUL: letter explaining Séadna

Caisleán Ua Liatháin,

Cae. Chorcaí,

Samhain 28, 1913.

A Shiúr ionúin,

Ní mór dom a dh’ínsint duit, fé mar a gheallas, cad é an saghas duine Séadna. Bhíos-sa tímpall ocht mbliana dh’aois nú mar sin nuair ’airíos “Peig” ag ínsint an scéil. D’innis sí an scéal mar atá sé sa leabhar go dtí gur thug an Fear Dubh an sparán do Shéadna. Níl a thuilleadh de chainnt Pheig sa scéal, go dtí a dheireadh.

Do ghluais na blianta. Do chuas-sa ar scoil. Do deineadh sagart díom. Do cuireadh Connradh na Gaelainne ar bun. Do cuireadh mar ghnó ar an gConnradh san an Ghaelainn do chimeád beó i mbéalaibh na ndaoine. Bhíos ag machnamh ar an ngnó san. Do thuigeas as an machnamh san nárbh fholáir, chun na Gaelainne ’chimeád beó i mbéalaibh na ndaoine, an Ghaelainn do scrí’ díreach mar a bhí sí dá labhairt an uair sin amach a’ béalaibh na ndaoine. Do chromas ar scéilínibh beaga do scrí’ ar an gcuma san agus do chur ag triall ar “Irisleabhar na Gaelainne” a bhí dá thabhairt amach i mBaile Átha Cliath. Níorbh fhada gur thuigeas ná déanfadh scéilíní beaga puínn tairbhe. Ní raibh aon leabhar bunúsach againn le cur isteach i láimh aon duine óg chun Gaelainne’mhúineadh dho. Na leabhair a bhí againn bhíodar go léir róchruaidh—nú ró-olc. Pé’r domhan é ní rabhadar oiriúnach chun na hoibre.

Thuigeas gur cheart do dhuine éigin leabhar do scrí’ a bheadh oiriúnach chun na hoibre. Ansan thuigeas gur cheart dom féin an leabhar san do scrí’.

Bhíos tar éis na leabhar scéalaíochta úd go léir do lé’, .i. “Handy Andy”, “Willy Reilly,” etc. etc., agus an uile leabhar riamh acu san, nuair a léinn é, chuireadh sé fearg orm. “Stage Irishman” i gceart ab ea an uile cheann acu, agus bhínn ar buile nuiar a chínn an t-éitheach; duine mar “Handy Andy” dá chur amach os cómhair an domhain mar sholaoid agus mar shampla ar an Éireannach. Tá an locht san ar an uile leabhar scéalaíochta dár scríobhadh sa Bhéarla, in Éirinn, an uair sin. Ní thugann aon leabhar acu aon rud ach tarcuise don Éíreannach. De réir gach leabhair díobh níl san Éireannach ach leathamadán nú rógaire. Aon fhear go bhfuil aon fhearúlacht ann, má chítear in aon leabhar díobh é, fear anall ó Shasana is ea é. Bhí gráin agam, agus tá fós, ar na leabhraibh sin; agus beidh go deó.

Thuigeas im aigne, dá scríbhinn féin leabhar, nárbh fholáir dom a mhalairt sin ar fad d’obair a dhéanamh, nárbh fholáir dom fírinne’dh’ínsint agus a cheart a thabhairt don Éireannach; fear do thoghadh go mbeadh na tréithe móra ann a bhí riamh, ó dhúchas, san Éireannach. Chuímhníos ar Shéadna.

Chuímhníos ar an scéal úd a dh’innis Peig dom féin agus do sna leanaíbh eile an lá úd fadó, roimis sin, nuair a bhíos ocht mbliana dh’aois.

  1. Gréasaí bocht ab ea Séadna. Níor fhág san ná gur dhuin’ uasal é. An cos-ar-bolg a deineadh ar Éirinn do chuir sé clann ríthe ag rómhar sa díg i gcaitheamh na gcéadta blian so atá imithe.
  2. Ní raibh ag Séadna ach trí scillinge ag fágáilt an bhaile dho chun leathair a cheannach. Do hiarradh déirc air “ar son an tSlánaitheóra.” Níor fhéad sé gan scilling acu ’thabhairt uaidh. Cá bhfuil an duin’ uasal Gallda do scarfadh leis an scilling sin “ar son an tSlánaitheóra” agus an gá chómh cruaidh aige féin léi? Do scar sé leis an tarna scillling ar an gcuma gcéanna!! Do scar sé leis an dtríú scilling ar an gcuma gcéanna!!! Nuair a scar sé leis an dtríú scilling bhí scartha aige lena raibh ’en tsaol aige. Ecce nos reliquimis omnia. Sin é an tÉireannach agat’na steillbheathaidh, an duin’ uasal is uaisle dár shiúlaigh an talamh riamh.
  3. Ansan do tairrigeadh na trí guíonna dho. Agus cad a dhein sé? Do loit sé na trí guíonna! Dhein sé díreach an rud a dhéanfadh an tÉireannach ceart. Cad fé ndeara dho na guíonna do lot? Corp neamhshuím’na thairfe shaolta féin. Is é nádúr an Éireannaigh gan suím rómhór a bheith aige i dtairfe saolta. Dá gcailleadh fear Gallda a mbeadh’en tsaol aige do chrochfadh sé é féin, nú do gheárrfadh sé a scórnach. Ní fhéadfadh sé an chreach a dh’fholag. Dá gcailleadh an tÉireannach a mbeadh’en tsaol aige b’fhéidir go mbeadh buairt air, ach ní mharódh an bhuairt é. Chuirfeadh sé dhe an bhuairt. Chuímhneódh sé ar an saol eile. In aigne an Éireannaigh is mó le rá, agus is substainntiúla, an saol eile ná an saol so. Níor fhéad Séadna a chuid airgid do chimeád nuair a hiarradh, ón saol eile, air scarúin leis an airgead, ach d’fhéad sé na trí guíonna do lot, bíodh go raibh gá aige le roinnt de shaibhreas an tsaeil seo. Ní raibh Éireannach ceart riamh nár dhein rud den tsórd san uair éigin; go minic, b’fhéidir.
  4. Ansan tháinig an namhaid chuige agus do chuir an namhaid cath air, agus do buadh air sa chath. An fhaid ná raibh ag cur air ach an gá a bhí aige le roinnt airgid níor chuir sé puínn suime sa ghá. Ach nuair a cuireadh an t-ór breá buí suas féna shúilibh d’éirigh an t-anmhian’na chroí agus do bhuaigh an t-anmhian air agus dhein sé aimhleas tiubaisteach do féin. B’in é an tÉireannach arís,’na steillbheathaidh!
  5. Ach bhí an sparán aige. Millionéir ab ea é. Bhí tarrac ar airgead aige chómh tiubh in Éirinn agus ba maith leis tarrac air.
    Nuair a bhí an méid sin machnaimh déanta agam thuigeas im aigne go raibh abhar mo scéil agam go beacht. Ní raibh le déanamh agam ach mo shúil do chimeád ar an bhfear san—agus ar na tréithibh Gaelacha san a bhí ann—féachaint cad é an úsáid a dhéanfadh sé den airgead. Sin é díreach an rud a dheineas. Chimeádas mo shúil air go dtí go raibh na trí blaian déag caite, agus fuaras, sa deireadh, bíodh gur dhein sé an botún tiubaisteach úd, gur thug an dei-ghníomh uasal a dhein sé saor ón namhaid é mar gheall ar an ndéirc a dhein sé nuair a thug sé an scilling don mhnaoi chosnochtaithe.
    Sin é an scéal. Chuireas Peig dhá ínsint, tríd síos ar fad, do sna leanaíbh eile, i dtreó go mbeadh caoi agam ar an gcainnt do thabhairt amach díreach mar a thagann sí a’ béalaibh na ndaoine.
    Agus féach. Bhí an scéal san ag teacht amach san “Irisleabhar” ar feadh tamaill, agus na daoine go léir ar fuaid na Múmhan dhá lé’. Ach do díbreadh an scéal as an Irisleabhar! Dúradh ná raibh aon mhaith ann! Ná raibh ann ach “an Irish Mick McQuaid!” Féach air sin! Ach bíodh acu.
    Is dó’ liom anois go dtuigeann tú cad é an saghas duine Séadna. Ní mór dom, áfach, an méid seo do rá leat. Tá an scéal níos doimhne go mór ná mar ’ fhéadas a mhíniú dhuit sa méid sin cainnte.
    Tá sé cosúil le Faust, ach tá sé níos aoirde agus níos uaisle ná Faust go mór.

Tá tréith eile i Séadna agus ba dhóbair dom é’dhearúd. Na daoine fónta ar a léimíd i náisiúnaibh eile, séimhe ar fad, agus cneastacht, agus úmhlaíocht, le feiscint, a tugtar le tuiscint dúinn a bhíonn iontu. Ní hé sin saghas fóntachta a bhíonn san Éireannach. Fóntacht ghoirgeach, dhothíosach, a chítear san Éireannach. Féach:—

An Bh. Ch.: “Sid é an gníomh uasal a dheinis inniu, an gníomh is uaisle dár deineadh in Éireinn le fada.”
S.: “Cad é an gníomh uasal, airiú?”
An Bh. Ch.: “An bhean is feárr in Éirinn do chur ód chroí ar son an tSlánaitheóra.”
S.: “Cad é mo leigheas air! Conas’ fhéadfainn a leithéid d’éagóir a dhéanamh ar a leithéid de mhnaoi!”

Freagra dothíosach, ach freagra gan aon mhór-is-fiú. (No self-complacency in that answer.) Sin é an tÉireannach amu’’s amach, mar atá sé os cómhair mo shúl ó tháinig aon chiall dom. Tá deich mbliana gus trí fichid caite agam ó tháinig ciall dom agus i gcaitheamh na haimsire sin tá aithne curtha agam ar na céadta fear anso sa Mhúmhain, agus do gheóbhadh an uile dhuine acu tríd an dtrioblóid sin a tháinig ar Shéadna díreach mar a ghoibh Séadna tríd, agus níl aon fhear acu ná déarfadh, mar aduairt Séadna, “Cad é mo leigheas air! Conas’fhéadfainn a leithéid d’éagóir a dhéanamh ar a leithéid de mhnaoi!”

“Cad é an riocht a chuirfeadh ar Shéadna?” arsa tusa.

Cuir an riocht air ba mhaith leat a chur ar an bhfear Gaelach is feárr, agus is treise aigne, agus is dílse croí, dár bhuail umat riamh. Níl aon bhaol ná go mbeidh sé sa riocht gceart ansan agat.

’Sea! Stadfad anois go dtí go gcuirfir ceisteanna chúm.

Mise do chara,

Peadar Ua Laoghaire.

Foclóir do Shéadna

Foclóirín

c Eóghanach: someone with the surname Mac Eóghain (a Sligo surname meaning “son of Eóghan”), anglicised as MacKeown, Cowan and a number of other variations. In its anglicised form, this surname cannot be distinguished from Mac Eóin, which has the same pronunciation in Irish. However, the gh is given in the original here. Pronounced /kʹoːnəx/.
na, ’nar: PUL frequently uses i as the helping preposition in relative clauses, producing ’na and ’nar where go and gur (etymologically derived from the use of ag as the helping preposition) would be more common in Munster Irish today.
sea: “well”, often replaced by the Béarlachas bhuel, which is not found in PUL’s works. ’Sea go díreach, “just so, quite right”, or “that’s all very well!” before a refutation of one’s interlocutor’s views. ’Sea anois, “well now!”
a dhe: “indeed! really!”. A dhe mhuise (or just dhe mhuise), “really!” (spelt a dhiamhaise in the original), in the sense of dismissing something as nonsense. Dhe ’gus, “why, then!” Oidhe in the original is also transcribed here as a dhe, although given in Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition as o ghe (Liam Mac Mathúna’s edition transcribes directly as oidhe without indicating what this might mean). PUL indicates in his notes to An Cleasaidhe (p 76) that a dhe may be derived from a Dhé!, although the etymology is unclear.
abhar: ábhar in the CO. WM Irish distinguishes between abhar (originally spelt adhbhar, now pronounced /aur/), “material”, and ábhar (sometimes written ádhbhar, pronounced /ɑ:vər/), “amount”.
abhcóidíocht: “debating, discussing”, or abhcóideacht in the CO.
ach: “ah!, oh!”, deprecatory in tone.
achrann: “entanglement”, pronounced /ɑxərən/. In achrann i rud, “stuck in something”. In achrann i nduine, “at strife with someone”.
adaím, adú: “to light, kindle”, e.g. a fire, or fadaím, fadú in the CO. The original form found here is fadú, but it is found in a lenited context, and IWM and CFBB both show the WM form to be without f.
adhb: “problem, snag”, or fadhb in the CO. Pronounced /əib/. CFBB has an entry for adhb, but indicates fadhb is found too in the dialect. Adhb originally referred to a knot in wood.
admhaím, admháil: “to admit, acknowledge, confess”, pronounced /ɑdə’vi:mʹ, ɑdə’vɑ:lʹ/.
aerach: “lively, gay; eery”.
ag: “at”. Ag mo appears here as ageam, pronounced /igʹəm/. The combination ag á, corresponding to ag a in the CO, is pronounced /i’gʹɑ:/ or /i’gɑ:/ with a broad g if IWM is to be believed. The emphatic form againne is pronounced /ə’giŋʹnə/.
aghaidh: “face”, pronounced /əigʹ/. Aghaidh bhéil a thabhairt ar dhuine, “to scold someone”. Aghaidh na muc agus na madraí a thabhairt ar dhuine, “to furiously scold someone”. Ar aghaidh a chroí, “over his heart”.
agus go: “whereas”, in addition to other meanings.
aibidh: “ripe, mature”, but also “lively, keen” (as here in reference to the humming of a tune); aibí in the CO. Pronounced /abʹigʹ/.
aicillí: “agile, supple; adroit”, or aclaí in the CO. Pronounced /akʹi’lʹi:/. The editing approach here of not writing out epenthetic vowels would point to aiclí, but in any case aicillí is given as a variant in FGB.
Aifreann: “Mass”, pronounced /afʹirʹən/.
aigne: “mind”, pronounced /agʹinʹi/.
aililiú: “goodness gracious!” CFBB shows the pronunciation as /alʹilʹuː/, without the expected stress on the final syllable. More research required here.
áilteóir: “practical joker, trickster”, pronounced /’ɑ:lʹho:rʹ/ according to IWM, with unexpected stress on the first syllable.
ainglí: “angelic”, pronounced /aŋʹi’lʹiː/.
ainm: “name”, feminine here, but masculine in the CO. Pronounced /anʹimʹ/. Ainm airgid, “a reputation for having money”. The genitive is ainme.
ainmhí: “animal”, pronounced /anʹi’vʹi:/.
ainneóin: “unwillingness”. Dem lom deiridh ainneóna, “in spite of my utmost efforts to the contrary”, where lom is a noun meaning “a rank or pure state” (cf. lom an donais, “rank bad luck”) and deiridh is an adjective meaning “uttermost” (note that Liam Mac Mathúna transcribes this as dom lom deirg ainneona, appearing not to understand the phrase). D’ainneóin, in spite of: d’ainneóin a mbainfí as, “regardless of how much would be taken from it”. Pronounced /i’ŋʹo:nʹ/.
ainnis: “wretched”. Go hainnis, “in a sorry state”. Pronounced /aŋʹiʃ/.
áird: “direction, quarter of a compass”. In sna chúig árdaibh, “in all directions”.
aireach: “careful, attentive”, pronounced /i’rʹɑx/.
aireachas: “care, attention”, pronounced /i’rʹɑxəs/.
airgead: “money, silver”, pronounced /arʹigʹəd/. An t-airgead mór, “large sums of money”.
airím, aireachtaint: “to hear”, or airím, aireachtáil in the CO. Pronounced /a’rʹi:mʹ, i’rʹɑxtintʹ/. An airíonn tú?, “listen!”, as a way of summoning someone’s attention.
áirím, áireamh: “to count, reckon”. Ní áirím, “let alone, never mind”.
áirithe: “certainty; lot, fate”.
airiú!: arú!, “why! really! indeed!” Pronounced /i’rʹu:~e’rʹu:/.
áirseóir: “adversary; i.e. the Devil”, or áibhirseoir in the CO.
áise: “convenience,” or áis in the CO. Do dhéanfadh sé áise mhór dom, “it would come in handy, be a great favour”.
áiseach: “handy, convenient”.
aiseagaim, aiseac: “to restore, restitute, repay; to vomit”. I have a lot of research to do on this word, as Ó Dónaill’s dictionary shows aisíocaim, aisíoc in the meaning of “to restitute, repay”, but aiseagaim, aiseag in the meaning of “to restitute; to vomit”, making it unclear why the word has split into two possible forms in that dictionary. Dinneen’s dictionary has only aiseagaim, aiseag. In the original text of Séadna, the verbal noun is spelt aisioc.
aith: ait means “queer, strange, pleasant”, but the t is lenited in pronunciation before l. The spelling ait was used in the original, but the editing approach here aligns it with the pronunciation by showing the lenition. B’aith liom san, /bɑ hlʹum son/, “I liked that”, usually sarcastic in tone. An alternative view is that b’aith liom san is derived from ba mhaith liom san.
aitheasc: “move, a step to be taken”, especially in the phrase an chéad aitheasc atá le déanamh againn, “our first move”. Pronounced /ɑhəsk/. Also found in PUL’s works as ásc.
aithfhilleadh: “recurrence, going back again”, or athfhilleadh in the CO. This word is edited with aith- here, because the pronunciation is with the front allophone of a, /a-hilʹi/.
aithne: “commandment”, with aitheanta in the plural. Pronounced /ahinʹi, ɑhəntə/.
áitím, áiteamh: “to argue, establish, persuade, prove”. Áiteamh ar dhuine go…, “to persuade someone that…”
allas: “sweat”. Allas an bháis, “a death-like sweat”.
amach: “out”, pronounced /ə’mɑx/. Amach go maith san oíche, “pretty late at night”.
amáireach: “tomorrow”, amárach in the CO.” Pronounced /ə’mɑ:rʹəx/.
ambasa: “indeed”, or ambaiste in the CO. Literally “by my hands”. Pronounced /əm’bɑsə/.
amen: “Amen”, or áiméan in the CO. This word is spelt ámén in the original here, but is often spelt amen in PUL’s works, indicating that he often eschewed an artificial gaelicisation of this non-Irish word. The pronunciation is given in IWM as /amʹenʹ/ and transcribed in the LS edition of Séadna as aimin. LMM’s edition of Séadna also drops the síntíocha fada, which misrepresent the WM pronunciation of the word.
amharc: “sight”, pronounced /ɑvərk/.
amhras: “doubt; suspicion over something”, pronunced /aurəs/.
amhscarnach: “daybreak”, or amhscarthanach in the CO. Ar an amhscarnach, “at the grey dawn”.
amu’: “outside”, or amuigh in the CO. PUL here used the spelling amuich, probably to forestall a pronunciation in /gʹ/, as the pronunciation is /ə’mu/. Amu’ agus i mbaile, “at home or away; far or near; anywhere”.
anaithe: “fear, terror; awe”, or anfa in the CO. This is one of many words in Irish where an original f is pronounced as h: /ɑnihi/.
anál: “breath”, or anáil in the CO, where the historical dative has replaced the nominative. The genitive is análach with anáil in the dative.
anam: “soul; life”. Note the dative anman in le hanman do mharbh, “for pity’s sake; for the sake of the souls of your dead loved ones”. The dative is generally anam other than in this phrase (cf. do t’anam in chapter 1 here). The historic dative was anmain, the ending of which appears to be broadened by assimilation to the following broad consonant.
annscian: “terror, fury, wildness; a wild or violent person”, or ainscian in the CO. Pronounced /aunʃkʹiən/.
annsprid: “evil spirit; i.e., the Devil”, or ainsprid in the CO.
ansan: “then”, ansin in the CO.
anso: “here”, anseo in the CO.
aoirde: “height”, or airde in the CO. WM Irish draws a distinction between in áirde, “up on high”, and in aoirde, “in height”.
aondéag: “eleven”, pronounced /e:ŋʹiag/.
aontíos: “cohabitation”. Aontíos a thabhairt do dhuine, “to let someone move in”.
aoraim, aeireacht: “to shepherd, herd”, or aoirím, aoireacht in the CO. Traditionally written aodharaim, aodhaireacht, the spelling change of the mid-twentieth century has produced CO spellings that yield the incorrect pronunciation for speakers of Munster Irish. Pronounced /e:rimʹ, e:rʹəxt/.
aothó: “crisis in sickness”, i.e. “a turn for the better”. Aothú in the CO. The original has aoitheó, and Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition of Séadna transcribes this as yhó, but CFBB shows the pronunciation to be /e:’ho:/.
aprún: “apron”, or naprún in the CO.
ar fuaid, ar fuid: “throughout”, pronounced /erʹ fuədʹ, erʹ fidʹ/, ar fud in the CO. PUL wrote in his Notes on Irish Words and Usages (p54) that ar fuaid should be used for broad areas (ar fuaid na paróiste) and ar fuid for small areas (ar fuid an tí), but this distinction is not always adhered to in his works. I am unsure if the f broadens the r.
ar neóin:a variant of ar ndó’ or dar ndó’ (dar ndóigh in the CO), “of course, no doubt”. Dóin (whence neóin) is given in PSD1927 as a corruption of dóigh. See also under dó’.
ar: “on”, pronounced /erʹ/, with the combined forms orm /orəm/, ort, air, uirthi /erʹhi/, orainn /oriŋʹ/, oraibh and orthu /orhə/.
ára: “kidney”, with árann in the genitive. A dhaoine mh’árann agus mh’anama! “my dear people!”
árd: “height, hill”. Ní fheadar ó Chúig Árdaibh na Naoi bhFionn, “I have no idea, no idea on earth”. This phrase apparently means something like “from the five heights of heaven”, but PUL commented in FdS that the origin of the phrase is obscure. Árd an bhóthair anuas, “over the rise in the road”. In árd a chínn ’’s a ghutha, “at the top of his voice”.
árd: “high”. Note the comparative aoirde, where airde stands in the CO.
árdaím, árdú: “to lift, raise”. Rud a dh’árdú leat, “to take something away, carry something off with you”.
aréir: “last night”, pronounced /ə’re:rʹ/, with a broad r in the middle of the word.
arís: “again”. PUL used the spelling airís, indicating a slender r, /i’rʹi:ʃ/, whereas Amhlaoibh Ó Loingsigh had /ə’ri:ʃ/, as shown in IWM.
arm: “army” or “weapon”. An t-arm dearg, “the British army”. Arm tine, “firearm”. Pronounced /ɑrəm/.
armáil: “army”, pronounced /ɑrə’mɑːlʹ/.
arú inné: “the day before yesterday”, pronounced /ɑ’ru: nʹe:/.
ataím, at: “to swell”, or ataim, at in the CO. The participle ataithe used here points to this verb being in the second conjugation.
athiompáil: “relapse”, pronounced /ɑ’hu:mpɑ:lʹ/.
athrú: “a change”, pronounced /ɑhə’ru:/.
atruach: “compassionate”.
báb: “maid, maiden”.
bacaim, bac: “to hinder, let; give heed to, pay attention to”. Ná bacaidh mise, “don’t mind me”.
bachall: “crook, shepherd’s staff; the knob on the stop of a stick”, used here to refer to a hooked nose.
bacla: “the arms (where something is held in)”. Ar mo bhaclainn, “in my arms”. Pronounced /bɑkələ, bɑkəliŋʹ/. The dative has replaced the nominative in the CO, which has baclainn. This word is generally used in the dative in any case.
bagraím, bagairt: “to shake; beckon, nod, wink”. Bagairt ar dhuine, “to beckon to someone”.
bail: “success, prosperity”. Bail ó Dhia oraibh anso!, “God’s blessing on you all here!”
baile: “town”. An baile mór, Dublin. Níor tháinig sé chun baile dhuit (rud a dhéanamh), “you do not have/have not inherited the right (to do something)”.
baileach: “exact”, prononced /bi’lʹɑx/. Go cruínn agus go baileach, “fully, with all the ins and outs”.
bailím, bailiú: “to collect”. Bailiú leat (amach), “to slip away, be off”.
baillchrith: “trembling of limbs”, pronounced /bɑlʹi-xrʹih/. Ar baillchrith, “trembling all over”.
báille: “bailiff”.
báim, bá: “to drown”.
bainntreach: “widow”, or baintreach in the CO. The double n here shows the diphthong: /baintrʹəx/.
baisteadh: “baptism”. The genitive, baiste in the CO (baistidh in the older spelling), has a long vowel here, baistí. Seasamh chun baistí le duine, “to support someone at his baptism in the role of godparent”.
balaithe: “smell”, or boladh in the CO. The original spelling, balaith, is adjusted here in the line with the WM pronunciation, /bɑlihi/, which appears to derive originally from the plural of the word.
balcais: “rag, garment”, with the plural, balcaisí, meaning “clothes”.
ball: “place, spot”. In aon bhall, “anywhere”, pronounced /ə’neːvəl/. Ball beatha, “limb”.
banna: “bond”. Gan urra gan banna, “without security or bond”.
baoch: “grateful”, buíoch, pronounced /be:x/ in WM Irish. Buidheach stood in the original.
baochas: “thanks”, buíochas, pronounced /be:xəs/ in WM Irish. Buidhchas stood in the original. Gan baochas do, “in spite of him”.
baol: “danger”. Ní baol duit, “you are in no danger”. Is baol liom, “I fear, i.e., I think”.
baoth: “vain, silly”.
bára: “game, match”, or báire in the CO. I ndeireadh bára, /i nʹerʹi bɑ:rə/, “at length, after all is said and done”.
bárr, barra: “top”. Bárr a bheith agat ó dhuine, “to get the better of someone, outdo someone”. Barra is a variant of bárr in WM Irish, more frequently used in the dative. Pronounced /bɑ:r, bɑrə/. Mar barra ar gach ndonas, “to top it all, as the crowning misfortune”. De bhárr, “as a result of”.
barróg: “tight grip; impediment”.
bas: “palm of the hand”, with bais in the dative. The CO form is bos, which was also used in the original here, but was amended in line with the WM pronunciation, as shown in the LS edition of Séadna.
bascaim, bascadh: “to bash, crush, severely injure”.
beag: “small”. Is beag orm í, “I don’t like her”. Is beag dá mhearathall orm, “I am in little doubt about it”. Ba bheag aige é, “he would think nothing of it, would consider it of little importance”.
béal: “mouth”. Ar a bhéalaibh aige, “in front of him”. Do bhéal d’éisteacht, “to keep your mouth shut”.
Bealltaine: “May”, or Bealtaine in the CO. The ll often found in the older script is retained here to show the diphthong, /bʹaulhinʹi/.
bean rialta: “nun”. The adjective rialta, “regular”, is pronounced /riəlhə/; compare rialtas, “government”, pronounced /riəltəs/, as lt in more modern words is not always pronounced /lh/.
beann: “regard”. Beann a bheith agat ar rud, “to care about something, give a damn about it”.
beannachadh: “blessing”, a verbal noun normally found in the phrase Dia á bheannachadh!, “God bless him”. Pronounced /bʹə’nɑxə/.
beárna: “gap”, with beárnain in the dative. Thíos ar an gcéad bheárnain, “down at the first hurdle”.
beart: “move, deed, act”, which is feminine here, but masculine in the CO. Thar na beartaibh, “beyond expectation, i.e. exceedingly”.
béic: “yell, shout”, with béiceanna in the plural, where the CO has béiceacha.
beirím, beiriú: “to boil”. Gal beirithe, “boiling steam”.
beirim, breith: “to bear, take, carry; to give birth”, and numerous other meanings. Note the preterite here do bheir, where do rug is used elsewhere by PUL. Cad do bheir cosnochtaithe í? “How come she was barefoot?” Cad do bheir di mo scilling do bhreith uaimse? “what made her take my shilling from me? how come she took my shilling from me?” Note that both PSD and FGB show beirim is used in the meaning of “how come” with no preposition, and tugaim in the meaning of “how come” with a following preposition do. However, beirim and tugaim are highly confused, as the seldom-used absolute form of the verb tugaim is bheirim (originally do-bheirim). Note that the r of rug is pronounced slender in some circumstances, e.g. do rug, /də rʹug/. Na cosa bhreith ó dhuine, “to get away from someone”. Níl aon bhreith agam ar, “I have no way of (doing something)”. Breith suas le duine, “to catch up with someone”. Tá ceann-fé orm é bhreith im bheathaidh orm go, “I am ashamed to get to the point in my life that/to live to see the day that…”. Bheith beirthe le rud, “ to be advantaged or gain by something”, where beirthe, the past participle of beirim, is pronounced /bʹerhə/, with a broad r. Tar éis bheirthe, “having given birth”.
beó: “alive”. Beó bocht, “miserably poor”.
bharántas: “warrant”, or barántas in the CO.
bheirim, tabhairt: “to give”. Bheirim is the absolute form of tugaim, not used in the CO, and not always found in PUL’s works. See also under tugaim, tabhairt.
bianna: “ferrule, iron band”.
binib: “venom”.
bior: “a spit; sharp point”. Bior ar a shúilibh, “with his eyes blazing, flashing with anger”. Bior dearg iarainn, “a red-hot bar of iron”.
biorán: “pin”, pronounced /brʹɑ:n/. Ní fiú biorán agus é, “it is worthless”.
bioránach: “lad, fellow”.
bithiúnach: “scoundrel, rascal”, often meaning “thief”.
bladhmannach: “bombastic”, pronounced /bləimənəx/.
bliain: “year”. Both sa bhliain and sa mbliain are found in PUL’s works, but the latter is generally found in the distributive sense, “per year”.
blonag: “fat, blubber”. The dative is given here as blonag, although the feminine declension would point to blonaig, which form is shown in the dative in CFBB.
bó: “cow”, with boin in the dative.
bob: “trick”, with bobanna in the plural. Bob a bhuaileadh ar dhuine, “to play a trick on someone, to cheat him”.
bodhar: “deaf”, and by extension “bothered by, tired of something”. Pronounced /bour/.
bodhraim, bodhradh: “to deafen; bother”, or bodhraím, bodhrú in the CO. Pronounced /bourimʹ, bourə/. Also found in the original text here as bodhrú.
bogfheadaíol: “soft whistling”. Such nouns in -aíol all have -aíl in the CO: bogfheadaíl.
boige: “softness”, but also “the easiness or foolishness with which something is done”.
bolg: “belly, stomach”, pronounced /boləg/.
bolmac: “mouthful”, or bolgam in the CO. Pronounced /boləmək/.
bonn: “ground, foundation”, pronounced /boun/. Láithreach bonn, “on the spot, instantly”. Also láithreach bonn baíll.
bonn: “sole of the foot”. Duine bhaint dá bhonnaibh, “to knock someone off his stride, run totally contary to his expectations”. Pronounced /buːn, bunivʹ/
borraim, borradh: “to grow, increase”.
bóthar: “road”. Do bhóthar a thabhairt ort, “to get going”.
botún: “mistake”.
botúnach: “blundering, silly”.
brách: “judgement, doomsday”. Go brách, “forever”, or in negative contexts, “never”.
braimín: “young colt”, the diminutive of bramach (cf. bromach in the CO).
bramach: “colt”, or bromach in the CO. See also braimín.
braon: “drop”, also referring (probably deriving from “a drop of blood”) to inherent qualities. Braon fónta, good qualities in a person’s nature.
braonach: “dripping, misty”. An domhan mór braonach, “the whole wide world”.
brath: “expectation”. Lucht braith, “spies, detectives”.
breab: “bribe”, with breib in the dative.
breac: “dappled, speckled”.
breallán: “blunderer, fool”.
bréanbhróg: “a shoddily made shoe”, from bréan, “foul-smelling, putrid, paltry”.
bréid: “frieze”.
breis: “increase, addition”. Note that although WM Irish usually uses lenition after sa, breis is an exception: sa mbreis, “in addition”. Gan órlach sa mbreis ag éinne acu ar a chéile, “with none of them so much as an inch ahead of each other”.
breithním, breithniú: “to judge, observe”, or breathnaím, breathnú in the CO. Pronounced /brʹenʹ’hi:mʹ, brʹenʹ’hu:/. The CO maintains a distinction between breathnaím, “observe”, and breithním, “judge, adjudicate,” but the distinction was not found in PUL’s works.
breóite: “sick.” Note that the traditional distinction between breóite, “sick”, and teinn, “sore”, is maintained in Cork Irish. The CO only has the latter, spelt as tinn.
bríc: “brick”. Bríc aráin, “a loaf of bread”.
briste: “broken; bankrupt”.
broc: “badger”.
brollach: “breast, bosom”. Pronounced /bər’lɑx/.
bruid: “hurry”, or broid in the CO. Bruid a bheith ort, “to be busy”. The pronunciation is /bridʹ/, and the editing approach here is to retain a spelling in ui in the original, which clarifies the pronunciation, where such a spelling is consistently found in the original.
bruíon: “strife, quarrel”, with bruín in the dative. Sáite i mbruín, “involved in a quarrel”.
buaim, buachtaint: “to win, gain a victory”, or buaim, buachan in the CO. Go mbuaidh Dia go hárd leat! “may God greatly prosper you!” Note that while the subjunctive is go mbua in the CO, Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition shows the pronunciation of buaidh is /buəgʹ/.
buatais: “boot”.
buille: “blow”, but as an adverb, “somewhat”. Buille beag glas, “a little chilly”.
buímpéis: “vamp (of a stocking)”, i.e. the upper part covering the instep and the toes.
buinne: “torrent, swell”. Dá mhéid buinne bhí fúithi, “however vehement she was”.
búirth: “a bellow or roar”, or búir in the CO, pronounced /bu:rʹh/ in WM Irish.
búirtheach: “an act of bellowing, roaring”, or búireach in the CO. The th is preserved, as the pronunciation is /bu:rʹhəx/ in traditional WM Irish.
bulla báisín: “whirligig, a revolving motion”.
bullán: “bullock”. Gamhain bulláin, “bull-calf”.
bunphréamh: “taproot; root, cause, origin”, or bunfhréamh in the CO. With bunphréimh in the dative.
bunúsach: “basic, substantial”. Cainnt bhunúsach a dh’fháil as duine, “to get something sensible out of someone”.
Búrcach: “someone with the surname de Búrca; Burke”.
cad: “what?” Cad uime?, “why? on account of what?” Cad eile? may in context mean “of course!”
caibideal: caibidil, “chapter”. PUL seems to have pronounced this word with a broad l, /kabʹidʹəl/, although Shán Ó Cuív transcribes this word as caibidil in his LS edition.
caidearáil: “gossiping, prattling”, or cadráil in the CO. The original spelling here was caidiráil. CFBB has cadráil and caidreáil. FdS indicates this word is derived from cad deirir?, “what are you saying?”
caidhp: “cap, bonnet”, pronounced /kəipʹ/.
caillichín: “little witch; precocious little girl”.
caillte: “lost”, pronounced /kailʹhi/. Bheith caillte le rud, “to be disadvantaged, to lose by something”. Caillte leó súd, “conned by them, put at a loss by their actions”.
caíncín: “snub nose, prominent nose”, pronounced /ki:ŋ’kʹi:nʹ/.
caíncíneach: “snub-nosed”, pronounced /ki:ŋ’kʹi:nʹəx/.
cainnt: “speech”, or caint in the CO. The traditional double n is preserved here to show the diphthong, /kaintʹ/. Murab ort atá an chainnt, “you can talk! how well you can talk!”, said in sarcasm. Sin í an chainnt, “well said! hear, hear!”
caíora: “sheep”, or caora in the CO. Pronounced /kiːrə/.
cáirde: “credit”. Ar cáirde, “on credit”.
cairiún: “gelding (castrated horse)”, used as a term of abuse for a woman of masculine bearing.
caithim, caitheamh: “to throw”. Caitheamh leó, “to fire at them”.
cáithnín: “particle”, pronounced /kɑ:nʹ’hi:nʹ/. Cáithníní solais, “particles of light”.
calaois: “deceit, fraud”, pronounced /kə’liːʃ/.
callaireacht: “an act of scolding or ranting”.
callóideach: “troublesome”. Oíche challóideach, “a restless night”.
calma: “fine, splendid”, pronounced /kɑləmə/.
canad: “where?” This adverb is generally used as a single-word response or used with the copula; otherwise or cár would be used. Canad is derived from cá hionad?Cá háit? or cén áit? are used in the CO.
canncar: “canker, anger, spleen”, or cancar in the CO. The traditional double n is retained here to show the diphthong: /kauŋkər/.
canncrach: “cantankerous”, or cancrach in the CO. The traditional double n is retained here to show the diphthong: /kauŋkərəx/.
caochaim, caochadh: “to daze, dazzle”. Cad a chaoch suas m’aigne, “what dulled my mind”.
caoi: “way, opportunity”, pronounced /ke:/. I gcaoi go, “so that, in such a way that”.
Caoilteach: a person surnamed Ó Caoilte, or Quilty.
caoldrom: “the small of the back”, or caoldroim in the CO.
caor: “thunderbolt”.
capall: “horse”. Note that the dative plural regularly has a slender double l in PUL’s works, capaillibh, possibly reflecting the influence of a variant nominative plural caiple found in some parts.
carbhat: “neck-tie”. Carbhat caol a chur ar dhuine, “to get someone hanged”. Pronounced /kɑrəvət/.
carcair: “prison, jail”.
carn: “heap”, pronounced /kɑrən/.
Cárthach: “a McCarthy, someone with the surname McCarthy”.
carthanacht: “charity”. Carthanacht a dhéanamh, “to distribute charity”.
cás: “case, cause”. Ní cás dom means “it’s no problem for me; I can easily do it”, but níor chás duit has a sarcastic meaning: “well you might!”, implying doubt that the person you are speaking to could do something. You could possibly translate by “I would like to see you try!”
casúr: “hammer”.
cathain: “when?”, pronounced /kə’hinʹ/.
ceanglaim, ceangal: “to bind, tie; get stuck”, or ceanglaím in the CO. Pronounced /kʹaŋə’li:mʹ, kʹaŋəl/.
ceann-fé: “shame”, or ceann faoi in the CO. The hyphen in the original is preserved here, as this is a noun.
ceann: “head”. Dá chionn, “on account of it”, uses an archaic dative that is only used in set phrases. Moladh le Dia dhá chionn!, “God be praised for it!” I gcionn seachtaine/i gceann seachtaine, “at the end of a week, after a week”. An ceann a bhaint den scéal do dhuine, “to broach a subject with someone, clear something up, get to the main point”.
ceannacha: “facial features”, or ceannaithe in the CO. Pronounced /kʹə’nɑxə/.
ceannaí: “buyer, merchant”.
ceannann: “white-faced”. Troscadh an chait cheannainn a dhéanamh: this derives from the phrase troscadh an chait cheannainn, ithim feóil agus ní ólaim bainne, said of a very righteous person who expresses very pious views as a cloak to his own wrongdoing.
ceanndána: “stubborn”.
ceannrach: “halter”, or ceanrach in the CO. The traditional nn is preserved here to show the diphthong: /kʹaurəx/.
ceap: “shoemaker’s last”, i.e., a block shaped like a shoe, used as a template by cobblers.
céarach: “waxen”, an adjective formed from the genitive singular of céir, which is then itself declined, as in the genitive an tsnátha chéaraigh here.
ceárd: “trade”. The dative singular is céird, with a long e; compare ceird used as the nominative in the CO.
ceárta: “forge”, with ceártan in the genitive and ceártain in the dative. Ceárta an rí, “the Royal Mint”.
ceataí: “inconvenience, awkwardness, a problem”. This appears in the CO as ciotaí, but ceataighe is the traditional spelling, and the pronunciation in WM Irish is /kʹa’ti:/. This word is listed in FdS as feminine, but the original text has ceataighe mór, and the LS edition concurs with the unlenited m. Note the spelling of the cognate word ciotach, “awkward”. The divergence in spelling seems to reflect the fact that unstressed vowels are usually reduced in the pretonic position in WM Irish, except where /i:/ or /u:/ occurs in the stressed syllable. Ciotach possibly represents an underlying earlier form, ceatach, now pronounced ciotach, with the –ea- preserved in pronunciation in words that have /i:/.
ceathrar: “four people”, pronounced /kʹahərər/.
ceathrú: “quarter”, but also “thigh”.
Céile Dé: Culdee, an ancient order of monks in Ireland. Céile Dé could be translated “companion of God”; some of the later communities of Culdees were not bound by monastic vows.
céile: “partner, spouse”. As a chéile, “one after another”.
céim: “step, degree”. Céim cruaidh, “a difficult situation, hard straits”.
céir: “wax”, with céireach/céarach in the genitive, where the CO has céarach.
céis: “young pig”, older than a piglet (banbh), but young enough not to be a muc.
ceist: “question”, but also broader in meaning, glossed in FdS as “uneasiness of mind, annoyance”. Bhí ceist ag teacht orthu, “they began to feel annoyed and uneasy”.
ceistiúchán: “interrogation, asking questions”.
ceoca: “which? which of them?” From cé acu or cé’cu. Pronounced /kʹukə/. Often followed by a relative clause. Spelt ciacu in the original. Ceoca fírinne nú éitheach, “whether the truth or a lie”.
ceól: “music”. Ceól a bhaint as rud, “to get full use of something, have a great time with something”.
cheana: “already”, but sometimes rather “indeed”, pronounced /hɑnə/. Is me cheana, “it is indeed me”.
chím, feiscint: “to see”, or feicim, feiceáil in the CO. The dependent form of the second-person singular preterite is variously given as thar a bhfeacaís and go bhfeacais in the original. Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition transcribes with a long ending, but the diversity of the original text is retained in the editing here, as both forms existed. The dependent form of the third-person singular preterite, an bhfeaca sé, becomes an bhfeacaigh where not immediately before the prononoun (cf. an bhfeacaigh aon Chríostaí riamh a leithéid sin d’obair here), transcribed by Shán Ó Cuív as veacuig. The second-person conditional form, chífeá in the original, is edited here as chífá, in line with the WM pronunciation.
chúig: “five”, or cúig in the CO. This word is generally lenited in PUL’s works, although it appears as a cúig with the enumerative particle.
chun: “towards”. The combined forms of this preposition are distinctive: chúm, chút, chuige, chúithi, chúinn, chúibh, chúthu. The Standard has chugam, chugat, chuige, chuici, chugainn, chugaibh, chucu. Ní chúthu san a bhíos, “I wasn’t referring to those”. Trí bliana déag chun na Bealltaine, “thirteen years old this coming May”.
ciach: “gloom, grief”. Ní bheadh mo chiach i bhfad orthu, “they would not mourn me for long”.
cian: “a little while or distance”. PUL regularly uses cian in the dative, as with idir chian agus cóngar, “both far and near”, here, where the CO uses the historic dative céin.
ciardhubh: “jetblack”, pronounced /kʹiəruv/.
cimeádaim, cimeád: “to keep”. This word and all cognates (chimeádaidís, etc) have a broad c in the classical spelling and in the CO, but a slender c (as applicable) in WM Irish: /kʹi’mʹa:d/, /xʹi’mʹa:didʹi:ʃ/, etc; PUL used the classical spelling in the original here. PUL’s spelling varied over the years, but he certainly used cimeád in his Irish; cf. cimeád a bhfaighir in Notes on Irish Words and Usages, p117. Also note that the the CO distinction between coimeád, “keep”, and coimhéad, “watch over”, does not obtain in WM Irish: coimhéad is an Ulster word. Duine chimeád ar siúl, “to keep someone occupied”.
cimlim, cimilt: “to rub”, or cuimlím, cuimilt in the CO. Cimilt de rud, “to rub against something”. Pronounced /kʹimʹilʹimʹ, kʹimʹiltʹ/.
ciontach: “guilty”. PUL uses both cionntach and ciontach in his works (ciontach is given in the original text here), and IWM shows the pronunciation could be either /kʹu:ntəx/ or /kʹuntəx/.
ciotach: “awkward; lefthanded”. Pronounced /kʹi’tɑx/. See under ceataí.
círíneach: “rosy, florid”.
cirrím, cirriú: “to maim; cut short”, or ciorraím, ciorriú in the CO. Spelt ciorúghadh in the original, the spelling has been adjusted to reflect the pronunciation shown in the LS edition. Cirriú ort! “damn you!”
ciscéim: “footstep”, or coiscéim in the CO.
clabhar: “mantelpiece”, pronounced /klaur/. Listed in CFBB as meaning “the traverse timber beam supporting the chimney”.
cladhaire: “rogue, trickster”, pronounced /kləirʹi/.
clagar: “pelting”, or clagairt in the CO. Fén gclagar, “in the pelting rain”.
claí: “fence”.
clampar: “wrangling, dispute”, pronounced /klaumpər/.
cleamhain: “son-in-law”, or cliamhain in the CO, which form was found in the text of PUL’s novel, Niamh. Pronounced /klʹaunʹ, klʹiənʹ/.
cleamhnas: “marriage, match”. Both cleamhnaisí and cleamhnaistí are found in the plural in Séadna, where the CO has cleamhnais.
cleith: “stake, beam”.
cliabh: “bosom, chest”.
cliath: “splint”, also used for “darning” in socks, with cléithe in the genitive. Cliath a chur i stoca, “to darn a stocking”. Cliath is well known for its used in the placename Baile Átha Cliath, where cliath means “hurdle”.
cliathán: “side, flank”, pronounced /klʹi:’hɑ:n/.
cló: “form, shape”. Cló cuirp, “an emaciated, a corpse-like appearance”.
cloch: “stone”, with cloich in the dative. Pronounced /klox, klih/.
cloím, cloí: “to cleave, adhere”. Cloí le rud, “to confine yourself to or stick to something”.
cloisim, clos/cloisint: “to hear”. Airím, aireachtaint are more commonly used in WM. Cloisteáil is found as the verbal noun in the CO. Also note the preterite here, do chloiseas, where the CO has chuala mé. An older second-personal plural present-tense form is used in an gcloistí?, “do you hear? just listen to that!” Note the autonomous form of the preterite, do chlos/níor chlos, where the CO has chualathas/níor chualathas. The verbal noun is found as both clos and cloistin in the original, with the latter edited as cloisint (the pronunciation shown in Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition of Séadna).
clú: “reputation, fame”. Do chuid is do chlú ag imeacht duit, “to save both your property and your character”, i.e., to offer something that is refused, so saving your money and gaining the credit for having offered it.
cluas: “ear”. Bain an chluas (anuas ón gceann) díom (má…), literally “cut my ear off (if…)”, used to emphasise a statement, similar to the English “I’ll eat my hat (if…); you can be sure that…”
cluthar: “cosy, comfortable”.
cnáib: “hemp, hangman’s noose”.
cnaipe: “button, stud”. Titim ’na chnaipe, “to fall in a heap”.
cnámhach: “big-boned”, pronounced /knɑːx/.
cnapóg: “lump”.
cneadaim, cneadach: “to pant, groan”. Cneadach is a feminine verbal noun that is declined in the dative as ag cneadaigh.
cneasta: “gentle”, or sometimes, “suitable”, as here, in reference to comfortable shoes.
cnósaím, cnósach: “to collect, gather”, or cnuasaím, cnuasach in the CO. The spelling chnuasaigh is found in the original, and Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition of Séadna concurs in transcribing as if that were the pronunciation, but forms in -ó- are more prevalent in the dialect.
cnuc: “hill”, or cnoc in the CO. Pronounced /knuk/. Cnuc air mar scéal, “what nonsense!”
cocaí: “cock, rooster”.
cochall: “a cock’s hackles”, i.e., the long, fine feathers at the back, and by extension i gcochall a chéile, “attacking each other”.
cogadh: “war”. Cogadh dearg, “a bloody war; a right to-do”.
cogar: “whisper”. As an interjection, “listen! here! a word with you!”
cogarnach: “whispering”, a feminine verbal noun that becomes ag cogarnaigh in the dative; this distinction is not observed in the CO.
cognaim, cogaint: “to chew”, or cognaím,cogaint in the CO. Pronounced /kogənimʹ, kogintʹ/.
coicíos: “fortnight”, or coicís in the CO.
coilgsheasamh:’na choilgsheasamh, “bolt upright”, or ina cholgsheasamh in the CO. Pronounced /nə xilʹigʹ ‘hɑsəv/.
coímheascar: “struggle, mêlée”. Pronounced /kiːskər/.
coímhtheach: “alien; wild”, or coimhthíoch in the CO. Féachaint choímhtheach, “a wild look”. Pronounced /ki:həx/.
coinneal: “candle”, pronounced /kiŋʹəl/. Coinneal na dhá shúil, “his eyes ablazing”.
coinníoll: “condition”, pronounced /ki’nʹi:l as with a single n. Coinníll in the dative.
cóir: “right”. Cóir cam díreach, “at all costs, whether right or wrong”.
coisíocht: “pace, gait, footsteps”.
cóisire: “wedding”, or cóisir in the CO. The genitive found here is cóisreach, where the CO has cóisire.
cóiste: “coach”.
coitiantacht: “the general run of things; people in general”. Chómh fada agus a théann an choitiantacht, “generally speaking; as far as anything can be said about most people”.
col: “impediment”. Gan choinníoll gan chol, “with neither condition or impediment”.
coladh grifín: “pins and needles”, pronounced /kolə krʹi’fʹi:nʹ/ according to IWM, although Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition of Séadna does not indicate any devoicing of the g.
colann: “body”, with colainn in the dative, which form is used in the nominative in the CO.
colpa: “calf (of the leg)”, pronounced /koləpə/.
colpach: “stout in the calves”, pronounced /koləpəx/.
comáinim, comáint: “to drive, drive forward”, or tiomáinim, tiomáint in the CO. Tiomáint is also found here, but comáint is the form generally used in the original text. Comáint leat (tiomáint leat), “to press on, proceed, continue on”.
comaoine:“favour”, or comaoin in the CO. Comaoine a chur ar dhuine, “to do someone a favour”.
cómhairím, cómhaireamh: “to count”, or comhairim, comhaireamh in the CO. Note the imperative and preterite here, cómhairimh/do chómhairimh, reflecting a general tendency in WM Irish for the preterite to have -mh rather than -gh where the verbal noun ends in -mh (compare sheasaimh).
cómharsa: “neighbour”, with the plural here cómharsain where the CO has comharsana. The genitive is cómharsan and the dative singular is cómharsain.
cómhartha: “sign”. Dá chómhartha san féin, “similarly, by the same token, as confirmation of that”.
cómhnaois: “the same age”, or comhaois in the CO. Cómhnaois do dhuine, “of the same age as someone”.
cómhrac: “encounter; fight”. I gcómhrac lae agus oíche, “just at the time of day where day meets night”.
comórtas: “comparison”.
cónaí: “dwelling, act of dwelling”. Duine chur na chónaí, “to put someone in his place”.
conas: “how?” Conas é sin?, “what do you mean?”
cóngar: “short cut”.
cor: “throw, cast”. Cor a chur díot, “to budge, move”. In aon chor, “at all”, pronounced /ə’neːxər/.
córach: “well-shaped; well-proportioned”. See cúmtha.
córaím, córú: “to dress, equip”, or cóirím, cóiriú in the CO. Córú, “a dressing”, also refers sarcastically to “a beating”.
coróinn: “crown”, or coróin in the CO, pronounced /kroːŋʹ/. An Choróinn Mhuire, “the Rosary”. Coróinn fén bpúnt, “25%, a crown in the pound”.
corrabhuais: “uneasiness, consternation”.
cos: “foot”. Note that while the dative, cois, is normally pronounced /koʃ/, in the phrase im chuis (na chuis, etc), it pronounced /xiʃ/.
cosnaim, cosaint: “to defend; to cost”. This would be cosnaím, cosaint in the CO. PUL has this in the first conjugation in most tenses, but cosnód and cosnódh in the future and conditional. Pronounced /kosənimʹ, kosintʹ/.
cosnochtaithe: “barefoot”, or cosnochta in the CO. Also found as coslomrachta.
cóta: “coat”. Cóta-mór, “overcoat, great coat”. This is hyphenated in the original as what is effectively a single noun. The hyphenation is retained in the editing here, as the meaning is not identical to “a large coat”. FdS explains that “in Séadna’s country” (West Muskerry?) cóta means “petticoat”, and casóg is used for “coat”.
cothrom: “a fair chance, a good opportunity”, pronounced /korhəm/.
cráifeacht: “devotion, piety”.
cráin: “sow”. Cráin mhuice, “a sow pig”.
crann: “tree”, but also “lot, fate”, especially in reference to a bad fate. Cuirimís ar chrannaibh é, “let’s draw lots for it”.
craobh: “branch”. Dul/imeacht le craochaibh, “to go mad”, especially “stark raving mad”. This phrase is explained in FdS as referring to the catching of the clothes of a madman on bushes as he wanders around wildly. Beidh an chraobh aige, “he will take the palm, he will have done well”.
creach: “ruin, loss”. A chreach láidir é!, “I am ruined!”
creachaim, creachadh: “to plunder, rob”, with the participle creachta found here.
creathán: “trembling”, pronounced /krʹi’hɑːn/.
creathánach: “trembling, quivering”.
crích: “end, fate”, or críoch in the CO. Críoch is normally found in PUL’s works only to denote the end of a book. A gclann curtha i gcrích acu, “their children married off and settled in life”. Crích an scéil, “the upshot of the story”. An crích a bheireann duine, “the fate that overtakes someone, how someone ends up”.
críochnaithe: “completed”, but also “perfect”, as in amadán críochnaithe, “a perfect fool”.
crios: “flint”, with creasa in the genitive. Tine chreasa, “sparks, frictional sparks”.
critheagla: “quaking fear”, pronounced /krʹih-ɑgələ/.
croch: “the gallows”, with croiche in the genitive and croich in the darive. Pronounced /krox, krihi, kroh/ [the pronunciation /krihi/ is indicated in Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition, but more research required on whether /krohi/ is possible; the LS transcription of gcroich as groih seems to show an o].
crochaim, crochadh: “to hang”. Ar chrochadh, “hanging aloft”, pronounced /ə kroxə/.
croí: “heart”. De chroí dháiríribh, “in deadly earnest”. Rud do ghlacadh de chroí dháiríribh, “to take something in earnest, take it seriously”.
croídhreac: “scarlet, crimson”, pronounced /kriːrʹək/ according to the note in FdS (where, under the entry under the original spelling craoidhearg, it is stated that it is “prncd. croídhreac”). Compare Shán Ó Cuív’s transcription in the LS edition of Séadna, which gives chroídhreac as chruíghearag. PSD states under craorach that this word derives from cróidhearg, “scarlet, crimson, blood-red”,or caordhearg, “berry-red, bright red”. Craorag in the CO. FGB has an entry for croidhreac, crossreferenced to craorag.
croithim, crothadh: “to shake”, or croithim, croitheadh in the CO.
cromruathar: “crouching run”. Ar a cromruathar, “running in a crouched position”. Pronounced /kromə-ruəhər/.
crónán: “humming, purring”.
cros: “cross”, with the genitive croise pronounced /kriʃi/.
crosaire: “crossroads”.
crot: “shape, form”. Gan crot air, “without shape or form”. PSD explains that crot refers to appearance, whereas cruth refers to shape or form. However, FdS glosses this word as “appearance, good appearance, shape, form, beauty”. The CO has only cruth. Sin í an chainnt go bhfuil an crot uirthi, “that’s the way to talk! that sounds more like it!”
cruaidh: “hard”, or crua in the CO. The adjective is pronounced /kruəgʹ/, with the plural, edited here as crua and originally spelt cruadha, pronunced /kruə/.
cruáil: “stinginess”.
crúb: “hoof”. Mar chrúb thairbh, “like an ox’s hoof”, does not give the expected dative crúib here, as crúb thairbh is bracketed together as a noun phrase. See part 1 of Gearóid Ó Nualláin’s Studies in Modern Irish, pp158-159, for discussion of the Bracketed Construction.
crúim, crú: “to milk”.
cruinne: “universe”.
cruinniú: “a gathering or assemblage of people”.
cuaird: “visit, trip, circuit”, or cuairt in the CO.
cúbaim, cúbadh: “to cower, shrink”.
cuid: “share”, but also “meal, supper”. A chuid, “my dear!” Cuid na hoíche, “supper”. Daoine go bhfuil do chuid acu, “people who have your money/property”.
cuideachta: “company, the people present”, with cuideachtain in the dative. Droch-chuideachta, “bad company”. Pronounced /ki’dʹaxtə~ki’lʹaxtə/. Note the evidence given in CFBB that whereas some Muskerry speakers used an l in the related word cuideachtanas, AÓL had a d, indicating that the best speakers kept a d here.
cuigeann: “a churning of milk”.
cuil: “fly”, the insect.
cúilfhiacal: “backtooth, molar”, or cúlfhiacail in the CO. D’ainneóin a chúílfhiacal, “in spite of him”.
cuímhním, cuímhneamh: “to consider, think”. Anois a chuímhním air, “now that I come to think of it”.
cuireadh: “an invitation”, pronounced /kirʹi/.
cuirim, cur: “to put”. Rud a chur ar dhuine, “to put the blame for something on someone”. Note the present and future autonomous forms, curtar and curfar, where cuirtar and cuirfar would be more likely in later WM Irish. A single instance of cuirtear in chapter 14 is edited as curtar here. The conditional and imperfect autonomous forms are curfí (found as curfaí in the original here)and curtí, as the f and t are slender in WM Irish (cuirfí and cuirtí are the more usual forms). Similarly, the second-person singular conditional form curfá is found in most of PUL’s works, in preference to cuirfá in later WM Irish, and so the confusion between curfá and cuirfeá in the original text is resolved by standardising on curfá in the editing process here. Cur air, “to take him on, attack him”. Cur chuige, “to set about it”. Cur de, “to accomplish something, get through it, get it done”: an dréimire suas do chur díot, “to rush up the ladder”. Curtha, “buried”.
cuirpeach: “malefactor, villain”, or coirpeach in the CO. Pronounced /kirʹipʹəx/.
cuisle: “vein”, but also “forearm”, with cuislinn in the dative. Pronounced /kuʃlʹi/, according to CFBB.
cúitím, cúiteamh: “to compensate, requite”. Ag cur agus ag cúiteamh, “to argue, weigh the pros and cons”. Nár chúitíthear a saothar léi!, “may she not be rewarded for her trouble!”
cúl: “back”, especially the back of the head. Go cúl, “to the very end”. Rud a chur ar gcúlaibh, “to put something off, postpone it”. I ndiaidh a chúl, “backwards”.
culaith: “suit”, pronounced /klih/.
cúm: “waist”, or com in the CO.
cuma: “equal, indifferent”. Ba chuma dúnta nú oscailte é, “it would make no difference if it were open or shut”.
cúmpórd: “comfort”, or compord in the CO. Pronounced /ku:m’po:rd/.
cúmtha: “well-formed, handsome”, pronounced /kuːmhə/. The CO has cumtha, but most parts of the verb cumaim, cumadh have a long /u/ in WM Irish (i.e., those parts that are monosyllabic, like do chúm sé, or where the m comes before a consonant, like cúmfad and cúmtha). Often in alliterative combinations: go cúmtha córach cothaithe cumasach dea-chroicinn, “handsome, well-proportioned, well-nourished, strong and fine-complexioned”.
cúnamh: “help”. Cúnamh fear, “a body of men”.
cúnlach: “moss”.
cúnstaic: “obstacle”, spelt constaic in the original. This word is edited here in line with the pronunciation shown in the LS edition of Séadna. Cúnstaic a chur i gcoinnibh ruda, “to place obstacles in something’s way”.
cúntas: cuntas in the CO, “account”. Pronounced /ku:ntəs/.
cúntúirt: “danger”, or contúirt in the CO.
cúpla: “a couple”, taking the nominative singular. Pronounced /kuːpələ/.
cúrsa: “course, journey, career”. Curfar deireadh lena chúrsaíbh, “his travels will be brought to an end”.Cúrsaí, in the plural: “a matter for something”. Cúrsaí smachta, “a matter of discipline”. Cúrsaí an chleamhnais, “all about the match/marriage”. Cúrsaí cainnte, “subjects for discussion”.
dabhta: “doubt”, or dabht in the CO. Dabhta dhéanamh de dhuine, “to doubt someone”. Note that the form is dabhta in this phrase, but dabht in gan dabht, “without doubt”.
daid mór: “grandfather”. Also found here as athair mór.
daighe: found in an daighe, “the Dagda, a powerful god in Irish mythology; by extension, really, indeed!” Pronounced /ən dəi/. An daighe is given as don daighe in Foclóir Gaeilge-Béarla, but the etymology is unclear and the first syllable may just be the definite article.
dailtín: “brat, spoilt child”, pronounced /dalʹ’hi:nʹ/. Note that the dative plural is given here as dailtínibh, instead of the expected dailtíníbh; dative plural forms with a short i are older variants.
daingním, daingniú: “to make fast or secure (e.g., of a door)”. Pronounced /daiŋʹi’nʹi:mʹ, daiŋʹi’nʹu:/.
dall: “blind”, with daille in the comparative. Pronounced /daul, dilʹi/. Níos daille ar an scéal, “more puzzled by the matter”.
dallacán: “dimwit”. This was given as dallachán in one edition of Séadna, and the LS edition transcribes as if with ch, but FdS shows the word as dallacán, as does another early edition of Séadna, which appears to contain some corrections. CFBB also gives dallacán as the correct form.
dáltha: “affair, circumstances”, a noun that, etymologically at least, is the plural of dáil, “meeting, assembly”. Dála is the form used in the CO. Pronounced /dɑːlhə/. Dáltha an scéil, “by the way, now I think of it”. Dáltha an chait, “just like the cat”.
dána: “bold”. Éadan dána bheith ort, “to be barefaced, have a brass neck, have a cheek”.
dar fia!: “by Jove!” Fia means “Lord, God”, but the word was frequently confused with the word fia, meaning “deer”—the former was fiadha and the latter fiadh in the old script—producing the Hiberno Irish form, “by the deer!” Pronounced /dɑr fʹiə/. The LS transcription dair fie indicates that the r may become slenderised by assimilation to the f.
darfa lia: “by God! egad! heavens!” PSD claims this phrase is derived from dar fotha/foth Dia, where fotha means “foundation, basis”. However, FdS indicates that darfa lia is a way of avoiding saying dar fia Dia, “as God is my witness!” The real etymology may be obscure.
darna: second, or darain the CO; dara was also occasionally found in PUL’s works. See also tarna.
de dhruím: “over”, or de dhroim in the CO. Go tromchroíoch de dhruím an scéil, “really down over the matter”.
de: “of, from”. It is important to bear in mind that this simple preposition is pronounced in the same way as do in WM Irish, /də/. Usage in the original work was inconsistent, and it has been thought better to edit these with the historically correct prepositions, as they would stand in the CO. Note that PUL was particularly insistent on writing do réir, which he held was either pronounced /də re:rʹ/ or /dʹrʹe:rʹ/—in other words the slender d only appeared when run together as a single word—but this has been edited as de réir here. Similarly, do phreib, “suddenly, with a bound”, where it occurs throughout the work is edited as de phreib. The alignment of do and de in pronunciation only applies to the simple preposition; the prepositional pronoun de (written in the original) is pronounced /dʹə~dʹi/. See also do.
dé: an obscure word used in salutations. Dé bheathasa, “welcome”, with go mairirse (i bhfad rómham) or go mairir slán the traditional reply. doesn’t appear to have anything to do with the word Dia, “God”. The phrase rather appears a corruption of the Old Irish rotbia de bethu, “may you have much life; literally, there will be life to you”, where t is an infixed pronoun that has survived in the d of . The phrase appears to have been inaccurately reanalysed as some sort of copular sentence, with dé do bheatha and dé bheathasa both found, appearing to mean “God is your life”.
dea-chroicinn: “with a fine/clear skin, or coat (in the case of horses)”. The genitive of dea-chroiceann used as an adjective. Pronounced /dʹa-xrokʹiŋʹ/ according to Shán Ó Cuív’s LS version, although the genitive of croiceann, “skin”,is found as croicinwith a single n in PUL’s Críost Mac Dé. Croiceann appears as craiceann in the CO.
dea-shamplach: “exemplary”, pronounced /dʹa-haumpələx/.
dea-thabhartha suas: “well brought-up”.
deacair: “difficulty”, with deacraí in the plural. Unlike the related adjective (see deocair), this noun is not pronounced with an /o/: /dʹakirʹ, dʹakə’riː/.
dealbh: “appearance, shape”, or deilbh in the CO, where the historical dative has replaced the nominative. Pronounced /dʹaləv/.
dealbh: “destitute, poor”, with the comparative dealbha. Pronounced /dʹaləv, dʹa’luː/.
deallraím, deallramh: “to appear”, or dealraím, dealramh in the CO. The traditional ll is given in the editing here, indicating the diphthong; the original text contains spelling such as deabhruighean, showing the deletion of the l after the diphthong: /dʹau’riːm, dʹaurəv/. Deallraíonn san go, “that shows that”.
deallramh: “appearance”, dealramh. Pronounced /dʹaurəv/.
deamhan: “demon”, pronounced /dʹaun/. An deamhan me, “crikey! the devil take me!” This is given as don deamhan me in some dictionaries, but it is not clear to me that the first syllable of this interjection is a weakened form of don, as FdS glosses this phrase as “the divil be from me!” An is therefore retained in the editing here.
déanamh: “make”. Déanamh na bróige, “the make of the shoe”.
dearbhaím, dearbhú: “to affirm, swear, attest”. Dearbhú ar dhuine, “to testify against someone”. Pronounced /dʹarə’viːmʹ, dʹarə’vuː/.
dearfa: “sure, certain”, pronounced /dʹarəfə/.
dearg: “red”, pronounced /dʹarəg/.
deargbhuile: “rage, fury”, pronounced /dʹarəg-vilʹi/. Ar deargbhuile, “raging mad, furious”.
dearglasadh: found in ar dearglasadh, “blazing”, of eyes. Pronounced /dʹarəg-lɑsə/.
deárna: “palm of the hand”, with deárnan in the genitive singular and deárnain in the dative singular. Deárna leat!, “good for you! bravo!”
dearúd: “mistake”, or dearmad in the CO.
dearúdaim, dearúd: “to forget”, with the imperative/preterite often slenderised, dearúid. The CO forms are dearmadaim and dearmad.
deaslámhach: “dexterous”. The comparative found in the corrected early edition is deas-lámhachaíghe (compare deas-lámhaíghe in the early edition that appears to have a number of errors), edited here as deaslámhachaí, where the CO has deaslámhaí. Pronounced /dʹas-lɑ:x, dʹas-lɑ:’xi:/. I am not fully sure of the pronunciation of the comparative, as CFBB shows the comparative of baoch is pronounced /beː’hiː/ with an h—this could be transcribed as baeichí in the transcription system I am using. So is deaslámhachaí really deaslámhaichí?
deatach: “smoke”, pronounced /dʹi’tɑx/. The genitive in one early edition of Séadna was given as deataí (gal deataí), but another early edition, which seems to contain a number of corrections, had deataigh. FdS indicates that both genitives existed.
deifríocht: “difference”, or difríocht in the CO. The LStranscription used in Shán Ó Cuív’s edition of Séadna points to a pronunciation /dʹifʹi’rʹi:xt/, whereas that used by Shán Ó Cuív in his LS edition of PUL’s version of An Teagasg Críostaidhe points to a pronunciation /dʹefʹi’rʹi:xt/. Cnósach Focal ó Bhaile Bhúirne has a broad r, /dʹefʹə’ri:xt/ (deifearaíocht). More research required here.
déileáil: “dealing, transaction”, pronounced /dʹəi’lʹa:lʹ/.
deimhin: “certain, sure”, pronounced /dʹəinʹ/. Go deimhin féin, “in total truth, to be totally honest”.
deimhnitheach: “certain”, or deimhneach in the CO. Pronounced /dʹəiŋʹihəx/.
déin: found in the phrase fé dhéin, “towards, to meet, in aid of”, also found in the original text here as fá dhéin.
deinim, déanamh: “to do, make”, or déanaim, déanam in the CO. Deinim is a corruption of the historical form do-ghním, whereas déanaim is historically the dependent form of do-ghním. Note do dhein in the past tense, where the CO has rinne sé. The imperative, given as ná déan in one passage in the original text, is transcribed as ná dein here. É dhéanamh sometimes in context means something like “to behave”: nách maith a dhein sí é?, “didn’t she behave well?”, meant sarcastically in chapter 13 here.
déirc: “alms, charity”, with déarca in the genitive.
deireadh: “end”. An lá fé dheireadh, “the other day”.
deirim, rá: “to say, tell”. A diphthong is used throughout the past tense: duart, duairt sé, dúradh, pronounced /duərt, duərtʹ ʃe:, duərəg/. Note the use of deirir, an older second-person singular form in the present tense, otherwise deireann tú. The verbal noun, , is pronounced with a slender r in the combination á rá, /ɑ: rʹɑ:/, transcribed by Shán Ó Cuív as á reá. Bhí iúnadh orm a rá go, often meaning something more along the lines of “I was surprised to think that, consider that”. An ndeireann tú liom é?, “are you sure?” Ar maidin an lae fé dheireadh, adeirim, “the other morning, I mean”. The dependent forms in abr- are generally found in the imperative, present subjunctive and past subjunctive only, but note níor habradh, /nʹiːr hɑbərəg/, in the preterite in chapter 10, where ní dúradh might have been expected. Mar a déarfá, “about”. Abair é!, “I should say so! You can say that again!”
deirineach: “last”, or deireanach in the CO.
deisbhéalach: “witty; quick to answer back”.
deocair: “difficult”, deacair in the CO. Spelt deacair in the original, but pronounced /dʹokirʹ/ in WM Irish.
deóir: “tear”, with deór in the genitive plural.
diablaíocht: “wizardly; the casting of a spell”, or diabhlaíocht in the CO.
diair: found in the adverb go diair, “instantly, quickly”.
díbheirg: “wrath, vengeance”. Pronounced /dʹi:’vʹerʹigʹ/
díbrim, díbirt: “to banish, drive out”. Díbrím, díbirt in the CO. Ar díbreadh é?, “was he sent away?” Pronounced /dʹiːbʹirʹimʹ, dʹiːbʹirtʹ/.
dícheall: “one’s best efforts”, pronounced /dʹi:həl/. Ná dein aon dá chuid ded dhícheall, “don’t do things by halves”.
díobháil: “harm”. Cad é an díobháil dom ach an sagart féin!, “I wouldn’t have minded/it wouldn’t have been so bad if it hadn’t been the priest himself!”
dioc: “pip”, a disease in poultry. Pronounced /dʹuk/.
díol: “selling”, but also “recompense, reward”. Ba mhaith an díol air é, “he well deserved it; it wasn’t wasted on him; it was well spent on him”, referring in context here to a meal given to someone who made the most of it.
díolúnach: “rogue”. Note: originally meant “franklin; hired soldier”. CFBB shows that some speakers of WM Irish, including AÓL, had gíolúnach /gʹi:’lu:nəx/, whereas others had /dʹi:’lu:nəx/.
diomách: “dejected”, spelt díombádhach in the original, but the length of the first vowel has been edited here to show the WM pronunciation (cf. diomá in CFBB).
díon: “roof”, often in the phrase díon tí. Fé dhíon tí, “in the house”, given as fé dhín tíghe in the original text of chapter 8, perhaps reflecting the slenderising effect of the t of tíghe on the n of what would have been dhíon. This is edited here as fé dhíon tí. LMM transcribes as fé iadhadh an tí, where iadhadh would be a variant of iamh, “closure, enclosure”: cf. faoi iamh an tí, “within the four walls of the house” in FGB. However, FdS makes clear that fé dhín tíghe is derived from díon.
díonaim, díon: “to protect, safeguard”.
dírím, díriú: “to straighten”. Díriú ar dhuine, “to round on someone”.
díth: “loss or lack of something”.
dithneas: “haste, urgency”, pronounced /dʹihinʹəs/.
diúltaím, diúltú: “to refuse”, used with do. Pronounced /dʹu:l’hi:mʹ, dʹu:l’hu:/. Diúltú is found as the verbal noun in chapter 32, but diúltadh is used in chapter 10. This would be an older form, which is transcribed in Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition of Séadna as diúlta (the transcription of lt as /lh/ in the LS edition being haphazard).
dleathach: “legal”, pronounced /dlʹi’hɑx/.
do: “to”. Note that the classical spelling of the preposition pronoun is adopted in the CO, but this form is pronounced /do/ in the dialect and so edited as do here. Forms of this word are often elited in pronunciation, as in is fíor dhuit, “you’re right”, pronounced /əs fʹi:r otʹ/. Note that the emphatic form dómhsa has a long vowel, /do:sə/. See also under de.
dó’: “hope, expectation; source of expectation”, or dóigh in the CO. This occurred as dóigh in the original, but is uniformly edited as dó’ here, in line with the pronunciation. Is dó’, “well, however, indeed”. Is dóin, “well, however, indeed” (PSD states that dóin is a corruption of dóigh). Another variant is dóil: ní dóil, “I don’t think so”. Dar ndó’ and dar nóin, “of course”, also found as ar ndó’.
dóbair: “it nearly happened”, originally the preterite of the verb fóbraim. Ba dhóbair dom é ’ dhearúd, “I almost forgot”.
dobrónach: “dejected”.
dóch: “burning”. Galar dóch, “melancholy”. PSD show this word means “burning”, but FGB has galar dubhach, where dubhach means “dismal”.
dochraideach: “sore at heart, worried and annoyed”, pronounced /doxəridʹəx/.
doicheall: “inhospitality”.
doimhinn: “deep”, domhain in the CO. Pronounced /dəiŋʹ/.
doirchím, dorchú: “to darken”.
donaí: “miserable, wretched”. Olc maith nú donaí is generally translated as “good, bad or indifferent”, although FdS indicates that donaí does not actually mean “indifferent”, but “pretty bad”, something less worse than olc. Olc, maith nó dona is what is recommended in FGB.
dorcha: “dark”, pronounced /dorəxə/. Also, “secretive/mysterious”, of a person.
dorn: “fist”, with doirn in the genitive. Pronounced /dorən, dirʹinʹ/.
doshásta: “sad, dissatisfied”. The prefix do- is pronounced with a full vowel /do-/.
dothíos: “churlishness”.
dothíosach: “churlish”.
draighean: “blackthorn”. Also draighean dubh. Possibly pronounced drəin/. The genitive, draighin, is transcribed as drying by Shán Ó Cuív in chapter 8 of his LS edition, implying it should be draighinn, but as druín in chapter 16.
dranntaím, dranntú: “to snarl”, or drantaím, drantú in the CO. Pronounced /draun’ti:mʹ, draun’tú/.
dranntán: “act of snarling”, or drantán in the CO.
driofúr: “sister”, or deirfiúr in the CO. IWM shows that both drifíur and driofúr are found in WM Irish, but the form with a broad f is found here, /drʹi’fu:r/.
driuch: “sickly appearance”, or dreach in the CO. Driuch báis, “a death-like appearance”.
drochbheart: “bad dead, mean act”. Beart is normally feminine in PUL’s works, but drochbheart seems to be masculine, as the genitive is drochbhirt.
drochfhriotal: “bad language”, pronounced /dro-rʹitəl/.
drochiarracht: “a desperate attempt”. Drochiarracht do thabhairt fé dhuine, “to launch an underhand attack against someone”.
drochmhianach: “poor quality, baseness of character”, with the genitive, drochmhianaigh, used as an adjective, “ill-bred”, of an animal.
drochsheasamh: “a nasty look”.
drochtheangmhálaí: “bad associate”, pronounced /dro-haŋə’vɑ:li:/.
drólann: “colon”. A dhrólainn na bhfeart! “goodness gracious!” In FdS, PUL does not give a translation of the word drólann other than to say it is used in exclamations, and that the phrase a dhrólainn na bhfeart! stands for a Dhia na bhfeart!, “God of miracles”.
drom: “back”, or droim in the CO. PUL uses drom (in the nominative and dative) for the actual back of a person or an animal, but druím for more derived usages (druím lámha, “the back of a hand” etc). The back of a chair is also drom cathaoireach here.
drúcht: “dew”. Ag siúl drúchta, “walking the dew, i.e., alive”.
dua: “trouble doing something”.
duain: “poem, song”. Níl scéal ná duain uaidh, “there has been no tale nor tidings of him”.
duais: “gloom, sorrow, travail, distress”. Greadadh is duais ort!, “may you have torment and trouble!”
dúbalta: “double, doubled”, or dúbailte in the CO. Pronounced /du:bəlhə/.
dubh: “black”, with dúbha in the plural and duíbhe in the genitive singular feminine, pronounced /duv, du:, di:/.
dúbhaim, dúchtaint: “to darken, blight”. Do dhúbhaigh agus do ghormaigh aige, “he became utterly dejected”. Note: pronounced /duːmʹ, duːxtintʹ, ɣuːgʹ/.
dúid: “stump; craned throat or neck”. Greim dúid, “a vicelike grip”, or greim dúide in the CO. PSD has both dúd and dúid in the nominative, explaining the genitive in greim dúid, but FdS claims this word is an adjective, meaning “last, utmost, extreme”.
duigh: “pain”, or daigh in the CO. The vowel in the original spelling duigh (duig in the original text) is retained here as showing the pronunciation more clearly, /digʹ/. Duigh ionat, “the devil take you! shut up!”
duine: “person”. An duine is often to be translated as “someone”, as in d’airíodar an duine ag teacht chun an tí.
dúire: this word literally means “rigidity”, but is glossed as “gloom, depression” in FdS.
dul: “condition, state”. Ar an ndul gcéanna, “in the same state”.
dúr: “dour, surly”.
dúthaigh: “land, region, district”, or dúiche in the CO. The genitive is edited here as dútha, where the CO has dúiche.
dúthrachtach: “fervent, earnest, devoted”, pronounced /du:rhəxtəx/.
each: “horse, steed”. Pronounced /ɑx/.
eachra: “horses”, pronounced /ɑxərə/. This is a collective word, used in the singular with a plural meaning.
eachtra: “adventure”, pronounced /ɑxtərə/. Also by extension, “a story; a great tale”.
éadach: “cloth”.
eadartha: “late morning; morning milking time”, or eadra in the CO. Pronounced /ɑdərhə/. Ag déanamh amach ar eadartha, “getting on for late morning”.
éadóchas: “despair”.
éadrom: “light”, pronounced /iadərəm/.
éadromacht: “lightness”, or éadroime in the CO. Ar éadromacht, “out of his senses”.
eagal: “fear”, a variant of eagla.
éaghmais: “absence, lack”, or éagmais in the CO. Dá éaghmais sin agus uile, “in spite of all that”. D’éaghmais, “other than, besides”.
eagla: “fear”, pronounced /ɑgələ/.
éagruas: “fever, malady”.
éagsamhlach: “extraordinary, uncommon”, or éagsúlach in the CO. Pronounced /iag’sauləx/.
éalaím, éaló: “to escape, make off”, or éalaím, éalú in the CO.
earra: “article, thing”. Nár dhothíosach an earra í!, “wasn’t she a churlish sort/a churlish so-and-so?” Pronounced /ɑrə/ and spelt ara in the original, probably indicating this word does not slenderise a preceding an. This word is feminine here, but masculine in the CO.
éasca: “easy, free, fluent”, pronounced /e:skə/.
eascaine: “curse”, pronounced /ɑskinʹi/.
eascainím, eascainí: “to curse”, with ar. Pronounced /ɑski’nʹi:mʹ, ɑski’nʹi:/.
easna: “rib”, with easnaíocha in the plural, where the CO has easnacha. Pronounced /ɑsnə/.
éidir: “possible”. Éidir is distinguished from féidir by an additional rhetorical nuance: ní héidir (go), “surely it’s not possible, I suppose it’s not possible (that)”.
éirím, éirí: “to rise”. This word is pronounced /əi’rʹi:mʹ, əi’rʹi:/ in WM Irish. Éirí in áirde, “airs, uppishness”. Éireóidh a chroí air, “the shock will affect his heart”. Cad ’tá ag éirí fúithi? would seem to mean, “what has come over her? what is happening to her?”, but I haven’t found éirí listed with as an idiom in any dictionary. Cad é an donas é seo atá ag éirí do sna daoine go léir?, “what mischief is this that is coming over all the people?”.
éirleach: “havoc, confusion”. Note the long e before rl; the CO has eirleach. An t-éirleach go léir dá dhéanamh, “all the extraordinary goings-on”.
éis: “track”. This word seems to be rarely used in its original meaning. Tar éis and d’éis are both found here, meaning “after”.
éistim, éisteacht: “to hear”. Note that éist is normally /e:ʃtʹ/, but a byform eist /eʃtʹ/ may also be heard in the phrase eist do bhéal, “hold your tongue”, or as an imperative meaning “hush”. Éist/eist do bhéal can also mean “nonsense!” in context. Éist in chapter 1 here is retained as in the original, as éist is also correctly found in such contexts.
eiteachas: “refusal”, pronounced /ə’tʹɑxəs/.
éitheach: “falsehood”. Thugais d’éitheach, “that was a lie; you are lying”, where the slender s of thugais appears to de aspirate the follow t’éitheach, producing d’éitheach.
eitím, eiteach: “to refuse”. Dinneen has both eiteach and eiteachadh as the verbal noun, but I have yet to come across the verbal noun in PUL’s works. Eitím duine ar rud, “I refuse someone something”.
eólas: “knowledge”. Eólas a dh’fháil tríd an gcathair, “to find your way through the city”.
fabhra: “eyelash; the edge of something”, pronounced /faurə/.
fágaim: “to leave”, with the verbal noun here variously fágaint and fágáil, as in the CO. The verbal noun is also found as fágailt in PUL’s other works.
faic: “a jot, a tittle, nothing”, used in the negative.
faid: “length”, or fad in the CO. An fhaid, “while”, fad or a fhad in the CO. Fad is, however, found in i bhfad, “for a long time; far”: an mbeidh sí i bhfad? “will she be long?” Faid gach n-fhaid, “for ever such a long time”.
faire: “watching, guarding”. Ó faire (fút)!, “Oh, fie! for shame!”
fairsiog: “wide, extensive”, or fairsing in the CO. The spelling was also fairsing in the original, adjusted here in line with the pronunciation. Pronounced /fɑrʃəg/.
fáiscim, fáscadh: “to squeeze, tighten, bind”. Fáscadh na bhéal, “with his mouth clamped shut, his lips compressed”. Fuinte fáiscithe, “neat and tidy”.
faitíos: “fear, apprehension”.
falaracht: “act of catering”, of a horse, or falaireacht in the CO.
falla: “wall”, or balla in the CO.
fallaing: “mantle, cloak”.
fán: “wandering, vagrancy”.
fanaim, fanúint: “to wait, stay”, or fanaim, fanacht in the CO.
faobhar: “sharp edge”, pronounced /fe:r/. Arm faobhair, “bladed weapons”.
fasc: “an iota of sense”.
fé ndeár, fé ndeara: thug sé fé ndeara, “he noticed”. This would be thug sé faoi deara in the CO. Pronounced /fʹe: nʹa:r~fʹe: nʹarə/. Fé ndeár also has a additional meaning, “cause, reason”. Gearóid Ó Nualláin points out in his A Key to the Exercises in Studies in Modern Irish Part I, pp3-4 that in Munster Irish it is usual to say tabhairt fé ndeara for “to notice”, but fé ndeár for “cause”, but in any case fé ndeara may be found in the meaning of “cause” on the analogy of feárr/fearra.
fé: “under; against”, or faoi in the CO. This preposition was originally fa, but came to be confused with (“about”), producing , which form is occasionally found in PUL’s works. See fá dhéin here, and cad fá?, “why?”, in some of his other works (see Na Cheithre Soisgéil). Fám and fád are also found here, where fém and féd would be expected: these forms are retained in the editing here, as they are not in themselves incorrect. The forms and faoi reflect the general trend for prepositional pronouns to replace the original prepositions.
feabhas: “goodness”, with feabhasa in the genitive, where the CO has feabhais.
feacadh: “bend, move, shift”. Ní féidir liom filleadh ná feacadh a bhaint as, “I can’t bend it”. PUL explained in FdS that feacadh would refer to the stirring in its socket of a pole fixed to the ground that refused to bend; filleadh refers to the bending of the pole itself.
féachaim, féachaint: “to look”. As interjections: féach, “can you imagine it? just think of it!”; féach anois, “mind you!”; féach air sin, “just think of it! can you imagine that?” Go bhféachaidh Dia orainn! “God save us!” Féach nách amhlaidh do dhein licíní slinne den airgead, “watch out in case the money was turned into slate tiles”. Féach i leith, “look here!” Féach féin, “well, you see…” Féachaint chun, “attend to, examine”. Féachaint i ndiaidh dhuine, “to look after someone”.
féachaint:cur ’ fhéachaint, “to force or compel someone”. This would be iallach or iachall a chur in the CO. PUL uses this phrase without an intervening de, but the phrase generally occurs as cur d’fhéachaint ar dhuine rud a dhéanamh.
fead: “whistle”.
feadar: “I don’t know, I wonder”. While this verb is spelt ní fheadair sé in both the present  and past tense meanings in the CO, there was traditionally a distinction between ní fheadair sé, present tense, and ní fheidir sé, past tense, pronounced /nʹi: edʹirʹ ʃe:/.
feargach: “angry”, pronounced /fʹarəgəx/.
feárr, fearra: “better”, the comparative of maith, pronounced /fʹa:r/. Also found in WM Irish as fearra, /fʹarə/.
feart: “virtue, miracle”. A dhrólainn na bhfeart! “goodness gracious!” A Mhuire na bhfeart!, “holy Mary!”.
feasach: “knowing”. Is feasach dom é, “I am aware of it”. Research on the pronunciation required here: Shán Ó Cuív’s LSedition of Séadna shows no indication of stress on the second syllable (transcribing fheasach as easach), and so it may be /fʹasəx/,but if, as is usual with words in -ach, the ending is stressed, it would be /fʹi’sɑx/. PUL uses fiosach in his edition of An Teagasg Críostaidhe, which tends to support the view the stress is on the second syllable, but Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition of An Teagasg Críostaidhe also fails to show end-stress in that work too, transcribing tis word as fisach.
féidir: “possible”. Note the difference between ní féidir liom, “I cannot”, and ní féidir dom, “there is no way I can”, suggesting a more objective assessment of something’s possibility or impossibility.
feighil: “care, attention”, pronounced /fʹəilʹ/. Bheith i bhfeighil ruda, “to be attending to something”.
féin: “self”. This is usually pronounced /fʹe:nʹ/ in WM Irish, although the f is often pronounced as h in other dialects.
feircín: “ferkin”.
féire: “pair”, or péire in the CO.
feóirling: “farthing”.
fia: “deer”, with fianna in the plural.
fiacal: “tooth”, with fiacla in the plural. The historical dative, fiacail, is used in the CO. Pronounced /fʹiəkəl, fʹiəkələ/.
fiach: cur ’ fhiachaibh, “to force or compel someone”. This would be cur d’fhiacha in the CO. PUL uses this phrase without an intervening de, but the phrase generally occurs in traditional Munster Irish as cur d’fhiachaibh ar dhuine rud a dhéanamh. Fiacha literally means “debts”, and the use of fiacha reflects some kind of confusion with the related phrase cur d’fhéachaint. PUL claimed in his Notes on Irish Words and Usages (p135) that there was a “manifest difference” between d’fhiachaibh and fhéachaint, withe the former meaning “bound” to do something, and the latter “made” to do something.
fiachaim, fiach: “to hunt, hunt down, chase”.
fiafraím, fiafraí: “to ask (a question of someone)”, used with de. Pronounced /fʹiər’hi:mʹ, fʹiər’hi:/.
fiannaíocht: “the exploits of the Fenians”, and as an exclamation, “nonsense!”
fiaradh: “the skyline, top of a hill”.
fichead: “score”. FdS has an entry for a noun fichead, which is not found in PSD. PSD has fiche, “twenty”, with fichead in the genitive, but luach an fhichid púnt here appears to be the genitive of noun whose nominative is fichead.
filleadh: “bend, fold”. Ní féidir liom filleadh ná feacadh a bhaint as, “I can’t bend it”.
finneóg: “window”, or fuinneog in the CO. Pronounced /fʹi’ŋʹoːg/.
fiolar: “eagle”, or iolar in the CO. Pronounced /fʹulər/.
fionn: “something white; a fairhaired person”. Fionn an lae, “broad daylight”. FdS indicates that in d’fhínn an lae, “in broad daylight”, fínn is the dative of fionn. Ní fheadar ó Chúig Árdaibh na Naoi bhFionn, “I have no idea, no idea on earth”. This phrase apparently means something like “from the five heights of heaven”, but PUL commented in FdS that the origin of the phrase is obscure. Dinneen argues that fionn is of indefinite meaning in this phrase.
fíor: “sign.” Fíor na Croise idir sinn agus é, “may the sign of the Cross protect us from him”, a pious exclamation upon mention of the Devil.
fíordheallrach: “very like” someone, used with le. Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition of of Séadna transcribes as if from fíordheallraitheach. The CO alos has dealraitheach, but doesn’t appear to have a word dealrach. Pronounced /fʹiːr-jaurəx, fʹiːr-jaurihəx/, where the double l in the transcription here implies the presence of a diphthong, with subsequent deletion of the l itself.
fios: “knowledge”. Cá bhfios duit?, “how do you know?”, pronounced /kɑvəs dotʹ/. Fios na háite, “the whereabouts of a place, to know where something is”. Fios a chur ar dhuine, “to send for someone”, e.g., a doctor. Fios often means “knowledge of the future”, or the sort of knowledge a bean feasa, “fortune-teller”, might claim to have.
fleasc: “rod”. Ar fleasc a dhroma, “on the flat of his back”.
flosc: “eagerness, zest”, with chun. Flosc an domhain, “extreme eagerness/ravenousness”.
focal: “word”. Note that the dative plural is edited as foclaibh here, in line with an editorial policy not to show epenthetic vowels.
fogha: “lunge”, pronounced /fou/.
foighne: “patience”, pronounced /fəiŋʹi/.
foighním, foighneamh: “to have patience, bear, endure”, used with le. Pronounced /fəi’ŋʹi:mʹ, fəiŋʹəv/.
folach: “act of hiding”, pronounced /fə’lɑx/.
folaíocht: “breeding”.
foláir: “excessive, superfluous”. Note the difference between ní foláir dom, “I must”, and ní foláir liom, “I feel I ought to”. When Séadna says every local rascal sits in his chair—ní foláir leis suí inti—clearly this is not something they “must” do, but it is something they feel they have to do, something they insist on doing. Pronounced /flɑ:rʹ/.
folamh: “empty”, with folmha in the comparative and plural, where the CO has foilmhe. Pronounced /foləv, fo’lu:/.
foláramh: “warning”, or foláireamh in the CO. Pronounced /flɑ:rəv/.
folathachtadh: “half-choking, a severe choking”.
fónamh: “utility, act of being in service”. Ar fónamh, “in service, useful, in good health”, and by extension, “well, properly”. Generally used in negative sentences.
fonn: “longing, desire”, used with chun. Pronounced /fu:n/.
fonnmhar: “willing, desirous”. Go fonnmhar, “gladly”. Pronounced /funəvər/.
formhór: “majority”, pronounced /forə’vo:r/.
fothain: “shelter”, with fothana in the genitive. Ar thaobh na fothana, “on the sheltered side”.
fothram: “noise, din”, pronounced /fohərəm/.
franncach: “rat”, or francach in the CO. The double n here shows the diphthong: /frauŋkəx/.
fraochán: “whortleberry”.
freagra: “answer”, pronounced /frʹagərə/.
freemashun: a corruption of the word “freemasonry”, pronounced /fri:’mʹe:ʃən/ according to the LS edition.
friothálaim, friothálamh: “to serve, attend”, or friothálaim, friotháil in the CO. Friothálamh also corresponds to the related the CO noun, friotháileamh, “reception, entertainment of guests; attention to someone’s needs”. The genitive, generally friothála in WM Irish, /frʹi’hɑ:lə/, is found here as fritheáilte, /frʹi’ha:lhi/ (friotháilte in the original): bean fhritheáilte, “nurse; a woman to attend to someone”, or bean fhriothála in the CO.
fuadach: “plunder”, often in the phrase goid agus fuadach, “theft and rapine”.
fuadaím, fuadach: “to abduct, kidnap”.
fuadar: “rush, hurry”. Fuadar a bheith fút, “to be up to something, bent on something”.
fuaim, fuáil: “to sew, stitch”. Bean fuála, “seamstress”. I’m unsure if the a needs to be long in fuáil in WM Irish.
fuiligim, folag/fulag: “to suffer, endure”, or fulaingím, fulaingt in the CO. The g is devoiced to c in the future and conditional: fuiliceód, /filʹi’kʹo:d/; fuiliceódh, /filʹi’kʹo:x/. PUL used the classical spellings in the original text, which are adjusted in the editing here in line with WM pronunciation.
fuinte: “well-knit”, the past participle of fuinim, fuineadh, “to knead or knit together”. Fuinte fáiscithe, “neat and tidy”. CFBB does not show a long vowel before the nt in this word (see under neamh-fhuinte).
fuip: “whip”. Gabháil den fhuip ar dhuine, “to give someone a flogging”.
fuirm: “form”, or foirm in the CO. Pronounced /firʹimʹ/. Rud éigin i bhfuirm na fírinne, “something like/something approaching the truth”.
gabhaim, gabháil: “to go” with many subsidiary meanings. The preterite is ghoibh (adjusted from ghabh in the original) where there is ghabh in the CO as the pronunciation is /ɣovʹ/ in WM Irish. Similarly, the imperative is goibh. Gabhaim orm go, “I’ll warrant/bet (that)”. Gabháil ar dhuine, “to beat someone, to take someone on”. Gabháil do, “to do something, to be something”. The past participle is edited as gofa here, where the original had gabhtha and the CO has gafa. Capall a ghabháil, “to harness a horse”.
gach re: “every other”. With eclipsis: gach re dtamall, “by turns”. IWM shows a pronunciation of /gʹaxirʹi/, but the LS edition of Séadna indicates /gɑxərə/, and so the original spelling is maintained here. Gach re sea thabhairt do dhuine, “to answer someone back”, where gach re sea literally means “every second word”. Gach re dturas, “alternately”.
gáire: “laugh”, or gáir in the CO.
gaire: “nearness, proximity”, pronounced /girʹi/.
gairid: “short, near”. Ba ghairid dóibh go…, “it was not long after that…” This is pronounced /gɑrʹidʹ/ or /gʹarʹidʹ/ according to CFBB, and Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition of Séadna transcribes as if from geairid.
gáirim, gáirí: “to laugh”. Gáirí um dhuine, “to laugh at someone”. Note that gáirí is a verbal noun meaning “laughing, laughter”, corresponding to gáire in the CO.
gal: “vapour”. Gal deataigh, “a whiff of smoke”. This word is listed in FdS as masculine, which accords with the usage an gal céanna here, but PSD has it as feminine, and the genitive is gaile in PUL’s novel Niamh.
galánta: “decent, worthy”, pronounced /glɑːntə/.
gallán: “pillar-stone”.
gamhain: “calf”. A ghamhain! “my dear!”. Pronounced /gaunʹ/.
gaosadán: “soft thistle”, and by extension, “a silly, showy person”. Geosadán in the CO.
gar: “near”, with the comparative gaire; used with do. Pronounced /gɑr, girʹi/.
garsún: “boy”, of schoolgoing age.
gasra: “band, group of people”, pronounced /gɑsərə/.
gasta: “clever, shrewd”.
geaitire: “splinter”, referring here to the use of splinters of wood to serve as torches.
geall: “wager”. Ar gheall, “for a wager”.
geallúint: “promise”, or gealltanas in the CO.
gearánaim, gearán: “to complain”. The verbal adjective is used in ní gearánta dhuit, “you have no cause for complaint”. Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition shows the pronunciation of gearánta as greánta, implying /grʹɑ:nimʹ, grʹɑ:nˌ grʹɑ:ntə/. Gearán do chur isteach ar dhuine, “to make a complaint against someone”.
géarshúileach: “keen-eyed”.
géimreach: “lowing, bellowing”, or géimneach in the CO. Pronounced /gʹe:mʹirʹəx/.
gheibhim, fáil: “to get, find”. Gheibhim is the absolute form of the verb faighim; the distinction is not observed in the Standard, which has faighim alone. The imperative faigh is pronounced /fəigʹ/ or /fɑgʹ/. The future form is found here, gheóbhair, pronounced /jo:rʹ/. The past participle found here is fálta, /fɑ:lhə/; fachta is also used in PULs’ works. The CO has faighte. Note that the preterite does not take the perfective particle ro-: ní bhfuaras is found, with eclipsis. The autonomous form of the future is edited as (bh)faighfar here: bhfaghfar stood in the original, and it seems the stem of this verb was originally fagh- and not faigh- (cf. the majority of the spellings used in the 17th-century translation of the Bible into Irish), but it seems best to align all forms with the CO spelling faighim as far as possible. The autonomous form of the preterite generally follows the same pattern (cá bhfuaradh? is found in the original text here) but note also níor fuaradh and gur fuaradh in the original text here, ní bhfuaradh in PUL’s Lughaidh Mac Con,and both go fuaradh and go bhfuaradh in PUL’s novel, Niamh.
gigleas: “act of ticking”, pronounced /gʹigʹilʹəs/.
giglím, gigilt: “to tickle”. I haven’t found the finite verb in PUL’s works: it may be giglim in traditional WM Irish.
giob: “bit, scrap”. Níl giob, “nothing at all”.
gioblach: “shaggy, unkempt”, pronounced /gʹubələx/.
giobstéir: “a forward, precocious girl”, or giobstaire in the CO. Glossed in FdS as “a chattering girl, whose chattering is both impudent and mischievous”.
gíocs: “cheep, chirp”, or gíog in the CO. Níl gíocs ná míocs as, “there is not a peep out of him”.
giolla: “servant, groom (to take care of a horse)”, pronounced /gʹulə/.
giorraide: “all the shorter”. This is a “second comparative” form, similar to feárrde, usaide, miste, meaning “all the more X for it”.
glacaim, glacadh: “to accept”. Note that this takes a direct object (rud do ghlacadh), whereas the CO has glacadh le rud.
glanaim, glanadh: “to clean”, but also “to clear”, as of a fence. Mias a ghlanadh, “to clear a plate, eat a plateful of food”.
glas: “chilly”, as well as meaning “grey, green”.Capall glas, “a grey horse”.
glaschaorach: “sheep’s grey in colour, and by extension homespun”.
gléasaim, gléasadh: “to equip, make ready”, e.g. of a body of men. IWM indicates this verb is pronounced with /eː/, and not /ia/.
gléigeal: “very bright, brilliant”.
gléineach: “glittering”.
gleó: “noise”.
gleóite: “lovely, delightful”.
glic: “smart, cunning, ingenious”.
glice: “cleverness, cunning”.
glinním, glinniúint: “to stare, examine closely”, with ar.
gliocas: “cleverness, ingenuity”, or gliceas in the CO.
glóthach: “jelly, slime, viscous matter”.
gné: “form, appearance”.
goilim, gol: “to weep, cry”. Both /gilʹimʹ, golʹimʹ/ are attested in IWM.
goradh: “warmth, heat”.
gorm: “blue”, pronounced /gorəm/. D’iompaigh dath gorm air, “he turned blue”.
gormaím, gormú: “to turn blue”. Do dhúbhaigh agus do ghormaigh aige, “he became utterly dejected”. Note: pronounced /gorə’miːmʹ, gorə’muː/.
gorta: “miserable, meagre”, properly the genitive of the noun gorta, “hunger, famine; meanness”.
gortaím, gortú: “to injure”, but also “to pinch”, of clothing.
grá: “love”. A ghrá dhil, “my dear”.
graidhin: “affection, jollity”, pronounced /grəinʹ/. Mo ghraidhin mo shúil!, “didn’t I just know it! how well I knew it!”, implying literally that someone shouldn’t doubt his own judgement (“eye”) and therefore knew something all along.
gráin: “hate, hatred, disgust”. Gráin uirthi!, “shame on her!”
gráinniúlacht: “abhorrence, infamy”, or gráiniúlacht in the CO.
grástúlacht: “grace, graciousness”.
grathain: “swarm”. Grathain phréachán, “a flight/flock of crows”.
greadaim, greadadh: 1. “to scorch”. Greadadh trí lár do scairt!, “may your entrails be scorched!” PUL explains in FdS that the force of this expression was much weakened, and the meaning is rather “confound you!” Greadadh chút! means the same thing. 2. “to strike, thump”. Ag greadadh a bas, “slapping the palms of her hands”.
grean: “gravel, grit”. Chómh tiubh le grean, “as numerous as grains of sand”.
greannúr: “funny”, or greannmhar in the CO, pronounced /grʹa’nu:r/.
greas: “turn, bout”. Greas a chodladh, “to take a nap”.
gréasaí: “cobbler”.
gréasaíocht: “making shoes”.
greim: “grip; stitch (in sewing)”, with greamanna in the plural. Na greamanna dúbha chur i rud, “to get something copperbottomed”, as of an agreement. Also “morsel”, as in greim aráin, “a morsel of bread”. Greim dlí (ar dhuine), “a legal remedy (against someone)”.
groí: “strong, spirited, vigorous”, originally the genitive of graí, a collective word meaning “horses, breeding stud”. Groí cumasach, “strong and hearty”.
gruaig: “hair”, i.e., a whole head of hair (as opposed to individual hairs, which are ribí).
guaire: “bristle”.
guala: “shoulder”, with gualainn in the dative, which form is used for the nominative in the CO.
guí: “prayer”, masculine here, but feminine in the CO. Some of PUL’s works have this word as feminine, including the version of An Teagasg Críostaidhe edited by him.
gunta: “wounded” or “incisive, forceful, trenchant”; gonta in the CO. Pronounced /guntə/.
gurb: generally pronounced /gərb/ before third person pronouns, but often pronounced /gurəb/ elsewhere.
huf: “humph”, an interjection.
i ganfhios: “unbeknown, unawares”. Pronounced /ə’gɑnis/.
i gcómhair: “for, in store for”. This phrase was generally spelt i gcóir in PUL’s works, in line with PUL’s view (cf. Notes on Irish Words and Usages) that this phrase derives from cóir, “proper arrangement (among other meanings)” and not cómhair, “presence”. He indicated he did not have a nasal vowel in this phrase, but the issue is complex, as his etymology seems faulty (The Dictionary of the Irish Language has i gcomhair) and it is possible that i gcómhair has become conflated with a separate phrase i gcóir, “ready” in WM Irish. In any case, nasalisation is not a noted feature of modern-day WM Irish, and so the CO form produces the correct pronunciation.
i: i becomes ins before the article (in sna), and before gach in WM Irish. The use of ad’ before a vowel (ad’ aonar) has been adjusted to it in the editing here (Shán Ó Cuív had ad in these circumstances).
iarracht: “a bit, a certain amount”. Iarracht d’anaithe, “a sort of fear/awe”. Iarracht bheag magaidh (fé dhuine), “a little bit of fun (at someone’s expense)”.
iarraidh: “requesting, asking”, pronounced /iərigʹ/ as a verbal noun, but often as /iərə/ as a noun. Gan chuireadh gan iarraidh, /gɑn xirʹi gɑn iərə/, “without being invited or asked”. Dein t’iarraidh thort, “ask another one!”, used in reference to a question you would rather not answer. This phrase, transcribed in Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition of Séadna as if /tʹinʹ tʹiarə hort/, seems likely to be derived from an original don t’fhiafraithe ort! FdS indicates that in Ballymacode in Eastern Cork, the form used was an t’iarraidh hort, “may the question continue to be on you!”, indicating the folk etymologies that have surrounded this phrase.
iarsma: “remnant, remains”. PSD says the r in this word is often not pronounced, but the pronunciation indicated in Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition of Séadna is with r.
íde: “abuse, dressing down”.
ifreann: “hell”, pronounced /ifʹirʹən/.
ím: “butter”, pronounced /i:mʹ/.
imbriathar: “really! upon my word!” Imbriathar mhóide, “upon my solemn word!” Imbriathar s ambasa is translated as “upon my word and credit!” in the authorised translation of Séadna. PUL regularly used the spelling am briathar, and more research is needed by me here: maybe the m is broad (not influenced by the br) and so ambriathar is a better spelling?
imeall: “border, edge”.
imím, imeacht: “to go, go away”. Note that the participle, imithe, is stressed on the second syllable: /i’mʹihi/.
imníoch: “anxious; diligent, attentive”, pronounced /imʹi’nʹi:x/.
imrim, imirt: “to play”, but also “to bring something into play; to wreak or inflict something”; imrím, imirt in the CO. Pronounced /imʹirʹimʹ, imʹirtʹ/. Do thoil a bheith imeartha agat ar dhuine, “to have had or inflicted your will on something; to have done something bad to someone”.
in: a form of the demonstrative pronoun sin used after the copula (b’in, nách in, etc). Often incorrectly written shin.
inead: “unit, place”, or ionad in the CO. In inead, “instead of”. Pronounced /inʹəd/.
inniu: “today”, /i’nʹuv/. The final consonant heard in the pronunciation is left untranscribed, as it was not indicated in the historical orthography and is not indicated in the spelling adopted in the CO. The spelling aniogh was found in the works of Seathrún Céitinn. The original spelling given in Séadna was indiú.
ínsim, ínsint: “to tell”, or insím, insint in the CO. Note the use of d’inis here in the preterite: the spellings d’innis and d’inis are both found in PUL’s works. IWM shows the pronunciation of inis to be /i’nʹiʃ, nʹiʃ, ‘inʹiʃ, ‘iŋʹiʃ/, and Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition transcribes inis here as inìsh, with the accent on the second syllable. The future form is neósaidh sé, from an earlier inneósaidh sé. Similarly, the conditional form is do neósadh sé.
íntleacht: “intellect, intelligence”, pronounced /i:ntʹilʹəxt/.
iomad: “too much”, often, but not always, with the definite article. An iomad cainnte agat, “too much to say for yourself”. Iomad meas aici uirthi, “too much respect for her”.
iomadúil: “numerous, plentiful”.
iomlán: “full, whole, entire”, pronounced /umə’lɑ:n/. Go hiomlán, “completely”.
iompaím, iompáil: “to turn, change”, or iompaím, iompú in the CO. Iompáil lí, “a change of colour, change of complexion”. Iompáil amach, “to turn out (a certain way)”. Pronounced /uːm’piːmʹ, uːm’pɑːlʹ/.
ionga: “nail, claw, talon”, with iongan in the genitive singular, iongain in the dative singular, and ingne in the nominative plural. Pronounced /uŋə, uŋən, uŋinʹ, iŋʹinʹi/. For some reason, Shán Ó Cuív in his LS edition of Séadna transcribes both ionga and ingne as ingi and iongain as ingin.
istigh: “inside”, but also “complete; up”, of a time period.
iúnadh: “wonder, surprise”, ionadh. Pronounced /u:nə/. Ní nách iúnadh, “unsurprisingly”, or simply, “of course”.
iúntach: “wonderful”, iontach. Pronounced /u:ntəx/.
lá: “day”, with in the dative in the phrase de ló (agus d’oíche), “by day and by night”, /də loː ɑgəs diːhi/.
labhraim, labhairt: “to speak”, or labhraím, labhairt in the CO. Note the autonomous form of the present tense, labharthar, /lourhər/, where the CO has labhraítear.
ladhar: “the space between the fingers”, pronounced /ləir/.
láidir: “strong”. An bhfuilir go láidir?, “are you well?”
láimsheálaim, láimhseáil: “to handle or finger”.
lámh: “hand”. Note that the nominative singular (and genitive plural) is pronounced /lɑ:v/ with the genitive singular (lámha) and the nominative plural (lámha) both pronounced /lɑ:/. PUL explained in his Notes on Irish Words and Usages that the genitive of this word should be lámha and not láimhe, and in his works he generally adheres to this usage. However, in the original text of Séadna, láimhe (as well as lámha) was found in the genitive, and this has been adjusted here to lámha in line with PUL’s views on this word. It is consistent in terms of the declension pattern for lámh to become láimhe in the genitive and láimh in the dative, but PUL was probably concerned that the pronunciation of láimhe was being mangled by learners who did not realise it was pronounced the same as lámha. The dative singular (láimh) and the dative plural (lámhaibh) are both pronounced /lɑ:vʹ/. PUL was insistent that this word had a nasal vowel, and thus was audibly distinct from , “day”, but such nasalisation is not a feature of modern day WM Irish. Duine thabhairt chun lámha, “to arrest someone, bring him to justice”.
lámhaim, lámhach: “to shoot”, pronounced /lɑːmʹ, lɑːx/. The preterite/imperative, lámhaigh, is pronounced /lɑːgʹ/, and the future form lámhfad /lɑːd/.
lántoilteanach: “fully consenting”, followed by do. Pronounced /lɑ:n-tolʹhənəx/.
lántsásta: “fully satisfied”, or lánsásta in the CO. Pronounced /lɑ:n-tɑ:stə/.
lánú: “married couple”, or lánúin in the CO, where the historical dative has replaced the nominative.
lao: “calf”. A lao! “my dear!”
lasair: “flame”, with lasrach in the genitive. Pronounced /lɑsirʹ, lɑsərəx/. Splannc lasrach is translated as “a flash of flame” in the authorised edition of Séadna.
lasmu’: “outside”, or lasmuigh in the CO. Pronounced /lɑs’mu/. This word is spelt lasmuich in the original, reflecting PUL’s concern to show there is no audible g in this word.
lathach: “mud, mire”, with lathaí in the genitive. I am unsure where the stress is in the nominative of this word.
leabaidh: “bed”, or leaba in the CO. The traditional dative has replaced the nominative in Cork Irish. The genitive is leapan and the nominative plural leapacha. Pronounced /lʹabigʹ/. Leabaidh chlúimh éan, “feather bed”.
leabhair: “supple, lithe, graceful”.
leabhar: “book”. Thabharfainn an leabhar go, “I could have sworn that …”.
leac oighir: “ice”, with lic in the dative. Also leac oighre. Leac literally means “flagstone”, thus referring to a sheet of ice, but ice is normally referred to with the whole phrase leac oighir in Irish. Pronounced /lʹak əirʹ/. FdS, the authorised dictionary of the vocabulary in Séadna, claims oighir is a feminine noun, with oighre/oighreach in the genitive, and that “ice” is leac oighir in the nominative, leac oighre/oighreach in the genitive and lic oighir in the dative. This comment seems confused, as leac oighir must itself have a genitive. It seems more logical to see oighear as a masculine noun with oighir in the genitive, with a variant form oighre, both in the nominative and genitive. This accords well with the entries in PSD.
leagaim, leagadh: “to knock down”, or leagaim, leagan in the CO.
leamh: “impotent, insipid, disgusting”. Leamh de féin, “disgusted with himself”.
leanbaí: “childish”, pronounced /lʹanə’bi:/.
leanbh: “child”, with linbh in the genitive. Pronounced /lʹanəv, lʹinʹivʹ/.
leannán: “lover”. Leannán sí, “fairy lover”.
leas: “good, well-being”. Lár do leasa, “the best thing for you, that which is in your best interests”.
leasainm: “nickname”, pronounced /lʹas-anʹimʹ/.
leataoibh:i leataoibh, or i leataobh in the CO, “to one side”. Pronounced /i lʹa ‘ti:vʹ/.
leathaim, leathadh: “to spread, widen”, but also “to perish”. Leata le hocras, “famished”.
leathamadán: “half-wit”.
leathbheirithe: “half-cooked”.
leathghlúin: “one knee”.
leathphinge: “ha’penny”, or leathphingin in the CO. Pronounced /lʹafʹiŋʹi/. The colloquial form leathphinge is found in chapter 8 here, but leathphingin is also given in the original text in chapter 19 and retained here.
leathscéal: “excuse”, or leithscéal in the CO. Pronounced /lʹa’ʃkʹial/.
leathshúil: “only one eye”. Ar leathshúil, “with only one eye”.
léim, lé’: “to read” or léim, léamh in the CO. The CO spelling of the verbal noun is highly in appropriate, given that the traditional spelling was léigheadh, and so the verbal noun has been truncated in the spelling here to indicate the pronunciation better.
léimlúth: “an act of bounding along with vigour”. Ar a léimlúth, “at a gallop”.
léimreach: “jumping”, or léimneach in the CO. Pronounced /lʹe:mʹirʹəx/. “Jumping” can also be léim. Léimreach is a feminine verbal noun that is declined in the dative as ag léimrigh.
leithéid: “the like; something like it”. A leithéid seo, “it’s like this” as an interjection.
leogaim, leogaint: “to let, allow”, ligim, ligeanin the CO. PUL uses the spelling leigim in the original, influenced by classical norms, but the WM pronunciation of this word is /lʹogimʹ/. PUL’s spelling varied over the years, but he certainly used leogaint in his Irish; cf. rud do leogaint in aiscein Notes on Irish Words and Usages, p3. Shán Ó Cuív transcribed leig as leog in his LS edition of Séadna. Leogaint ort, “to let on; pretend”.
leóirghníomh: “restitution, full amends”. This would be leorghníomh in the CO, but the original spelling is maintained here, showing a slender r.
lí: “colour, complexion”. Iompáil lí, “a change of colour, change of complexion”. See líth.
lí: “post, pole”, or laí in the CO. Idir dhá lí an dorais, “in the doorway”. FdS connects this word with liag, “stone, headstone”, of which it is stated (spelt lígh in the original) is the dative.
liath: “grey”, with léith in the genitive singular masculine. Go liath láidir is glossed in the authorised translation of Séadna as “grey and strong”, but appears to mean rather “as large as life”.
liathghorm: “grey-blue, steel-grey”. Pronounced /lʹiə-ɣorəm/.
licín: “small tile”. The dative plural variously appears as licíníbh and licínibh in the original.
línn: “period”, or linn in the CO. Le línn na bhfocal san do rá dho, “as he was saying these words”. Note the long vowel here, /lʹi:ŋʹ/, whereas linn, “with us”, has a short vowel, /lʹiŋʹ/.
lionn: “ale”. Lionn dubh, “stout; melancholy”.
lios: “garth, enclosure”, with leasa in the genitive.
líth: “colour, complexion”. D’iompaigh a líth ann, “he changed colour”. See .
liú fhiaigh: “a hunter’s shout, a wild cry”. Pronounced /lʹu: iəgʹ/. Note that liú is feminine in WM Irish, but masculine in the CO.
liúireach: “shouting”, with liúirí in the genitive. Liúireach is a feminine verbal noun that is declined in the dative as ag liúirigh.
loch: “lake, sea”. Duine chur an loch amach, “to transport someone overseas”, as a punishment.
loirgim, lorg: “to search, seek”, or lorgaím, lorg in the CO. Pronounced /lirʹigʹimʹ, lorəg/.
loiscim, loscadh: “to burn”.
lom: “a chance at something, an opportunity”, pronounced /loum/. Dá bhfaighinn lom orthu, “if I got a chance to get them/take them on”.
lom: “bare; exact”. Go lom slán, “exactly; no more, no less”. Lom dáiríribh, “actually, in dead earnest”.
lomrachta: “bare, stripped, pronounced /lomərəxtə/. Equivalent to lomnacht in the CO. Ceann-lomrachta, “bareheaded”, would be ceann-nochta, ceann-lomnocht, ceann-lomnochta, or a number of other versions in the CO.
lorga: “shin, shank; stalk.” The singular is pronounced /lorəgə/, but the dative plural, which the spelling used here, loirgnibh, would indicate to be /lirʹigʹinʹivʹ/, is transcribed as if lorganaibh, /lorəgənivʹ/, in Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition of Séadna.
lú: “smaller, smallest”, the comparative of beag. Níor chuid ba lú ná a fhonn a bhí ar Shéadna an rud céanna do rá leis, “Séadna was rather inclined to say the same thing to him”, literally “Séadna’s desire to say the same thing to him was not inconsiderable/was not the least bit”. Ní lú ná, with a relative clause, “neither, much less”.
luach: “value”. Luacht is also found in PUL’s works. Luach púint, “a pound’s worth”. Also “reward”: go dtugaidh Dia a luach dhuit, “may God reward you for it”.
luadh: “lead”, pronounced /luə/. Both PSD and FGB show luaidhe as the nominative of this word, but FdS claims the nominative is luadh and the genitive either luaidhe or luadha. All these forms yield the same pronunciation, although luadh and luadha may be a little clearer in that regard and so luadha is standardised on in the editing here as the genitive of this word.
Luan: “Monday”. Ní raibh críostaí an Luain ann, “there was not a living soul there”.
luathacht: speed, especially in dá luathacht, “how fast”. Note that this would be dá luaithe in the CO, although dá luaithe is also used in WM Irish.
luch: “mouse”, with luich in the dative. Pronounced /lux, lih/.
luíghead: “smallness, fewness”, or laghad in the CO. Pronounced /li:d/. The original spelling is kept here, as the CO version does not give the correct pronunciation. Dá luíghead é, “however small it is”.
luím, luí: “to lay dawn”. Luí amach ar rud, “to set about something in earnest, to abandon yourself to it, become absorbed in it”.
luíochán: “lying down, confinement”. Gan a fhaid sin de luíochán na bliana ort!, an expression of gratitude for services rendered, literally expressing the hope that the person’s periods of illness in the current year will be even shorter than the period required for the service rendered.
macánta: “honest”, often used sarcastically of the dishonest.
mada rua: “fox”, or madra rua in the CO.
madra: “dog”, pronounced /mɑdərə/.
maide: “stick, beam”. Maide croise, “crutch”.
maidrín: “little dog”, pronounced /mɑdʹi’rʹi:nʹ/. Maidrín lathaí, “menial person”, explained in FdS as “a person who dances attendance upon another unnecessarily”, literally “a little dog trotting in the mud”.
máilín: “little bag”.
main: “sign; inclination”. Main do dheór nár chuirir díot, “may your inclination to weep continue” (using the present subjunctive), said as a reproach to someone’s useless tears. Pronounced /mɑnʹ/. FdS glosses this word as “oppression”, and the whole phrase as “may your tears bring you no relief”.
mairbhití: “numbness; languor”, pronounced /mɑrʹivʹitʹi:/.
máireach: “morrow.” La ’rna mháireach, “on the following day.” Often found as lar na mháireach or lá arna mháireach [ “day”, ar “after”, n-a “its”, mháireach “morrow”]. Note that the a is pronounced short: /larnə vɑ:rʹəx/.
mairg: “woe.” Is mairg a bhíonn…, “woe to him who…” Is mairg ná bíonn…, “woe to him who does not…” Is mairg nách id shúilibh a chuir sí iad, “it’s a pity she didn’t put them in your eyes”. Pronounced /marʹigʹ/.
mairim, maireachtaint: “to live”, or mairim, maireachtáil in the CO. An dá lá s an fhaid a mhairfeadh sí, “for as long as she lived”. Slí mhaireachtaint, “way of life, way of living (i.e., an occupation)”.
maith: “good”. Note the difference between is maith liom, “I like”, and is maith dhom, “it is proper, suitable for me (to do something)”.
maithim, maitheamh: “to forgive, remit, cancel”. Ní mhaithfeadh sí puínn do, “she wouldn’t give him an inch; she’d give him a run for his money”.
mallachar: “slowness, dullness”, pronounced /mə’lɑxər/.Mallachar radhairc (ort), “dimness of sight”.
mallacht: “curse”, with mallachtan in the genitive, where the CO has mallachta. Mac mallachtan, “the Evil One, the Devil, the son of malediction”. Pronounced /mə’lɑxt/. For some reason, FdS and Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition both point to mallachtain in the genitive, but mallachtan is correct and was the form given in the text of Séadna.
mallachtaí: “act of cursing”, with ar. Pronounced /mə’lɑxtiː/ according to Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition of Séadna, with the accent on the second syllable.
mám: “handful”.
mangaireacht: “hawking, peddling”.
mar dhea: a phrase meaning “as if, supposedly, as it were”. Probably derived from mar bh’ea. Pronounced /mɑr ‘ja:/.
mar: “as, like”. Mar sin, “that’s because…” Agus mar sin, “and so on”. Mar sin dóibh, “and so on; and the same with all of them”. Mar a raibh aige, “where he was”.
maraím, marú: “to kill”. Maireófar here is future autonomous, possibly, in view of the spelling, with a slender medial r. Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition also transcribes the conditional form, mharódh, with a slender r (vaireóch). The preterite mhairbh given here also has a slender r, /vɑrʹivʹ/, where the CO has mharaigh.
marbh: “dead; dead person”, pronounced /mɑrəv/. In am mhairbh na hoíche, “at the dead of night”: this phrase appears to have mairbh na hoíche in the plural (although marbh na hoíche in the singular means “the dead of night”), governed as a phrase by am, as indicated by the lenition of mhairbh. Mairbh cannot be genitive singular here, as use of the concatenated genitive in the unbracketed construction would not require lenition. Note, however, that Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition of Séadna transcribes as if from in am mharbh na hoíche.
marcach: “rider”, pronounced /mər’kɑx/.
margadh: “bargain; market”, pronounced /mɑrəgə/, with margaí in the plural.
matalanng: “calamity, disaster”. PUL consistently spells this word with an m, as it appears in the CO (matalang), and so he may have had an m in this word, but IWM and CFBB both indicate that a b is the dialectal pronunciation: /bɑtə’lauŋg/, with /mɑtə’lauŋg/ an alternative. A double n is inserted in this word in the editing to show the diphthong.
me: disjunctive form of the first person pronoun, pronounced /mʹe/ (or /mʹi/ through raising of the vowel in the vicinity of a nasal cononant). Always in the CO.
mealbhóg: “knapsack, small bag”. Pronounced /mʹalə’vo:g/. The diminutive mealbhóigín is also found here.
meanaith: “awl”, or meana in the CO. The plural is meanaithí, where the CO has meanaí. This word is incorrectly given as meanaithe in LMM’s edition.
méar: “finger”, with méire in the genitive. The plural is given here is méaranna in one passage (Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition transcribes as if from méireanna) and méireanna elsewhere. The CO has méara in the plural. Note the use of méar in the genitive plural here, instead of the weak plural méireanna: ag síneadh a méar fúthu, “pointing at them”.
méaracán: “thimble”. Fear na méaracán, “thimble-rigger”, referring to a game played at Irish fairs.
mearaí: “bewilderment, distraction”. See meascán.
mearathall: “confusion”, or mearbhall. Pronounced /mʹarəhəl/ in WM Irish.
meas: “respect, esteem”. Meas a bheith agat ar dhuine, “to have respect for someone”. The genitive should be measa, but sometimes appear as meas (iomad meas aici uirthi), possibly reflecting the deletion of the final a before the preposition starting with a vowel that usually follows this noun.
meascán: “muddle”. Meascán mearaí, “bewilderment”.
meata: “craven, abject”. Is meata an fear tu, “you’re a poor excuse for a man!”
méid: “amount”. Generally not lenited by sa in PUL’s works: sa méid sin, “that, all that, that much, etc”.
meidhg: “whey”. Meidhg dhá bhainne, “whey of two milks, a mixture of sweet and sour milk”. The form meadhg, which is the form adopted in the CO, is found in the nominative in PUL’s Mo Sgéal Féin, but meidhg is used here. Pronounced /mʹəigʹ/.
meigeall: “goatee beard”.
meitheal: “gang, group of workers”. The LS edition indicates this is pronounced /mʹihəl/, but I want to check the quality of the first vowel.
mian: “desire, wish”. Masculine here, but feminine in the CO.
míchuíosach: “immoderate, abnormal, extreme”, or míchuibheasach in the CO. Pronounced /mʹi:’xi:səx/.
mífhoirtiún: “misfortune”, or mífhortún in the CO. This is spelt mífhortiún in the original, reflecting the broadening of a slender r before dental/alveolar consonants (see section 199 of IWM).
mílítheacht: “paleness, sickly appearance”.
min: “meal, flour”.
míocs: “cheep, chirp”, or míog in the CO. See gíocs.
míogarnach: “act of dozing off”. Míogarnach is a feminine verbal noun that is declined as ag míogarnaigh in the dative.
mionbuille: “tap, little blow”.
mionn: “oath”. Dar bhrí na mionn, “by all that is holy”. Note: the original meaning of mionn was “diadem, crown”, part of a druid’s attire.
miota: “bit, mite”.
miste: “all the worses”. This is a “second comparative” form, similar to feárrde, usaide, miste, meaning “all the more X for it”. Ní miste dhom, “I may as well”. Ar mhiste dhúinn?, “might we?” Ní miste liom, “I think it no harm, I don’t mind”.
mithid: “high time”. Is mithid duit é, “it is high time for you (to do something)”.
mo: “my”, often lenited as mh’ before a vowel.
modhúil: “mild, mannerly”, pronounced /moulʹ/.
móid: “vow”. Móid a thabhairt, “to make a vow”.
móide: “all the more”. This is a “second comparative” form, similar to feárrde, usaide, miste, meaning “all the more X for it”. Ní móide go, “probably not, it is hardly likely that”.
mór: “large”. Níor mhór liom do í, “I wouldn’t begrudge him her”.
móráil: “pride, vanity”, pronounced /muə’rɑ:lʹ/ [Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition implies /mo:’rɑ:lʹ/ in one passage, but transcribes as /muə’rɑ:lʹ/ in other passage; more research required here]. Bhí an mhóráil bainte dhe glan, “his pride had received a real knocking”.
mórchúis: “self-importance, pride”.
mórchúiseach: “self-important”.
mórsheisear: “seven people”, pronounced /muəriʃər/. The original text has móir-sheisear, with a slender r, but this is adjusted to mórsheisear as the entry in FdS is for mórsheisear, and AÓL’s pronunciation, given in IWM, is with a broad r.
mórthímpall: mórthimpeall. The broad p in WM Irish is preserved here: /muər hi:mʹpəl/. Sometimes found as mórdtímpall in other writers of WM Irish.
mothaolaoch: “gullible”.
muileann: “mill”. Ag dul sa mhuileann orm, “getting beyond my grasp, baffling me”.
muinichle: “sleeve”, or muinchille in the CO. The pronunciation given in IWM is /minʹirhlʹi/. In practice, there is very little difference between /minʹirhlʹi/ and /minʹiçlʹi/ and so the original spelling is retained here.
muirear: “encumbrance”, and by extension, “family”, pronounced /mirʹər/. Muirear or muiríon mean the family that a man has to provide for; compare the insistence of the proponents of the CO that clann, a word that properly only refers to one’s children, means “family”.
muiríon: “burden”, or muirín in the CO. Muiríon mo dhá lámh, “as much as my two hands could carry”.
muise/mhuise: “well, indeed”, usually lenited in WM Irish, but also found unlenited here (the unlenited muise is transcribed as vuishi in Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition of Séadna). Listed as muise in FGB. Dó’ mhuise! “well, indeed”. See dó’.
múisiún: “drowsiness”, or múiseam in the CO. Múisiún codlata bheith air, “to nod off”.
mullach: “summit, ridge”, pronounced /mə’lɑx/. Ar mhullach a chínn, “on his head”. Ó mhullach talamh, “from head to toe”.
mura: “if not, unless”. Mura and mara are found in PUL’s works, where the CO has muna. Similarly murab is found here, where munab stands in the CO. Shán Ó Cuív regularly transcribed mura as mara in his LS edition, indicating that the mara is the more dialectal form. In sarcastic exclamations, mura can be understand as following an implied “I’ll be damned…, I’ll be blowed …”: mura dea-chómharsanach atá sí, “I’ll be damned if she isn’t obliging! how very obliging she is!” Mura mbeadh san, “but for that, if it hadn’t been for that”.
mustar: “diplay, ostentation”.
nách: nach in the CO, /nɑ:x/. Sometimes found as nach in the original, but adjusted to nách in those cases.
nára: a particle introducing negative exhortations with the subjunctive of the copula. Nára slán comórtas, “let it not be a just comparison”, i.e., “a fine comparison indeed!”
nasc: “link, tie”. Tá sé ar naisc aici, “she is leading him by the nose”. FdS shows that nasc is the nominative of this word and naisc the dative. Compare CFBB, where Amhlaoibh Ó Loingigh is shown having neasc in the nominative and neaisc in the dative. Other speakers of WM Irish have naisc in the nominative.
neafuiseach: “careless, indifferent, innocent, nonchalant”, or neafaiseach in the CO. The original spelling here was neamhchuiseach. Go neafuiseach, “nonchalantly, apparently without design”. Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition of Séadna transcribes neamhchuiseach as neachuiseach, but neamhchuiseach seems to be a variant spelling of what was traditionally spelt neamhthuiseach, pronounced /nʹafiʃəx/ according to IWM. Some research required here in any case.
néal: “cloud”, but also “nap, snooze”. Néal codlata, “a wink of sleep”.
neamaitheach: “utterly disobliging”, pronounced /nʹa-mə’hɑx/.
neamhspleách: “independent”, also in the sense of being wealthy and having independent means. The comparative found in the corrected early edition is neamh-spleadhchaíghe (compare neamh-spleadhaíghe in the early edition that appears to have a number of errors), edited here as neamhspleáchaí, where the CO has neamhspleáiche. Pronounced /nʹa’splʹa:x, nʹa’splʹa:xi:/. I am not fully sure of the pronunciation of the comparative, as CFBB shows the comparative of baoch is pronounced /beː’hiː/ with an h—this could be transcribed as baeichí in the transcription system I am using. So is neamhspleáchaí really neamhspleáichí?
neómat: “minute, moment”, or nóiméad in the CO. The various words for “minute” in Irish are all corruptions of the original móimeint; consequently, the CO form is no more authoritative than the WM form.
nimh: “poison”. Nimh mo shúl do chur na láimh dheis, “to stare at his right hand”. With nímhe in the genitive. Pronounced /nʹivʹ, nʹi:/.
nímhneach: “venomous, deadly”, pronounced /nʹiːnʹəx/.
níos: “more”. The form níosa, which lenites (níosa mheasa, níosa seacht measa), is also found here. PUL claimed in his Notes on Irish Words and Usages(p82) that the use of níosa implied a progressive increase (níosa mheasa, “worse and worse”), but it does not always appear to carry this extra nuance.
nú: “or”, , pronounced /nu:/.
ó chiainibh: “just now”, or ó chianaibh in the CO, as it also appeared in the original here. Pronounced with a slender n in WM Irish, /o: xʹiənʹivʹ/. Ó chiainibh beag, “a little while ago”.
obair: “work”. A leithéid d’obair, “such a carry-on!”. Obair a bheith agat (rud a dhéanamh), “to have trouble doing something”.
obann: “sudden”, or tobann in the CO.
ochón: “alas! oh dear!”
ocras: “hunger”, pronounced /okərəs/.
oidhre: “heir”, pronounced /əirʹi/. Oidhre ar dhuine, “the image/likeness of someone, someone who closely resembles someone”.
óigbhean: “young woman”, or ógbhean in the CO. The g is slender.
oighear: “ice”, pronounced /əirʹ/. Found as leac oighir; see under leac.
óinseach: “foolish woman”.
oiread: “amount”, pronounced /irʹəd/. An oiread san, “as much”; an oiread airgid agus a …, “as much money as …” Oiread is a masculine noun. The usage an oiread san was explained by Gearóid Ó Nualláin in the first part of his Studies in Modern Irish pp214-215 as being an old accusative of time, now applied to other uses as well. The lack of t-prefixation is explained by the fact that oiread was originally a neuter noun. Oiread is leathphingin rua, “not so much as one red cent!” Oiread eile, “as much again”: dá mbeadh oiread eile gliocais ann, “if he were twice as clever as he was”.
oiriúnach: “suitable, appropriate”. Rud a bheith oiriúnach agat, “to have something handy”.
olagón: “wailing, lament”. Olagón ó, “goodness gracious me!”
olc: “evil”, with uilc in the genitive, where the CO has oilc. Madra uilc, “mad dog”, a phrase connected, according to the glossary that accompanied PUL’s An Cleasaidhe, to the use of olc to mean “rabies”.
ollamh: ullamh in the CO, “ready”. Pronounced /oləv/ in WM Irish.
ollmhaím, ollmhú:ullmhaím, ullmhú in the CO, “to prepare”. Pronounced /o’li:mʹ, o’lu:/ in WM Irish.
ollmhúchán: “preparation”, ullmhúchán in the CO. Pronounced /o’lu:xɑ:n/.
órdóg: “thumb”. Súil órdóige, “centre of a thumb”, according to FGB. FdS glosses this word as “the point [at] the top of the thumb where the nerves meet”.
órlach: “inch”.
os cionn: “above”. Pronounced /ɑs kʹu:n/.
os cómhair: “in front of”. Pronounced /ɑs ko:rʹ/.
oscall: “armpit”, with the dative singular oscaill. Fén’ oscaill, “under his arm”. Note the nominative/dative distinction is not observed in the CO, where the word appears as ascaill.
oscalta: “open”, or oscailte in the CO. Pronounced /oskəlhə/. Oscailte is also found here in the original, and retained where found, but forms in -lta are more fundamental to the dialect.
osclaim, oscailt: “to open”, or osclaím, oscailt in the CO. Pronounced /oskəlimʹ, oskiltʹ/.
oth: found in the phrase is oth liom, “I regret”.
pá: “pay”. Ar a phá lae, “on daily wages; hired by the day”.
paidir: “prayer”, with paidreacha in the plural. Pronounced /padʹirʹ, padʹirʹəxə/.
paor: “grudge”.
párlús: “parlour”.
paróiste: “parish”, pronounced /pro:ʃtʹi/. Note the dative plural, paróistibh, is found in one passage here with a short ending, with the expected paróistíbh used elsewhere. In sna seacht bparóistibh, “for miles around”.
pé: “whichever, whatever”. combines with the copula to produce pé hé féin in the present and pérbh é féin in the past. Pé rud, “whatever”. Pé’n Éirinn é, “whatever on earth it is/whoever he may be/however that may be/whatever happened, at all events, etc”.
peoca: “whether”, from pé acu, or pé’cu. Pronounced /pʹukə/. Often followed by a relative clause. Gearóid Ó Nualláin explained in his Studies in Modern Irish Part 1 the difference between ceoca and peoca (see p76). Ceoca is used with substantival clauses (ní fheadar ceoca thiocfaidh sé nú ná tiocfaidh), whereas peoca is used with adverbial clauses (peoca thiocfaidh sé nú ná tiocfaidh, fanfadsa).
piast: “worm”, or péist in the CO, where the dative has replaced the nominative. The genitive plural is also piast here, rather than being identical to the nominative plural piastaí; this would be an older form of the genitive plural.
piléar: “bullet”, pronounced /plʹeːr/ and spelt pléar in the original.
pinsinéir: “pensioner”.
piocaim, piocadh: “to pick”, including the picking of pockets. Lucht pocaí do phiocadh, “pickpockets”. Piocaithe, “tidied up; spick and span”.
píosa: “piece, coin”.
pláinéid: “planet”, and by extension “planetary influence in the astrological sense, ill luck, ill fate”. Tá sé de phláinéid air go…, “he has the ill fate to …” Pláinéad in the CO.
pláitín: “little plate, disc”.
plámás: “flattery”.
plan: “plan”, or plean in the CO. This word is clearly a borrowing from English, and PUL’s spelling may indicate an Anglophone pronunciation. Is maith an plan ifreann do bheith ann, “it’s a good job there’s such a place as hell!”
plaosc: “skull”, or blaosc in the CO.
plásóg: “plot, level plot”.
pléascaim, pléascadh: “to burst, explode”.
pléim, plé: “to dispute, wrangle or contend with”. Plé le duine, “to blame someone”.
plobaire: “babbler, incoherent person”, pronounced /plubirʹi/.
pluais: “cave”.
pluc: “rounded cheek”.
plucach: “puffy-cheeked”, pronounced /plə’kɑx/.
pobal: “congregation”. I mbéalaibh na dtrí bpobal, “talked about by the whole district”.
pocán: “he-goat”. Also pocán gabhair.
poiblíocht (an phoiblíocht): “the public” pronounced /pibʹi’lʹi:xt/.
póirse: “passage, corridor”. Note póirsibh here in the dative plural, without a long ending; póirsíbh would be more common in later Irish, derived from the nominative plural póirsí.
portach: “bog”, i.e., the springy turf. The dative plural found here is portachaibh, implying a nominative plural portacha, where portaigh stands in the CO. Note, however, that the plural portaithe was found in PUL’s autobiography, Mo Sgéal Féin. Pronounced /pər’tɑx, pər’tɑxə, portihi/.
portús: “breviary”. Dar an bportús!, “by the book!”
préachán: “crow”, pronounced /prʹi:’xɑ:n/.
priocaim, priocadh: “to prick”.
púca: “hobgoblin, sprite”. Níl sprid ná púca gan fios a chúise aige féin, “there is no sprite or hobgoblin who doesn’t know his own business”, i.e., everyone has his own reasons for the things he does.
puínte: “point”, or pointe in the CO. An chéad phuínte ná a chéile dhe, “first of all”.
punann: “sheaf”.
púnc: “point”, or ponc in the CO. Púnc dlí, “a point of law”.
púnt: “pound”.
pus: “pout, protruding mouth”.
puth: “puff of breath”.
rá: “saying, utterance,” with ráite in the plural. Géilleadh do ráitibh éinne, “to be persuaded by something anyone said”.
rabhadh: “warning”, pronounced /rou/.
ráfla: “rumour”, pronounced /rɑ:fələ/.
raidim, radadh: “to give, bestow, shower”, or radaim, radhadh in the CO. Raid leat iad, “give her as many of them as you like”. CFBB shows the verb is raidim, with a slender d.
ráiméis: “nonsense, nonsensical talk”, often used in the plural (ráiméisí). Note the dative plural ráiméisibh, where ráiméisíbh might have been expected.
ráiníonn: “to reach”, without a verbal noun in common use. Usually found impersonally meaning “to happen to, transpire”. Dá ráineódh go, “if it transpired that”.
rámhann: “spade”, with rámhainní in the plural. The historical dative, rámhainn, has replaced the nominative in the CO. Pronounced /rɑ:n, rɑ:’ŋʹi/. I ngaireacht trí rámhainní dho, “three spades’ length, or 15 foot, away from him”.
ramhar: “fat”. Bainne ramhar, “thick milk”. Note the genitive singular masculine, raímhir. The genitive singular feminine is raímhre. Pronounced /raur, ri:rʹ/.
rascail: “rascal”.
rath: “good luck, bounty”. Gan rath orthu, “damn them!”
ré: “interval, month, period”. Lem ré, “in my lifetime, in my time”.
réal: “sixpence”, pronounced /re:l/.
réice: “rake”.
réidh: “smooth, even”, but also “done for”. Pronounced /re:gʹ/. Go réidh, “easy now, hold on!” Réidh leis, “finished with it”. Réidh chun, “ready to, about to”.
réir: “service, treatment”. De réir, “according to”: this phrase is given as do réir in the original, reflecting PUL’s haphazard approach to the spelling of de, which is normally pronounced do in WM Irish, even in phrases where he used the spelling de. The phrase is pronounced /də re:rʹ/ in WM Irish, or /drʹe:rʹ/ when the words are run together. De réir a chéile, “in order”.
rian: “sign”. Bhí a rian air, “it was obvious, it looked very much like (something had happened)”.
ribe: “hair, bristle”, referring to single hairs rather than to a head of hair.
ríghin: “slow”, also in the meaning of “mentally slow, retarded”. Pronounced /riːnʹ/. Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition of Séadna shows this word retains its broad r in lenitable circumstances: ana-ríghin, /ɑnə-riːnʹ/.
rínceóir: “dancer”.
ríncim, rínce: “to dance”.
riocht: “guise”. I riocht, “looking like, appearing on the verge of something, ready to”, also found in the dative plural as i riochtaibh, /i rʹuxtivʹ/, and i reachtaibh (the latter form being used in the CO). I riochtaibh dul i laige, “looking like he was going to faint”.
rithim, rith: “to run”. Frequently spelt rui- in the original, indicating a broad r. Such spellings have not been adopted in the editing here, as it is generally the case that an initial r is broad, and if this spelling were adopted here, it would need to be more widely applied also. Dá ritheadh leis, “if he succeeded”.
roim: “before”, or roimh in the CO, pronounced /rimʹ/. Roimh is also found in the original text and left as is wherever it is found. Roimhe, “before it” is also found occasionally in this work where roimis is generally used in WM Irish.
roinnt: “a share, a portion, a lot”. Note that this is a feminine noun. An roinnt déanach, “the last batch”, here has no lenition on the adjective owing to the rule about homorganic consonants.
ropaim, ropadh: “to stab”.
rua: “red, reddish”, but often of a darker hue than would be thought of as “red” in English: taoibhíní rua, “brown leather patches”, a translation confirmed by the authorised translation of Séadna published in 1915. Oiread is leathphingin rua, “not so much as one red cent!”
ruainneach: “hairy, bristly”.
ruán alla: “spider”. Snáth ruáin alla, “a spider’s web”. Ruánaille means “sparrow-hawk” in the CO, which has damhán alla for “spider”. Alla is derived from allaidh, of which allta, “wild, fierce”, is the plural according to PSD.
ruchar: “shot”, urchar. Usually pronounced /ruxər/ in WM Irish. PUL used the spelling urchur in the original.
rud: “thing”, pronounced /rod/. An rud, definite in Irish, frequently corresponds to “something” in English. Aon rud, “anything”, pronounced /eːrəd/. Rud a chur ar dhuine, “to blame someone for something”. Rud éigin, “to some degree, somewhat”.
rudaire: “knight”, or ridire in the CO. This was also given as ridire in the original, but PUL told Osborn Bergin that /rodirʹi/ was the correct pronunciation of this word.
rún: “secret”. Bhí rún a ndrochbheart agam, “I was aware of what they were up to, I was in on the secret”. Note that the r is pronounced slender in phrases where a lenitable consonant would be lenited, e.g. do rún, /də rʹuːn/, “your secret”, a rún, /ə rʹuːn/, “his secret”, fé run, /fʹeː rʹuːn/, “as a secret”.
ruthag: “rush, dash”. Ruthagaí cainnte, “tirades, bursts of speech”. The nominative plural, ruthaig in the CO, is not given in the text of Séadna, but is given in FdS. The dative plural ruthagaibh with a short ending therefore derives from an earlier plural of this word.
sábhálaim, sábháil: “to save”. Ar láimh shábhála, “out of danger”, of a person’s health.
sacraimínt: “sacrament”. The LS edition of Séadna points to a pronunciation of /sɑkri’mʹi:ntʹ/, although both sacramínt and sácramínt are found in PUL’s works (see his An Teagasg Críostaidhe), and more research is required on the length of the first vowel. There is no epenthetic vowel here, probably because the word is known in its English/Latin versions too.
saighdiúir dearg: “redcoat”, i.e., a British soldier. Pronounced /səi’dʹuːrʹ dʹarəg/. Na saighdiúirí dearga are also called an t-arm dearg here.
sáim, : “to thrust, plunge”. The verbal noun, written sáthadh in the original, is here edited as . This word is one of many that may have an audible “h”, particularly before a following vowel: /sɑ:~sɑ:h/.
sainnt: “greed”, or saint in the CO. The traditional nn is used in the editing here to show the diphthong, /saintʹ/.
sáith: “sufficiency”. A sáith magaidh, “enough ridiculing (for them)”.
sál: “heel”, or sáil in the CO, where the dative has replaced the historical nominative.
Samhain: “November”, pronounced /saunʹ/.
sámhcholadh: “sound sleep”.
saol: “life, world”. The original spelling was saoghal, and the spelling change has introduced inconsistencies: the genitive, originally saoghail, is spelt saoil in the Standard, which would give the wrong WM pronunciation. The genitive is edited as saeil here. Tar éis an tsaeil, “after all”.
saoráideach: “easy”, pronounced /səi’rɑ:dʹəx/.
saoráidí: “easiness”, pronounced /səi’rɑ:dʹi:/, an abstract noun used with proleptic a, (a shaoráidí, “how easy”).
saothar: “labour, exertion”. Saothar a bheith ort, “to be out of breath”.
sáraím, sárú: “to contradict, prove wrong”.
scailp: “shelter, shed, lean-to”.
scáinte: “threadbare, sparse”. Féasóg scáinte, “a thin beard”. This is the past participle of scáinim, scáineadh, “to wear thin”.
scáird: “terror, a frightened look”, or scard in the CO.
scairt: “entrails”. Greadadh trí lár do scairt, “may your entrails be scorched!”
scairtim, scairteadh: see sceartaim, sceartadh.
scannradh: “terror”, scanradh in the CO, pronounced /skaurə/ in WM.
scannraím, scannrú: “to take fright”, scanraím, scanrú in the CO.
scaoilim, scaoileadh: “to let loose, release”. Scaoileadh le duine, “to let someone go on”. Rud a scaoileadh thort, “to let something go by, to ignore it”.
scárd: “a terrified look”. Both scárd (masculine) and scáird (feminine) are found in the original text here.
scata: “crowd, group”.
scáth: “fear, nervousness”. Sórt scáth’ air, “a sort of fear”, where the apostrophe shows the elision of the a of the genitive, scátha.
scéal: “story”. Pé scéal é, “in any case, at any rate”. Cad é an scéal é?, “how goes it?”
sceartaim, sceartadh: “to burst”, or scairtim, scairteadh in the CO. Note that PUL’s Séadna uses both sceartaim and scairtim. Ag scairteadh ar gháirí/ar gháiríbh, “bursting out laughing”. Scairteadh gáire, “burst of laughter”.
scéim, scéith: “to spew; divulge or tell a secret”, or sceithim, sceitheadh in the CO.
sceímhle: “terror, dread”. Sceímhle ort, “a plague on you, confound you”. Pronounced /ʃkʹi:lʹi/.
sceinnim, sceinnt: “to spring, dart”, here of someone moving quickly out of view.
sceón: “terror”, or scéin in the CO.
sciamh: “facial beauty, appearance”, or scéimh in the CO where the historical dative has replaced the nominative. Note that scéimh is used in the nominative in PUL’s novel, Niamh.
scian: “knife”, with scéine in the genitive where the CO has scine.
sciathán: “wing”, pronounced /ʃkʹi:’hɑ:n/.
scilling: “shilling”. The general plural is scillingí, but scillinge is the plural used with numerals.
sciúrdaim, sciúrdadh: “to rush, dash”.
scoiltim, scoltadh: “to burst”, or scoiltim, scoilteadh in the CO. Often spelt without the historical t (sgoilim), but found with t here in scoiltfí.
scoláire: “scholar, pupil”, pronounced /sklɑ:rʹhi/. AÓL is on record as confirming the h in the pronunciation of this word, which is sometimes written scoláirthe.
scoraíocht: “visiting neighbours socially, often with gossip to pass on”.
scórnach: “throat”, with scórnaigh in the dative.
scortha: “broken up”, pronounced /skurhə/, the past participle of scoirim, scor. Scortha díomhain, “totally idle, without employment”.
screadaim, screadach: “to scream, shriek.” Note that as a feminine verbal noun ending in -ach, screadach becomes agscreadaigh in the dative, a distinction not observed in the CO.
scriosaim, scrios: “to annihilate, blot out”, or scriosaim, scriosadh in the CO. Scrios (leat!), “scram!, be off with you!” A leithéid de scrios, “such a ruin”.
scrupall: “compunction, pity”. Is mór an scrupall é, “it’s a great pity!”
scuab: “broom, brush”, with scuaib in the dative.
scuainne: “flock, drove, swarm”, or scuaine in the CO. Pronounced /skuəŋʹi/.
seabhac: “hawk”, pronounced /ʃauk/.
seachnaim, seachnadh/seachaint: “to avoid”, or seachnaím, seachaint in the CO. The older verbal noun seachnadh in used in Séadna, but PUL also uses seachaint in his works. PUL uses this verb in the first conjugation in most tenses, with seachnód and seachnódh in the future and conditional. Pronounced /ʃaxə’niːmʹ. ʃaxənə~ʃaxintʹ/.
seannda: “old, aged”, with a double n given in the editing here to show the diphthong, /ʃaundə/. A stiúsaí sheannda!, “you brazen old thing!” No diphthong is shown in Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition of Séadna and so more research is required here.
seanng: “slender”, or seang in the CO, pronounced /ʃauŋg/. The double n is used in the editing here to show the diphthong.
searbh: “bitter”, pronounced /ʃarəv/.
seargaim, seargadh: “to shrivel”. Seargadh thu féin, “to mortify yourself, stretch yourself to the limits”. The preterite shearg is pronounced /hɑrəg/.
seasaím, seasamh: “to stand”, or seasaim, seasamh in the CO. Note the preterite do sheasaimh sé, where the CO has sheas sé, reflecting a general tendency for -mh to appear in the third-person singular preterite (and imperative) where the verbal noun ends in -mh in WM Irish. Margadh a sheasamh, “to stand by a deal”. Conas sheasaíonn airgead do, “how his money holds out”.
seasc: “barren, dry”. Bó sheasc, “a dry cow, one that does not give milk”.
seascair: “cosy, snug”.
seasmhach: “steady, constant”, pronounced /ʃasəvəx/.
seift: “plan”. Ní raibh de sheift acu ach, “the only thing they could do was…”
seilbh: “possession”, pronounced /ʃelʹivʹ/, with sealbha, /ʃaləvə/, in the genitive. Cíos nú seilbh, “pay the rent or give up the property”.
seirithean: “indignation”, or seirfean in the CO. Pronounced /ʃerʹihən/.
seó: “show, spectacle”. Ní beag de sheó é, “it is amazing”. Níl aon tseó ach é, “it is a marvel, there is nothing like it”.
seo: “this”, but also “now” as a milding scolding interjection. Seo, seo! Stadaidh, a chailíní!, “now, now! come now! that’s enough, girls!”
seochas: “besides”, or seachas. Spelt seachas in the original, but pronounced /ʃoxəs/. Seochas a chéile, “in comparison with each other, more than any others”.
seólta: “graceful”, a derived meaning from “well-directed”.
seómra: “room”, pronounced /ʃoːmərə/. I need to confirm this, as IWM and the LS edition of Séadna do not show an epenthetic vowel.
sí: “blast, gust”. Note that is feminine in PUL’s works, but masculine in the CO. Sí gaoithe, “whirlwind”.
sid é: “this is, here is”, corresponding to siod é in the CO. Similarly, sid í and sid iad correspond to siod í and siod iad.
silim, sileadh: “to hang, droop, hang down”.
sílim, síleadh: “to think, expect”.
sin: “that”. Note that were the original had air-sean, this has been adjusted in the editing here to air sin, in accordance with the general form in WM Irish. Shán Ó Cuív’s LS version of Séadnahas ershan in such circumstances.
sínim, síneadh: “to stretch, lay down”. Rud a shíneadh chun duine, “to hand something over to someone”, and therefore deoch a shíneadh chun duine, “to get someone a drink”.
síofra: “sprite, elf”.
síor-: a prefix implying continual action. Ag síorchasadh, “twisting continually”. Ag síorchrónán, “constantly humming”.
siosrach: “neighing, whinnying”, or seitreach in the CO. Pronounced /ʃisərəx/. Siosrach is a feminine verbal noun that is declined in the dative as ag siosraigh.
siúlaim, siúl: “to walk”. Cad tá ar siúl agat?, “what are you talking about?”
siúrálta: “sure, certain”, or siúráilte in the CO. Pronounced /ʃuː’rɑːlhə/.
slabhra: “chain”, pronounced /slaurə/.
slán: “healthy, safe”. Slán beó mar a n-ínstear é! “God bless the hearers!”, a pious injunction upon the mention of illness or hearers.
slat: “yard”.
slí: “way”. As an slí, “out of the way; wrong”.
sloigim, slogadh: “to swallow”, or slogaim, slogadh in the CO.
sluasad: “shovel”, with sluasaid in the dative, which form is used for the nominative in the CO.
smigín: “chin”. This is the diminutive of the form smig used in the CO, but glossed merely as “chin” in FdS.
smiog: “tittle; a single word”, or smid in the CO. Pronounced /smʹug/, according to CFBB.
smut: “a bit”, or smiota in the CO. Smut gáire/smut de gháire, “a snigger”. Smut is found in the CO in the meaning of “a chunk of wood” (smut adhmaid), whereas smut gáireis found in FGB as smiota gáire. Smuta is found in the nominative in chapter 18, but smut is the form generally found here.
snamhaire: “creep, sneak, sly person”, pronounced /snaurʹi/.
snáth: “thread, yarn”, with snátha in the genitive. The original text had snáithe in the genitive (in addition to snátha in other passages), but this yields the same pronunciation as snátha and is hard to reconcile in terms of declension pattern. Similarly, snáith in the dative in the original is edited here as snáth.
snáthad: “needle”, with snáthaid in the dative, which form is used for the nominative in the CO.
sníomhaim, sníomh: “to wring, spin”. Tá mo chroí dá shníomh le buairt, “my heart is being wrung with grief”.
snoím, snoí: “to waste away”.
socraím, socrú: “to settle, place”. Pronounced /sokə’ri:mʹ, sokə’ru:/. Socrú a bheith agat ar rud, “to have reached a mental conclusion about something”.
sodar: “act of trotting”. Ar sodar, “at a trot”.
soláthraím, soláthair: “to get, procure”. Pronounced /slɑ:r’hi:mʹ, slɑ:hər/.
son: “sake, account”. Cad ar a shon?, “what for?” Ar a shon go, “even though”. Ar a shon san, “even so, nevertheless” or “on that account”, depending on context.
sórd: “sort”, sórt in the CO, /so:rd/. Occasionally found as sórt in the original, instances of which are left as given in the original.
sparán: “purse, pouch”. The diminutive sparáinín is also used here.
speabhraíd: “hallucination”, with speabhraídí, “ravings”, in the plural.
spéirghealach: “sky brightness”. Oíche spéirghealaí, “a sky-bright sky”, when the moon itself is not visible. This definition is given in FdS; a moon-lit night would be oíche ghealaí.
splannc: “flash of lightning”, or splanc in the CO. The double n is used in the editing here to show the diphthong: pronounced /splauŋk/.
spleáchas: “dependence”. Gan spleáchas do, “in spite of”.
spré: “dowry”.
spréach: “spark”. ’Na spréachaibh nímhe, “in venomous sparks”.
spreallairín: “a silly little fool, a little wretch”.
sprid: “sprite, ghost”.
spriocaim, spriocadh: the verb spriocaim exists in the CO only in the meaning “fix, arrange”, but PUL uses this verb to mean “inspire” (as here), a meaning that is covered by spreagaim in the CO. PUL also uses spreagaim in this meaning too, so the relationship between these forms is complex.
spriúchaim, spriúchadh: “to fly into a rage”.
spriúnlaitheacht: “miserliness”, or sprionlaitheacht in the CO. Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition of Séadna transcribes as if spriúnlaíocht. However, CFBB indicates the WM form is indeed spriúnlaitheacht.
spriúnlóir: “miser, skinflint”, or sprionlóir in the CO.
sráid: “street”, but also “town”.
srangán: “string, cord”. Pronounced /srə’ŋɑ:n/.
srian: “reins of a horse”, feminine here, but masculine in the CO.
sroisim, sroisiúint: “to reach”, or sroichim, sroicheadh in the CO. This was spelt with -ch in the original, but IWM and CFBB confirm the WM pronunciation is /sroʃimʹ, sro’ʃu:ntʹ/.
srubh srabh: FdS says these words imitate the milking of a cow are used by the fortune teller in chapter 20 to intimate that some misfortune was to occur to Diarmuid’s cows.
stainncín: “pique, spite”, the diminutive of the stainc used in the CO. Stainncín a dhéanamh ar dhuine, “to spite someone”. I am assuming a diphthong in this word: /staiŋ’kʹiːnʹ/.
staithim, stathadh: “to pick, pluck”, orstoithim, stoitheadh in the CO.
steallmhagadh: “an act of mocking unmercifully”, pronounced /ʃtʹalə-vɑgə/. Ag steallmhagadh fé dhuine, “to jeer or ridicule someone”. The prefix steall- or stealla- is derived from the verb steallaim, stealladh, “to pour”, referring to something done in a gushing, overflowing or vigorous way.
stiúsaí: “saucy girl, hussy”. Both IWM and PSD concur that the stress on this word is unexpectedly on the first syllable: /ʃtʹuːsiː/.
stoc: “stock, cattle”. Stoc mór de bhuaibh, “a large herd of cattle”.
stoca: “stocking”.
stop: “stop, pause”, an English word long accepted in Irish.
stothairín: “a wretched little horse”, especially one with long hair. FdS glosses this as “a shaggy old crock of a horse”. Pronounced /stuhi’rʹi:nʹ/.
stracaim, stracadh: “to tear”, or sracaim, sracadh in the CO.
stróinséir: “stranger”, or strainséir in the CO.
suas: “up”, but also “alive”: le cuímhne éinne atá suas, “in living memory”.
súgán: “straw-rope”.
suím, suí: “to sit”. Tá an ghealach (ghrian) na suí, “the moon (sun) has risen, is up”.
suirí: “act of wooing or courting”.
sula: “before”. WM Irish usually has sara, but PUL used sula here in the original. Similarly sular is found here with the past tense where sararis more fundamental to the WM dialect.
tabharthas: “gift”, or tabhartas in the CO, pronounced /tourhəs/.
taca: “peg, pin, nail; point of time, juncture”. Um an dtaca so, “by this time”. Pronounced /tɑkə~takʹi/; PUL’s spelling points to the former pronunciation.
tagaim, teacht: “to come”. The imperative, given as tar in the original, which is the form adopted in the CO, is edited here as tair, in line with the general WM pronunciation. Tair i leith, “come here”. With le, “to be able to”: although this is generally known as an Ulster idiom, PUL has dtiocfadh liom baint ón dtairbhe do dhein an scilling and níor tháinig léi (“she wasn’t able to”) here, and mar a thagann liomsa in his novel Niamh. Teacht! as an interjection, “yes!” The context here shows this is so used even when there is no sense of “coming”, where two interlocutors are already face to face, as in chapter 8 here. Is feárr a thiocfadh sé dho, “it would have become him better (to behave in a certain way)”. In ar iompáil na n-each tig athrach na scéal, “things can change quickly”, tig is an ossified old third-person singular present-tense form. Fé mar thigidís, dá dtigeadh, mura dtigid siad and na daoine thíodh isteach here all use the older form tigim (with the g lenited in the past habitual form thíodh).
taibhreamh: “dream”, with taibhrithe in the plural where the CO has taibhrimh, pronounced /təirʹəv, təirʹihi/. Traditionally spelt taidhbhreamh, this word is spelt taidhreamh in the original. Taibhreamh na súl n-oscalta, “a dream with your eyes open”.
taíghde: “research”, pronounced /tiːdʹi/.
táim, bheith: “to be”. PUL uses táir (with an bhfuilir? in the interrogative) as the second-person singular present-tense form here; otherwise tánn tú or taíonn tú. The relative form ataoi is also found here. Bíodh agat, have it your way! Go raibh maith agat is edited here as go ra’ maith agat, as the raibh is not given in full in the pronunciation of this phrase. Bíodh orm, “believe me (when I say this), take it from me”. Slán a bheir, “may you be well”, using the second-person singular future form.
tairbhe: “benefit”, pronounced /tɑrʹifʹi/.
tairgim, tairiscint: “to offer”. Nuair tairgeadh trí fichid púnt duit ar do bhraimín gioblach, “when sixty pound was offered for your shaggy colt”. It is worth noting that FdS confuses tairrigim, “to pull, draw”, and tairgim, “to offer”, thus providing confirmation of a sort that PUL did pronounce both of these verbs /tarʹigʹimʹ/. Both are spelt taraingim (or conjugated forms derived therefrom) in the original text here, reflecting PUL’s policy of not using double letters where he saw no justification for them in WM pronunciation. The classical spelling of tairrigim is tarraingim, whereas the classical spelling of tairgim is tairgim. The verbal nouns are a point of difference, as tairgim has tairiscint (the classical spelling of which was tairgsin or tairgsint), whereas tairrigim has tarrac (the classical spelling of which was tarraing or tarraingt, spelt tarang by PUL in the original text here), but the confusion is enhanced in FdS by the claim that tarang means “an act of offering” as well as “an act of drawing or pulling”. Clearly tarang/tarrac does not mean “an act of offering”, as shown by the fact that PUL has ag tairiscint in his novel Niamh.
tairrigim, tarrac: “to pull”, or tarraingím, tarraingt in the CO. Pronounced /tarʹigʹimʹ, tɑrək/. The various forms of this verb exhibit the same changes: the past is do thairrig /harʹigʹ/. This verb was in the first declension in PUL’s works (do thairrigeadar), where modern Munster Irish would have do thairrigíodar. PUL used the classical spellings (taraingim, tarang, etc, albeit with a single r) in the original, but Shán Ó Cuív transcribed tharaing as hairig in his LS edition of Séadna. Scéal do tharrac anuas, “to bring something up, broach it as a topic of conversation”. A chlaíomh ar tarrac aige, “with his sword drawn”. T’anál do tharrac, “to draw breath”.
taise: “mildness, gentleness”. Gan trua gan taise, “with neither pity nor compassion”.
taithneann, taithneamh: “to be pleasing to; to shine”, taitníonn, taitneamh in the CO. Generally in the first declension in PUL’s works, pronounced /taŋʹhən, taŋʹhəv/.
táithriugadh: “an act of scurrilous abuse”. Ní hag táithriugadh uirthi!, “I mustn’t reproach her; I don’t mean to abuse her”. This word appeared in the original here as táiriugadh, but is given in CFBB as táithriúg, which form is also found in the CO. It seems the u can either be long or short, but it is given short in the original and transcribed in Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition of Séadna as táiriuga. It seems, therefore, the pronunciation is /’tɑːrʹugə~/tɑː’rʹhuːgə/.
talamh: “land”. The genitive, talaimh in the CO, is generally found with a slender l in PUL’s works: tailimh, /talʹivʹ/. Talaimh is given in the genitive in chapter 11, and left unamended. fhios ag an dtalamh, “goodness knows”.
taobh: “side”. Na thaobh, “regarding it, on account of it”. Na thaobh san, “for all that”. This word is shown in FdS as both masculine and feminine, with the dative either taobh or taoibh, although instances of taoibh in the dative in the original are transcribed in the LS edition compiled by Shán Ó Cuív as if from taobh. I dtaoibh le, “depending on”: i dtaoibh lena chrann úll agus lena mhealbhóig agus lena chathaoir shúgáin, “confined to his apple tree, bag and straw-rope chair”. Taobh leis, “besides him”. Gach taobh acu, “both of them”. Ar an dtaobh amu’ de, “apart from, except”. I dtaobh is, “although”, followed by a clause with go. Na thaobh san is uile, “in spite of all that”.
taoibhín: “a small addition; a patch on a shoe-upper”.
taoisc: “downpour”, with taoisceanna in the plural.
taom: “fit, period of illness”.
tapaidh: “quick”, or tapa in the CO. Pronounced /tɑpigʹ/.
tarcaisne: “scorn, contempt, insult”.
tarna: second, or darain the CO; dara was also occasionally found in PUL’s works. See also darna.
tárr: “abdomen; midriff, torso”. Tárr leathan air, “with a ‘spare tyre’ around his middle”.
tárrleathan: “broad in the abdomen, broad torsoed”.
tásc: “report of a death”. Ní bhfuair sé a thásc ná a thuairisc, “he never got any news of him”.
tathant: “an act of urging or inciting”. There is no attestation of a finite verb corresponding to the CO form tathantaím in WM Irish. Note that this word was given as tafaint in the original, and Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition of Séadna transcribes thafaint as hafuint, but FdS specifically states that the f is to be pronounced as h (“tafaint, pron. tathaint”). CFBB states the pronunciation is /tɑhənt/, which accords with the spelling tathant used in most of PUL’s works (cf. his novel, Niamh).
te: “hot”. Traditionally spelt teith, PUL is on record in his Notes on Irish Words and Usages (p127) as insisting this word has a “most distinct” final  h in the pronunciation. However, this is likely to be apparent only before a following vowel. Pronunciation /tʹe~tʹeh/.
téad: “rope”, with téid in the dative.
teagasc: “teaching”. An Teagasc Críostaí, “the Catechism”.
téanam: “come along”, part of a defective verb usually found only in the imperative. Téanam appears to be derived from a first-person plural imperative, but is used as a second-person imperative in the form téanam ort, possibly analogous to the first-person singular imperative in English “let’s be having you”.
teanga: “tongue”, with teangain in the dative.
teangmhaím, teangmháil: “to meet, contact, touch”, teagmhaím, teagmháil in the CO. With le, “to come into contact with something/someone”. Pronounced /tʹaŋə’vi:mʹ, tʹaŋə’vɑ:lʹ/.
teann: “taut, well-filled, plump”. Go tur agus go teann, “bluntly and firmly”.
teideal: “title”. Teideal chun ruda, “entitlement to or reason for something”.
téim, dul: “to go”. Ní rómhaith do raghadh sé dhuit, “you wouldn’t appreciate it; it wouldn’t sit well with you”. Dul le rud, “to get away with something”. Note that the past-tense form (do chuas) is often found in the dependent (níor chuas, ar chuas?) in WM Irish, with numerous examples in the text of Séadna, but the historically correct dependent form go ndeaghas, go ndeigh sé, /gə nʹəis, gə nʹəi ʃeː/is given here also, particularly after go.
téim, té’: “to heat, warm”, or téim, téamh in the CO. The verbal noun was spelt téidheadh in the classical spelling, which could be written as téidh now, but the -idh ending might point to a g in WM Irish, and so it seems better to adopt the spelling té’, which does not have any infelicitous implications for the pronunciation.
teinn: “sore”, with teinne in the comparative. Pronounced /tʹəiŋʹ, tʹəiŋʹi/.
teinneas: “soreness”, or tinneas in the CO. Pronounced /tʹeŋʹəs/.
teó: “heat”. This form of the word is the abstract noun used with a proleptic a (a theó, “how hot”); teas is not so used. Teocht is the form used in the CO.
teóra: “boundary”, or teorainn in the CO. Níl aon teóra leis, “he knows no bounds, there is nothing like it, there is no end to it”.
thar: “through, across, past”, often delenited to tar after a dental sound (including s) and sometimes in other circumstances too. Thar cheann, “on behalf of”. Thorm, “beyond or past me”, equivalent to tharam in the CO. The original spelling, tharm, has been edited here in line with the WM pronunciation, /horəm/, as given in the LS edition of Séadna. Tháirsi, “beyond or across her”, or thairsti in the CO; pronounced /hɑ:rʃi/. Teacht tháirsi, “mention of her”. Thar a bhfeacaís riamh! “exactly so!” [literally, “beyond everything you ever saw!”] Thársu, often thórsu in PUL’s works, /hɑːrsə, ho:rsə/, “beyond them”, equivalent to tharsta in the Standard. Ag gabháil thort pháirc an aonaigh síos, “passing you as we went down the fair green”: the original text here had ag gabháil thart, but thort (“past you”) and thart (“around, about”) are distinct words, and the authorised translation of Séadna shows the meaning here is “passing you”, and so thart here appears to be the prepositional pronoun spelt variously thart and thort in the original text of Séadna, and pronounced /horət/. Similarly do scaoilis thort appeared as do sgaoilis thart in the original text of Séadna.
thíos: “down”. Thíos leis, “suffering for it, bearing the consequences, affected by it”. Thíos traditionally refers to locations in the north, such as “up” in Dublin, which is northwards of Munster.
thoir thiar thall: “all over the place”. Éamann óg thoir thiar thall aici, “young Éamann this, young Éamann that and young Éamann the other; constantly going on about young Éamann”.
tí: “point, mark”. Ar tí, “on the point of, intending to”. Ar a thí, “after him; seeking to attack him”.
tiarcas: found in a thiarcais!, “O God!, my goodness!” FdS explains the exclamation a thiarcais! is a way of avoiding the blasphemous a Thiarna!
tigh: “house”, or teach. The historic dative has replaced the nominative in WM Irish. Note that the pronunciation, usually /tʹigʹ/, frequently becomes /tʹi/ where the noun is qualified, as in tigh ósta /tʹi o:stə/. Tigh tábhairne, inn, pronounced /tʹi tɑ:rnʹi/. Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition of Séadna also shows that thighse is pronounced /hiʃi/ and sa tigh seo /sə tʹi ʃo/.
tímpall: timpeall. The broad p in WM Irish is preserved here: /tʹi:mʹpəl/.
tíncéir: “tinker”.
tínteán: “fireplace”.
tiomáinim, tiomáint: “to drive”. PUL uses both tiomáint and comáint in his works, but tiomáint is the form found in the CO. Pronounced with a broad t, /tə’mɑ:nʹimʹ, tə’mɑ:ntʹ/.
tionlacaim, tionlacan: “to escort, accompany”. I am unclear on the pronunciation of this word, as the LS edition of Séadna by Shán Ó Cuív indicates a short u, whereas the spelling tionnlacan in PUL’s Mo Sgéal Féin indicates the pronunciation is /tʹu:nləkimʹ, tʹu:nləkən/.
tirim: “dry”, pronounced /trʹimʹ/.
titim, titim: “to fall”. This word is spelt tuitim in the original, but the initial t is slender in WM Irish, and so the spelling more widely accepted in the CO is adopted in the editing here. Titim focail, “a slip of the tongue, a missed word”.
tnáite: “worn-out, exhausted”.
tóchar: “causeway, raised embankment”.
tochas: “an itch”.
toice: “hussy, wench”, pronounced /tokʹi/. A thoice bhig, “you little wench!” Note that this phrase was used in an affectionate way. FdS says “not always in a bad sense, but only in fun”.
toirmeasc: “mischief, row”, pronounced /torʹimʹəsk/. Ag déanamh toirmisc do dhuine, “making trouble for someone”.
tóirthneach: “thunder”, toirneach. Pronounced /to:rhnʹəx/. PUL commented in his Notes on Irish Words and Usages(p107) that he had never heard this word pronounced without its medial  th .
tómhaisim, tómhas: “to measure, estimate”. Tómhaiste, “measured”.
tor: “bush”, with tuir in the genitive. Tor aitinn, “a furze bush”.
tórramh: “funeral wake”.
tráth: “time, occasion”. Tráth is go, “seeing as, since”, pronounced /trɑ:s gə~trɑ:həs gə/; spelt trá ’s go in the original here. FdS points out that do rá’s go and tré’s go were also found; treás go is the form used in PUL’s novel Niamh. Pé tráth, “whenever”.
tráthar: “auger, a tool for boring holes in wood”, or tarathar in the CO. Poll tráthair, “an auger hole”.
tráthnóna: “evening”, pronounced /trɑ:n’ho:nə/. Bhí sé ’na thráthnóna mhór luath, “it was early in the evening”.
tréan: “strong”. This word is rarely used other than in the comparative, treise. Ba threise ar an lá ná ar an oíche, “it was more day than night”.
treasna: “across”, or trasna in the CO.
trí: “through”. Note that this preposition is often lenited after a vowel or after an r. Rud a chur thrí chéile, “to discuss something”. Tré and thré are edited as trí/thrí here, in line with the pronunciation. Note the form tríom, “through me” or “through my”.
trialaim, triail: “to try, test”, triailim, triail in the Standard. Note that in the CO the distinction between triailim, “I try, test” and triallaim, “I journey” is a little clearer than in WM Irish, where the slender l of the former appears only in the third-person preterite, the singular imperative, the verbal noun and the autonomous forms in -tí and -fí. Píosa thriail, “to test a coin”, e.g. for purity.
trioblóid: “trouble”, pronounced /trʹubə’lo:dʹ/.
tritheamh: “fit (e.g., of laughter)”, with the plural trithí. In sna trithíbh gáirí, “in fits of laughter”. In sna trithíbh dúbha ag gáirí, “in convulsions of laughter”.
trócaire: “mercy”.
tromchroí: “heaviness of heart, melancholy”. Spelt troma-chroídhe in the original and pronounced /tromə-xri:/.
tromchroíoch: “heavy-hearted”. Spelt troma-chroídheach in the original and pronounced /tromə-xri:x/.
troscadh: “fasting, abstinence”.
truamhéil: “plaintiveness”, or truamhéala in the CO. Gach éinne is a thruamhéil féin aige, “everyone with his own trouble”.
truamhéileach: “piteous, plaintive”, or truamhéalach in the CO.
tu, thu: disjunctive form of the second person pronoun, pronounced /tu, hu/. Always in the CO.
tuairgín: “pounder, mallet”, or tuairgnín in the CO. Cos tuairgín, “the handle of a mallet”.
tuairisc: “news, account, description”. Tuairisc áite chur, “to make enquiries about a place; ask for directions”.
tuathal: “wrong direction, error, blunder, the wrong thing”. Níor theip an tuathal riamh ort!, “you’re always sure to do the wrong thing!” An tuathal a dhéanamh, “to do something stupid”.
tuathalán: “blunderer”, pronounced /tuəhəlɑ:n/.
tubaist: “calamity, tragedy”. This word, tubaiste in the CO, is found spelt with both broad and slender t in PUL’s works. The variant spellings appear to indicate that PUL had a slender t, while occasionally lapsing into the accepted spelling with a broad t. Note however that CFBB has tubaist, with a broad t. Tubaiste is found in chapter 13 in an early edition of Séadna, but corrected to tubaist in the corrected early edition. Rud a bheith de thubaist ort, “to have the misfortune of”.
tubaisteach: “calamitous, disastrous, ill-fated”. This word, and the cognate noun tubaist (tubaiste in the CO) are found spelt with both broad and slender t in PUL’s works. See, for, example, tiubaisteach in PUL’s novel, Niamh. The variant spellings appear to indicate that PUL had a slender t, while occasionally lapsing into the accepted spelling with a broad t. Note however that CFBB has tubaist, with a broad t.
tugaim, tabhairt: “to give”. Note that tabhair dhom, “give me”, is pronounced /trom/. The verbal adjective here is tabhartha, where the CO has tugtha. Tabhairt fé, “to tackle; attack”.
tugtha: “devoted, willing”, pronounced /tukə/. See tugaim, tabhairt.
tuilleadh: “more”. Tuilleadh ’n donas chun Diarmuda, “it serves Diarmuid right”, pronounced /tilʹin donəs/.
tuirseach: “tired”, pronounced /tir’ʃax/.
tuistiún: “fourpence” in predecimal money. A dó agus dá thuistiún, “two and eight; two shillings and eightpence”. This was found as a dó agus dá thistiún in the original, but IWM shows that AÓL pronounced this word with a broad initial t.
tulach: “blacksmith’s hearth/forge”, or teallach in the CO. Pronounced /tə’lɑx/.
tulcais: “a bulky thing, clumsy person, deformed person”, used here in the vocative, a thulcais!, glossed in FdS as “you misshapen thing”. This word appears to be bulcais in the CO, which form is also given in CFBB.
tur: “dry”. Tur te, immediately. An t-anam a thitim tur te asat, “to collapse”. Tur also means “blunt, peremptory”: go tur agus go teann, “bluntly and firmly”.
turas: “journey, round, occasion”. Pronounced /trus/.
tús: “beginning”. The dative is túis here (ó thúis go deireadh), possibly implying this word is feminine in the dative. Munster Irish seems to prefer tosach to tús in most circumstances.
uabhar: “pride”. Aingil an uabhair, “the fallen angels”. Pronounced /uər/.
uacht: “will, testament”. Fágaim le huacht, “I vouch, I swear”, as an asseveration.
uain: “opportunity”. Strictly speaking, the idiom is tá sé d’uain agam (rud a dhéanamh), “I have the opportunity (to do something)”, as at the end of chapter 10 here. This is then simplified to tá uaim agam, as in chapter 4, where we find sula raibh uain ag an marcách é thabhairt fé ndeara.
ualach: “burden”, and by extension, “a great deal of something”.
ucht: “chest, bosom”. Im ucht, “on my lap”.
údhálta: “the exact same way or condition”, pronounced /u:ɣəltə/ according to the LS transcription of this word in chapter 7, but /u:’ɑ:lhə/ according to the transcription of the same word in chapter 19. FGB has an entry for urdhálta, but crossreferenced to dála (i.e., dáltha). PUL’s original spelling was udhálta and úrdhálta, but both are edited as údhálta here.
úil:iúl in the CO, “knowledge”. The word úmhail, “attention”, appears to have become confused with the dative of eól, producing úil. Where i n-iúl stood in the original, it has been adjusted in the editing here. Rud a chur in úil do dhuine, “to let someone know something, to make someone realise something”.
uilechómhacht: “omnipotence”, or uilechumhacht in the CO. Pronounced /ilʹi-xo:xt/. The phrase Dia an uilechómhacht is used here, given as Dia an uile chómhacht in the original: the entry in FdS, “God of all powers; God Almighty”, indicates that cómhacht may be genitive plural in this phrase. However, as an uile is given here, and not na n-uile, it may be better to regard it as a noun in apposition to Dia. The phrase is often given as Dia n uilechómhacht, /dʹiən ilʹi-xo:xt/, in PUL’s works, with the a of an elided.
uille: “elbow”, with uillinn in the dative, which form is used for the nominative in the CO.
uiriste: “easy”, furasta in the CO. Fuiriste is also found in PUL’s works. The comparative, found here, is usa, where the CO has fusa.
um: “about, round”. PUL uses the traditional do bhuail sé uime in preference to do bhuaileas leis to mean “I met him, bumped into him”. PUL stated in his Notes on Irish Words and Usages that this was not an obsolete word for him, and he had always heard cur umat for “to put on (clothing)”, and not cur ort. The combined forms are umam, umat, uime, uímpi, umainn, umaibh and úmpu. Note um á (umá in the original) where um is coupled with the possessive particle.
únthairt: “rolling, tossing about”, or únfairt in the CO. Pronounced /u:nhirtʹ/.
úr: “your (pl)”, or bhur in the CO.
úrlabhra: “speech”, pronounced /u:rlourə/. Gan aithne gan úrlabhra, “unconscious”.
urra: “warranty”.
ursa: “doorpost”, with ursain in the dative, which form is used for the nominative in the CO.
usaide: “all the easier”. This is a “second comparative” form, similar to feárrde, móide, miste, meaning “all the more X for it”.
veist: “vest, waistcoat”, spelt bhest in the original.

Proverbs

ar iompáil na n-each tig athrach na scéal: “things can change quickly”.
is fada siar é iarsma an drochbhirt: “evil has far-reaching effects”.
is olc an ghaoth ná séideann do dhuine éigin: “it’s an ill wind that blows nobody any good”.
mar mhaithe leis féin a dheineann an cat crónán: “the cat purrs for its own good”, i.e. people act out of their own selfish motivations. Often preceded by dáltha an chait (see dáltha).
ná codail ar an gcluais sin: “don’t be too sure of that”.
tar a éis a tuigtear gach beart: “it is afterwards that everything is found out; events are understood better in hindsight”.