[Irishleabhar na Gaedhilge, August 1st 1895, Vol VI, No 5, p79]

Táim díreach tar éis mo shúl do leogaint ar an alt do scrí’s san Irisleabhar1 ar an rá san ba dhóbhair. Is maith é sin. Ní raibh ’ fhios agam cad é an bunbhrí ’ bhí sa bhfocal.

Níor airíos riamh is dóbair. D’airínn:— 1. Ba dhóbair. 2. Ba dhóbair go dtitfinn. 3. Ba dh. dom titim. 4. Ba ródh. dom é. 5. Níor thiteas, ach ba ródhóbair dom é. 6. Is beag ná gur dh. dom titim.

Nách caol do sníomhthar an smaoineamh!

Peadar Ua Laoghaire.2

bunbhrí: “basic or literal meaning”.
dóbair: “it nearly happened”, originally the preterite of the verb fóbraim, fóbairt, “to attack, approach”. Ba dhóbair dom é ’ dhéanamh, “I almost did it”. Níor dhóbair go mbeinn ann, “I was unlucky enough to be there”.
leogaim, leogaint: “to let, allow”, or ligim, ligean in GCh.
nách: nach in GCh, /nɑ:x/.
sníomhaim, sníomh: “to spin”. Nách caol a sníomhthar an smaoineamh! possibly means “isn’t the [Irish] mode of thinking hard to unpick and decipher! isn’t it involved!”

1Referring to an article “On Do fhobair (hobair) or d’fhobair (d’obair)” by Seósamh Laoide in Irisleabhar na Gaedhilge, March 1st 1895, Vol V, No 12, p183-184.
2This is appended by a note by Seósamh Laoide, stating that in conversation with PUL, the latter told him there was also níor dhóbair ná go mbeinn ann, which means the same as bhí sé mar bhárr mí-ádha orm go rabhas ann.

Some Irish Idioms


[Irishleabhar na Gaedhilge, May 1st 1895, Vol VI, No 2, p26]

In the story of Micheál na Buile, the expression occurs bó & í ag dul amú. Phrases of this description are best translated in English by a relative construction—“a cow that was straying”. In the Irish, the two ideas, “cow” and “going astray”, are much more distinct and the expression a great deal stronger when the construction with agus is used, than if the phrase were to run cad do seólfí fán ngleann ach bó a bhí ag dul amú. In the English the relative does not seem to have this weakening effect.

I believe I have sometimes noticed that students of Irish appear to regret the absence from the language of a special verb to express possession, like the English “have”. There seems also to be a feeling of disappointment because Irish has no machinery for complex relative constructions. This is a great mistake. Students ought to take it for granted that a nation whose intellectual capacity secured for it a worldwide renown through a long course of centuries must have possessed a language in every way up to the level of that capacity. Those who have spoken Irish from their earliest childhood are well aware that they never missed this verb “to have”, either as a principal or as an auxiliary; also that, however interdependent the thoughts may have been to which they desired to give expression, they have always been able to express them clearly and thoroughly without the aid of complex relative constructions.

The principal thing to be borne in mind by the student is that it is never safe to translate from English into Irish following the English mode of thought. This precept may have the effect of discouraging beginners, but there is one great consolation that should always be borne in mind—the language is wonderfully consistent. Its general rules have few exceptions. For instance, there is no exception to the rule that “after the verb , or any part of it, a substantive cannot be used as predicate”. The English phrase “he is a man” has two entirely different meanings, which can be distinguished only by the context. It may mean that “he is a man and not some other being”, or it may mean “he is (now) a man”, “he has come to man’s estate”. The first meaning would be expressed in Irish by Is fear é, the second by Tá sé in’ fhear (=ina fhear, “in his man”). This distinction permeates the whole Irish language. Any person can see from this the great advantage that Irish enjoys over English in accuracy of expression so far as the use of the verb “to be” is concerned.

This facility for accuracy of expression is characteristic of Irish in other constructions as well as in those in which the verb “to be” is found. And nowhere are the modes of thought and expression more beautiful or more clearly defined than in constructions which have to be rendered into English by using relatives. Take this example, Do rug sé ar chaolaibh cos ar an bhfear ba mhó ceann & ba chaoile cosa, “he caught by the slender parts of the legs the man who had the largest head and the slenderest legs”. It would be absolutely impossible to translate the Irish sentence literally into English, and equally impossible to render the English sentence word for word in Irish.

Here is another example:—

Níl maith dhom bheith dá labhairt,
’S do ghaol le Donnchadh an tsagairt,
Le hEóghan na gcártaí, a athair,
Le lucht na gceann do ghearradh,
Do chur i málaibh leathair,
Do bhreith leó síos don chathair,
’s an óir do thabhairt abhaile
Mar chothú ban is leanbh.

No use is my uttering it,
Since you are related to Denis of the priest,
To Owen of the cards, his father,
To those who cut off the heads,
Who put them in leathern bags,
Who carried them down to the city,
And who brought home the gold with them,
As a support for wives and children.1

Here we have four relative pronouns in the English translation and not one in the original Irish. But the absence of the relative in the Irish is not a loss, but a distinct gain in strength of thought and energy of expression.

The Irish relative usage does not admit of the insertion of any words between the antecedent and the relative (or verb with relative unexpressed). Hence, such sentences as “He who, having got good advice, refuses to follow it, must blame himself for the consequences”, must be recast before being put into Irish. It must be put into some such shape as this—“He who gets a good advice and does not take it must take the consequences”, An té ’ gheibheann dea-chómhairle & ná glacann í, bíodh air féin.

In my schooldays, when a number us indulged in “scrooging”, some boy with strong ribs would shout, An té lenar cúng, fágadh!, “Anyone who finds things too tight, let him leave!” As often the expression was An té leis gur cúng, fágadh! There are additional methods of rendering an English relative.

I believe that if a learner had once mastered the Irish idioms of the verbs “to be” and “to have” and the relative, the chief portion of his trouble would be over.

Peadar Ua Laoghaire.


caoineadh: “keen, lament, elegy”.
caointeóir: “keener, mourner”.
caol: “slender part of something”, including wrists and ankles.
cúng: “narrow”, pronounced /ku:ŋg/. An té leis gur cúng, fágadh!, “let whoever find it narrow be the one to leave”.
fá: “under”, generally in WM Irish and faoi in GCh. has a wider meaning in fén ngleann, “into/over the valley”.
leanbh: “child”, pronounced /lʹanəv/.
Micheál: note the short i here, frequently found in PUL’s works. The story of Micheál na Buile (“mad Michael”) refers to a story by PUL in a previous issue of Irisleabhar na Gaedhilge that was later published in his Ár nDóithin Araon.

1This is a fragment of a caoineadh. The caointeóir seems to have been praising some dead person, and must have suddenly remembered that the praise was useless on account of the bad character of the some of the dead person’s relatives. Donnchadh must have been a priest-hunter. His father must have been a card-sharper. The others must have been people who hunted down political outlaws on whose heads a price had been set, and obtained money in return for their victims’ heads.

Cois Tuinne

Cois Tuinne

Bhí bainis in áit éigin i dtaobh theas den Mhúmhain. In aimsir na Buartha ab ea é. Bhí an chuideachta cruinnithe agus an bia ar bórd. Nuair a tháinig an t-am ceart, do pósadh an lánúin. An túisce go raibh an focal déanach ráite os a gcionn ag an sagart, do hairíodh an fothram mórthímpall an tí. Do briseadh an doras isteach agus do líon an tigh de shaighdiúiríbh. Do rugadh ar an bhfear óg nuaphósta agus ar thuilleadh de na fearaibh óga a bhí ann agus do gabhadh iad agus do rugadh síos go Corcaigh iad agus do cuireadh isteach iad. San aimir sin ba rógheárr a mhoíll ar mhuíntir dlí príosúnaigh do thriail agus iad do chrochadh nú do chur an loch amach. Do trialadh na hóigfhir úd agus do cuireadh anonn iad.

Mórán aimsire ’na dhiaidh san do leogadh amach an t-óigfhear úd agus tháinig sé abhaile. Nuair a bhí sé ag teacht in aice don bhaile, cé ’ bhuailfeadh uime ach an bhean féin. Níor aithin sí é ach d’aithin seisean í agus seo mar ’ ínseann sé féin an scéal:


Cois tuinne ’s me ’ siúl go lúfar pras,
Do dhearcas-sa chúm an chúileann tais.
Do dhrideas go dlúth lem rún isteach.
’Sé ’ labhair sí liúm nárbh fhiú dhom stad.



Ambasa, a rúin, dob fhiú liom stad,
’S gur chuireas mo dhúil id ghnúis bheag dheas.
Muna dtigirse liúm ’s a thabhairt dom searc,
Curfar san iúir me ded chúmha gan stad.



Ní mheasaim ded shórd ach dóithín mhaith,
’S ní hobair duit fós bheith ’ stró liom seal,
’S go raibh agam óigfhear córach ceart,
’S ná feadar nách beó dom stór ag teacht.



Cár imigh sé uait, a shuaircbhean dheas,
Go ndridreann a’ chúmha chómh dlúth sin leat,
Nú an miste leat cúntas do thabhairt ’na bheart,
Nú ar imigh sé anonn uait, a chúileann deas?



Ní miste liom cúntas a thabhairt ’na bheart,
Gur imigh sé anonn ’s gur chúis fá ndeár.
Bhí a chroí siúd bog úr is a chlú rómhaith,
’S go bhfágfainn ag trúip a thabhairt amach.



Scuir feasta ded chúmha, a chúileann óg,
Ná fliuchsa do shúil le cúmha níos mó.
Do ceangladh liúm tu ’gus tu go hóg,
’S tar mhnáibh na Múmhan is tú mo stór.


ambasa: “indeed”, or ambaiste in GCh. This appears to mean, literally, “by my hands”, but the alternative form ambaiste indicates a more likely derivation from an oath meaning “upon my baptism”. Pronounced /əm’bɑsə/.
anonn: “over to the other side”, pronounced /ə’nu:n/.
bainis: “wedding”.
beag: “small, little”, pronounced /bʹog/.
bórd: “table”. Ar bórd here means “on the table”. This usually means “on board”, but occasional use without the article in the meaning of “on the table” is found.
buairt: “worry, grief”, with buartha in the genitive. Aimsir na Buartha, “the Time of Turmoil”, around the 1798 rebellion.
ceanglaim, ceangal: “to bind, tie”, or ceanglaím, ceangal in GCh. Pronounced /kʹaŋəlimʹ, kʹaŋəl/. This is usually found with de, but is used with le here, and PSD shows this is an accepted use in the meaning of “to unite”. Do ceangladh liúm tu gus tu go hóg, “you were united with me in wedlock when you were young”.
cois: “besides”, originally the dative of cos.
córach: “handsome, well-proportioned”.
Corcaigh: Cork. This placename is derived from corcach, “marsh”, but, in common with many placenames, the erstwhile dative has come to be the standard form of the placename.
cuideachta: “company, the people present”. Pronounced /ki’dʹaxtə~ki’lʹaxtə/. Note the evidence given in CFBB 75 that whereas some Muskerry speakers used an l in the related word cuideachtanas, AÓL had a d, indicating that more careful speakers kept a d here.
cúileann: “fair maiden”, derived from cúilfhionn, “fair-haired”.
cuirim, cur: “to put, place”. Do cuireadh isteach iad possibly means “they were locked up/held in jail”. Cur an loch amach, “to transport beyond the seas”, as a method of punishment. Note that the future autonomous form, cuirfear in the original text, is edited here as curfar, the general form found in PUL’s works.
cúmha: “loneliness; pining”. Ded chúmha means “from pining for you, out of grief for you”.
dearcaim, dearcadh: “to look, behold”. Do dhearcas chúm means “I beheld her coming towards me”.
deas: “nice, fine”. Note that we have a shuaircbhean dheas and a chúileann deas here, with no consistency on the dentals rule.
dlúth: “close”. This is spelt dlúith in the original, and so we have chómh dlúith sin. I can find both chómh dlúth san and chómh dlúith sin in PUL’s works, and so it may be that the word is fundamentally dlúith.
dóithín: generally “someone who can be trusted”, or “someone who can be trifled with”. PSD has ní mheasaim dod shórt acht dóighthín maith, “I do not think of you but as one to be trusted, one who is a good mark”, but this doesn’t make sense in context here. Seósamh Laoide glosses dóithín mhaith as “one clearly not be trusted”. As ní haon dóithín é means “he is not to be trifled with”, it seems to me the meaning here is “I only think of people like you as people to mess about”. Note that dóithín is the diminute of dóigh, and so is clearly feminine in PUL’s Irish.
dridim, dridim: “to get close to, approach, move near”, but often more generally simply “to move”; druidim, druidim in GCh. Dridim isteach léi, “to move closer to her”.
eisean: “he”, the emphatic disjunctive form. Pronounced /iʃən/.
fá ndeár: “cause, reason”. This would normally be fé ndeár in WM Irish, and this may reflect the hand of an editor
here. Agus gur chúis fé ndéar, “and there was a reason for it”.
fothram: “noise, din”, pronounced /fohərəm/.
gabhaim, gabháil: “to take, go”, and many other means. Duine ghabháil, “to arrest someone”. Pronounced /goumʹ, gvɑ:lʹ/.
gnúis: “visage, face”.
ínsim, ínsint: “to tell”, or insím, insint in GCh.
ise: “she”, the emphati disjunctive form.
iúir: “soil, earth”. San iúir, “dead, in the grave”. This word is úir in GCh, but CFBB shows that san iúir is pronounced /sinʹ uːrʹ/.
lánú: “married couple”, or lánúin in GCh, where the historical dative has replaced the nominative. I am wondering if Seósamh Laoide has edited PUL’s Irish to give lánúin in the nominative here.
liúm: “to/with me”. Liom can gain a long vowel in poetry by reason of the metre.
me: disjunctive form of the first-person pronoun, pronounced /mʹe/ (or /mʹi/ through the raising of the vowel in the vicinity of a nasal cononant). Always in GCh.
mórthímpall: “all around”, or mórthimpeall in GCh. The broad p in WM Irish is preserved here: /muər-hi:mʹpəl/. Sometimes found as mórdtímpall in other writers of WM Irish.
Múmhain (an Mhúmhain): Munster, the southern province of Ireland. This is one of many words where there historic dative has replaced the erstwhile nominative (an Mhúmha) in Cork Irish. The genitive is na Múmhan. Pronounced /ən vuːnʹ, nə muːn/.
muna: “if not, unless”. The form adopted in GCh is used here, whether by design or by the hand of an editor. Mura and mara are the forms generally found in PUL’s works.
nú: “or”, or in GCh.
nuaphósta: “newly wed”. Pronounced /no:-fo:stə/
obair: “work”. Ní hobair duit é, “it is not suitable or proper for you”.
óigfhear: “young man.” Note that the GCh spelling ógfhear poorly indicates the slender quality of the g. Pronounced /o:gʹər/.
os cionn: “above”. Pronounced /ɑs kʹu:n/. This phrase is transcribed in IWM as /os kʹuːn/, but the transcriptions of os cionn in the LS editions of PUL’s works show the general pronunciation to be with /ɑ/. Gearóid Ó Nualláin commented in his Studies in Modern Irish Part 1 that the preposition os is “mostly pronounced as, except in ós árd, ós íseal” (p171).
pras: “quick, prompt”.
rún: “secret”, but also “sweetheart”. Seósamh Laoide appears to edit PUL’s Irish, by making a rúin!
stand in the vocative.
scuirim, scor: “to unloose”. Scor de rud, “to leave off, desist”.
seal: “a turn”, and by extension, “for a while”. This is the only instance I can find of PUL using this word.
searc: “love”, especially between the sexes, pronounced /ʃarək/. This is a rare word, mainly used in poetry.
sórd: “sort”, or sórt in GCh, pronounced /so:rd/.
stór: “treasure, darling”.
stró: “stress, exertion”. PSD indicates that ag stró liom means “passing time with me”. Seósamh Laoide glosses this here as “accosting” the woman in question.
suaircbhean: “agreeable woman”.
tagaim/tigim, teacht: “to come.” Note that tagaim was originally tigim, and occasional use of forms derived from tigim is found in PUL’s works. Muna dtigirse liúm, “unless you come with me”.
tais: “soft, tender”.
taobh: “side”. I dtaobh theas de, “in the south of”. I haven’t met this phrase in PUL’s works (shouldn’t it be ar an dtaobh theas de?), and wonder if Seósamh Laoide is editing PUL’s Irish here.
thar: “above, beyond”, delenited to tar here after s.
tonn: “wave”, with tuinne in the genitive. Cois tuinne, “on the seashore”.
trialaim, triail: “to try, test”, including in the judicial sense, or triailim, triail in GCh. Pronounced /trʹialimʹ, trʹialʹ/.
trúp: “troop”. Trúip here looks like a plural of trúp, which is trúpa in GCh.

Aithris ar Chríost I:XXII



1. Pé ball ’na bhfuilir, agus pé ball ’na ngeóbhair, is duine gan áird tu mura n-iompaír ar Dhia.

Cad chuige dhuit buaireamh a bheith ort nuair ná héiríonn leat de réir do thoile?

Cá bhfuil an té go bhfuil gach aon rud chun a thoile féin aige? Ní mise é, ná tusa, ná aon duine eile beó ar an saol.

Níl aon duine ar an saol gan trioblóid éigin air, nú guais éigin, dá mb’é an rí é, nú an Pápa.

Cé hé an té is feárr go bhfuil an scéal aige? An té atá ábalta ar rud a dh’fhulag ar son Dé.

2 Tá a lán daoine gan chiall agus deirid siad: Féach; nách breá an saol ag an nduine úd é; nách saibhir, nách mór, nách cómhachtach, nách uasal atá sé!

Ach cuímhnighse ar shaibhreas na bhflaitheas, agus chífir gur neamhní na nithe saolta san go léir. Ní féidir deimhin a dhéanamh díobh, agus is cúram iad, agus an té go mbíd siad aige bíonn eagal air, coitianta, go gcaillfeadh sé iad.

Ní hi bhflúirse de mhaitheasaíbh an tsaeil atá áthas an duine. Ní beag dò an chuíosacht.

Bheith i bpéin is ea bheith ar an saol in aon chor.

Dá mhéid dúil a bhíonn ag duine i nithibh sprideálta is ea is mó a chuireann a bheatha ar an saol so seirithean air, mar is ea is feárr a thuigeann sé agus is ea is soiléire a chíonn sé claonta agus truaillitheacht an duine.

Óir is seirithean mór agus is pian mhór don Chríostaí fhíoraonta a bheith air bheith ag ithe agus ag ól, ag luí chun codlata agus ag éirí, ag dul chun oibre agus ag stad, agus ag freagairt do gach dualgas eile dá mbaineann le nádúr an duine ar an saol so, nuair is é rud ba mhian leis féin ná bheith scartha leó go léir agus bheith saor ó an uile shaghas peaca.

3. Is fíor gurb ualach trom ar an nduine sprideálta riachtanaisí na colla ar an saol so. Uime sin is ea ’ iarrann an Fáidh go ndéanfí é ’ dh’fhuascailt uathu: Fuascail me óm riachtanaisíbh, a Thiarna, adeir an Fáidh.

Ach is mairg don mhuíntir ná tuigeann an mífhoirtiún atá orthu, agus is mairg níos mó don mhuíntir a bhíonn i ngrá leis an mífhoirtiún, i ngrá le truaillitheacht na beatha so.

Mar tá daoine ann atá chómh mór san i ngrá leis an saol so (bíodh gurb ar éigin ’ fhéadaid siad maireachtaint, ag obair go cruaidh nú a d’iarraidh na déarca) gur chuma leó cad a dhéanfadh ríocht na bhflaitheas dá bhféadaidís fanúint anso i gcónaí.

4. Ó, a dhaoine gan mheabhair, gan chreideamh ’núr gcroí, is daingean atáthaoi sáite sa tsaol so nuair nách féidir libh aon bhlas ’ fháil ach ar nithibh colnaí.

Ach ar ball is ea ’ bheidh an donas ar fad oraibh, nuair a thuigfidh sibh gráinniúlacht agus folús na nithe sin dár thugabhair an grá go léir.

Ní mar sin do naoimh Dé agus do cháirdibh débhóideacha Chríost; níor chuireadar suím in sna nithibh a thabharfadh sólás corpartha dhóibh, ach do thugadar greann ar fad don tsólás shíoraí, agus chuireadar a ndúil go hiomlán sa mhaith shíoraí.

Chuaigh a ndúil agus a mian go léir suas chun an mhaitheasa shíoraí ná feictear, i dtreó ná féadfadh greann ar mhaitheas shofheicse iad do tharrac síos go hifreann.

Ná caill, a bhráthair, do mhuinín as dul ar aghaidh i nithibh sprideálta. Tá an uair agus an aimsir agat fós.

5. Cad ab áil leat ag cur do dhea-rúin ar cáirde? Éirigh, agus tosnaigh láithreach, agus abair: Anois an t-am chun gnímh; anois an t-am chun troda; anois an t-am ceart chun mo leasa ’ dhéanamh.

Nuair a bhíonn pian agus trioblóid ort, sin é an t-am chun luacht saothair.

Ní foláir duit gabháil trí thine agus trí uisce sara dtiocfair chun an tsúáilcis.

Gan éigean a dhéanamh ort féin ní bhéarfair bua ar na hanmhiantaibh.

An fhaid a bheidh an cholann dreóil seo againn le hiompar, ní fhéadfaimíd bheith gan pheaca, ná maireachtaint gan dochar gan dólás.

Ba rómhaith linn bheith saor ó gach peannaid, ach ó chailleamair ár neamhchiontacht leis an bpeaca, do chailleamair, leis, gach fíorshólás.

Ní foláir dúinn dá bhrí sin, ciall a bheith againn agus feitheamh go dtagaidh trócaire Dé chúinn, agus go sloigfar an bheatha mharbh so sa bheatha bheó, nuair a bheidh deireadh le réim an pheaca ar fad.

6. Ó, cad é mar ná fuil sa duine ar fad ach easpa nirt agus tugthacht don pheaca!

Tu ag cur do pheacaí síos i bhfaoistin inniu, agus amáireach tu ag déanamh na bpeacaí céanna arís!

Tu ceapaithe anois ar iad a sheachaint, agus i gcionn uair a’ chloig tu dhá ndéanamh chómh maith agus ná beadh aon cheapadh déanta agat ar iad a sheachaint!

Is maith an ceart dúinn, dá bhrí sin, sinn féin d’úmhlú agus gan aon mhaíomh a dhéanamh asainn féin, ó táimíd chómh lag, chómh guagach.

Agus an rud go bhfuaramair mórán dá dhua, agus ná fuaramair é ach ar éigin agus trí ghrásta Dé, is féidir é ’ chailliúint in aon neómat amháin le corp faillí.

7. Cad é an deireadh a bhéarfaidh sinn in aon chor agus a rá go bhfuilimíd chómh faillitheach chómh luath sa lá?

Is olc an scéal againn é más amhlaidh a mheasaimíd suí síos agus suaimhneas do ghlacadh, chómh maith agus dá mba síocháin agus socracht
a bheadh againn, agus gan aon rud i bhfuirm naofacht bheatha le feiscint fós ionainn sa chuma ’na mairimíd.

Ba rómhaith an bhail orainn dá gcurtí isteach i scoil na nóibhíseach sinn arís agus béasa maithe do mhúineadh dhúinn, le súil go mb’fhéidir go raghadh feabhas orainn agus go ndéanfaimís leas ár n-anama níos feárr.


amáireach: “tomorrow”, amárach in GCh. Pronounced /ə’mɑ:rʹəx/.
beag: “small”, pronounced /bʹog/. Ní beag dò é, “it is enough for him”.
cáirde: “respite, delay”. Rud do chur ar cáirde, “to delay something, put it off”.
ceann: “head”. I gcionn uair a’ chloig, “after an hour”.
claon: “inclination; perversity”, with claonta in the plural.
corp: “body”, but used in the phrase le corp to refer to the emotion or motivation with which something is done: le corp faillí, “out of neglect”.
cuíosacht: “fair amount, moderation, having just enough”, or cuibheasacht in GCh. Pronounced /ki:səxt/.
dea-rún: “good intention”.
dreóil: “frail, feeble”, or dearóil in GCh. This was given as direóil in the original, but the LS version of Aithris as dreóil, and dreóile is found in PUL’s Seanmóin is Trí Fichid and dreóileacht in his Mo Sgéal Féin, implying that the pronunciation of dreóil may be monosyllabic here.
fáidh: “prophet”, pronounced /fɑ:gʹ/.
faoistin: “confession”.
feitheamh: “to wait”, pronounced /fʹihəv/.
gabhaim, gabháil: “to go” with many subsidiary meanings. Geóbhair is the second-person singular future-tense form here (equivalent to gabhfaidh tú in GCh), reflecting the way forms of this word have been partly aligned with the verb gheibhim, fháil.
gráinniúlacht: “abhorrence; the abhorrent nature of something”, or gráiniúlacht in GCh. Pronounced /grɑ:’ŋʹu:ləxt/.
greann: “pleasure, affection”. Pronounced /grʹaun/.
mairg: “woe”. Is mairg don té (a), “woe to him who…”. Pronounced /mɑrʹigʹ/.
mífhoirtiún: “bad luck, misfortune”, pronounced /mʹi:-or’tʹu:n/. This would be mífhortún in GCh. The original spelling here was mí-fhortiún, possibly reflecting the fact that r is not palatalised before a slender t in WM Irish.
neamhchiontacht: “innocence”. PUL uses both cionntach and ciontach in his works, and IWM shows the pronunciation of that word could be either /kʹu:ntəx/ or /kʹuntəx/, and so the same would apply to neamhchiontacht.
neómat: “minute, moment”, or nóiméad in GCh. The various words for “minute” in Irish are all corruptions of the original móimeint; consequently, the GCh form is no more
authoritative than the WM form.
nóibhíseach: “novice”.
peannaid: “penitence, penance, pain, torment”.
riachtanas: “necessity”, with riachtanaisí in the plural where GCh has riachtanais. This pattern is scene in most or all such words in the dialect (rialtas, plural rialtaisí, etc).
súáilceas: “virtuousness; happiness, contentment”.
táim, bheith: “to be”. Note the relative form atáthaoi here, corresponding to atá sibh in GCh.
trócaire: “mercy”.
truaillitheacht: “corruption, defilement, baseness”, or truaillíocht in FGB.

Aithris ar Chríost I:XXI



1. Más maith leat aon dul ar aghaidh a dhéanamh it shlí chun Dé cimeád tú féin in eagla Dé. Ná bí róthugtha dod thoil féin. Cimeád do chéadfaí go léir fé smacht. Ná tabhair srian do mhórtais bhaoth.

Bíodh dólás croí agat agus beidh tú débhóideach go maith.

Tagann a lán tairbhe a’ dólás croí, agus is é an neamhaireachas a loiteann an tairbhe sin.

Is mór an iúnadh a rá go bhféadfadh an duine áthas iomlán a bheith air choíche, ar an saol so, agus ’ fhios aige gur ar díbirt atá sé, agus go bhfuil oiread san nithe chun díobhála anama ’ dhéanamh dò.

2. Éagantacht croí, agus neamhshuím in sna peacaíbh atá déanta againn, fé ndeara dhúinn gan na gearánta atá ar ár n-anam do mhothú; agus bímíd go minic ag gáirí nuair ba cheart gur ag gol a bheimís.

Ní bhíonn fíorshaoirse ná fíoráthas ach san áit ’na mbíonn eagla Dé agus coínsias maith.

Is séanmhar an té ’ fhéadann gach cosc agus gach dul amú do dhíbirt uaidh, agus é féin a chimeád dlúite le Dia i ndólás naofa croí.

Is séanmhar an té a dhíbreann uaidh aon ní a chuirfeadh smól ná ualach ar a choínsias.

Troid go fearúil. Buafaidh dea-nós ar dhrochnós duit.

3. Más eól duitse conas leogaint do dhaoine a ngnó féin a dhéanamh, leogfaid siad san duitse do ghnó féin a dhéanamh.

Ná tarraig ort gnó an fhir thall, agus ná héirigh in achrann i ngnóthaíbh na n-uasal.

Cimeád do shúil ort féin ar dtúis i gcónaí agus tabhair duit féin tosach cómhairle, thar do cháirdibh go léir.

Más rud é ná fuil báidh ag daoine leat ná bíodh buairt ’na thaobh san ort. Ach cuireadh so buairt ort gan tu ’ bheith chómh maith ná chómh haireach ort féin agus ba cheart do dhuine dhébhóideach a bheith i seirbhís Dé.

Is tairbhí agus is neamhchúntúrthaí don duine gan mórán sóláis a bheith aige ar an saol so, mar le sólás corpartha go mór mór.

Má táimíd gan sólás ó Dhia, nú más annamh a gheibhimíd é, is sinn féin fé ndeár é, mar ní loirgimíd dólás croí, agus ní chuirimíd uainn sólás baoth an tsaeil seo.

4. Tuig it aigne nách fiú thu sólás ó Dhia ’ dh’fháil, ach gur mórán dóláis atá tuíllte agat.

Nuair a bhíonn an dólás croí ceart ar dhuine mar gheall ar a pheacaíbh ní chuireann sólás an tsaeil go léir air ach seirithean agus diomá.

Gheibheann an Críostaí fónta i gcónaí abhar a dhóthain chun buartha agus chun guil. Mar, cuímhníodh sé air féin nú cuímhníodh sé ar a chómharsain, tuigfidh sé in’ aigne ná fuil éinne beó ar an saol so gan rud le fulag aige; agus dá ghéire a mhachnamh is ea is géire a dhólás.

Is iad ár bpeacaí agus ár ndroch-chleachta is abhar dleathach dóláis againn, mar táimíd chómh fíllte sin iontu gurb annamh a dh’fhéadaimíd cuímhneamh i gceart ar nithibh diaga.

5. Dá machnaíthá níos mó ar do bhás ná ar fhaid do shaeil, ní baol ná go ndéanfá do leas níos dícheallaí ná mar a dheineann tú.

Agus rud eile; dá machnaíthá i gceart ar phiantaibh ifrinn, nú ar phiantaibh purgadóireachta, creidim go bhfuiliceófá go fonnmhar gach dólás agus gach cruatan oibre, agus ná cuirfeadh aon annró eagal ort.

Ach ní bheirid na nithe sin greim ar chroí orainn. Is iad na nithe a chuireann sólás orainn a thaithneann linn, agus fágann san fuar faillíoch sinn i dtaobh ár n-anama.

6. Is minic gurb é folús na haigne, trí easpa machnaimh, fé ndeara don cholainn bhocht bheith chómh gluaireánach.

Bí ag guí chun an Tiarna dá bhrí sin, dhá iarraidh air dólás croí a thabhairt duit. Abair leis mar aduairt an Fáidh: Cothaigh me, a Thiarna, le harán na ndeór, agus tabhair mo dheoch dom i ndeóraibh go fial.


achrann: “entanglement”, pronounced /ɑxərən/. Éirí in achrann i rud, “to get stuck or involved in something”.
annró: “hardship”, or anró in GCh. Pronounced /au’ro:/.
céadfa: “sense”, as in the five bodily senses, na céadfaí. In the LS version of Aithristhe plural (which I have edited as céadfaí, but which appears as céadfadha in the original) is transcribed as ciàtfa, indicating it is pronounced /kʹiatfə/, but this seems mistaken as céadfadha is the plural. In any case, a t is shown in the pronunciation of this word, and the transcription /kʹiatfə/ is shown in IWM as being the pronunciation of AÓL. In III:V, Shán Ó Cuív transcribes céadfadhaibh as ciàtayiv, a transcription that appears to be incorrect.The plural is sometimes spelt céadfatha in PUL’s works (see Lughaidh Mac Con, p10). Consequently, there remains an issue over the pronuncation of the plural, which may be /kʹiatfəhə/.
díbirt: “banishment”. Ar díbirt, “in banishment, in exile”, as of a Christian in this world.
díbrim, díbirt: “to banish”, or díbrím, díbirt in GCh. Pronounced /dʹi:bʹirʹimʹ, dʹi:bʹirtʹ/.
droch-chleachtadh: “evil habit, vice”, a word not given in Ó Dónaill’s dictionary, but found in Dinneen’s dictionary. The plural here is droch-chleachta, where droch-chleachtaí would be expected in GCh.
dul amú: “error, deviation”.
eagal: “fear”. This form of eagla tends to be used before prepositional pronouns using le and ar: is eagal liom, tá eagal orm.
éagantacht: “silliness, giddiness”.
éirím, éirí: “to rise”. This word is pronounced /əi’rʹi:mʹ, əi’rʹi:/ in WM Irish.See under achrann.
gáirim, gáirí: “to laugh”. Note that gáirí is a verbal noun meaning “laughing, laughter”, corresponding to gáire in GCh.
gearán: “complaint”, with gearánta in the plural. Pronounced /gʹi’rɑ:n/.
gluairnach: “wailing, whinging, complaining”.
gol: “weeping”, with guil in the genitive.
mar le: “as regards”. Mar le sólás corpartha go mór mór, “especially when it comes to physical comfort”. PUL regularly used this phrase in preference to the maidir le used by other writers. See T. F. O’Rahilly, “maidir le, mar le”, in Ériu, Vol 9 (1921/1923), pp12-26, and D. A. Ó Cróinín, “Mod. Ir. Maidir le, Mar le”, in Ériu, Vol 20 (1966), pp183-184. O’Rahilly explains “Canon O’Leary, however, does not employ it, for, as he has told mé, he very seldom heard the phrase in his native district”. However, there is at least one instance of the use of maidir le by PUL in Cómhairle ar leasa (p40).
mórtais: “pride, boastfulness”, or mórtas in GCh.
neamh-aireachas: “carelessness, inattentiveness”, pronounced /nʹav-i’rʹɑxəs/.
purgadóireacht: “purgatorial suffering”; by extension, “purgatory”. Otherwise,
generally purgadóir. Pronounced /prugə’do:rʹəxt/ (see IWM §420), although the LS version of Aithris shows purgadóireachd.
smól: “smudge, stain”, or smál in GCh.
sólás: “solace; comfort”.
srian: “bridle”. Srian a thabhairt do rud, “to give free rein to something”.
tosach: “beginning, front”, pronounced /tə’sɑx/. Chun tosaigh, “ahead, advanced”. Tosach also means “the edge, the precedence” in various ways: tosach cómhairle ’ thabhairt duit féin, “to focus your advice on yourself”.

Aithris ar Chríost I:XX



1. Loirg am oiriúnach chun bheith it aonar duit féin, agus cuímhnigh go minic ar thabharthaistíbh Dé.

Cuir uait nithe greannúra. Ná léigh an leabhar a chimeádfadh ar siúl tu, ach léigh an leabhar a chuirfidh cathú ort mar gheall ar do pheacaíbh.

Má chimeádann tú thu féin ó iomad cainnte agus ó chómhluadar díomhaoin, agus, ’na theannta san, ó bheith ag éisteacht le scéaltaibh agus le ráflaíbh, beidh do dhóthain mór aimsire agat chun bheith ag machnamh ar Dhia.

Dhein na naoimh ba mhó, chómh maith agus d’fhéadadar é, iad féin a chimeád ó chómhluadar daoine agus iad féin a thabhairt suas do Dhia in uaigneas.

2. Seo focal aduairt Seneca: “Gach uair dár chuas i measc daoine ba mheasa de dhuine me ag teacht uathu dhom”. Tuigimíd an ní sin nuair a dheinimíd a lán cainnte.

Is usa bheith ciúin ar fad ná gan an iomad a rá.

Is usa fanúint sa bhaile, i ganfhios, ná do dhuine aireachas ceart a thabhairt dò féin lasmu’.

An té, dá bhrí sin, gur mian leis dul i leith na sprideáltachta, ní foláir dò imeacht i leataoibh ón slua, in éineacht le hÍosa Críost.

Níl éinne ó bhaol ag teacht os cómhair daoine ach an té gurb é a dhúil bheith in’ aonar.

Níl éinne ó bhaol ’na chainnt ach an té gur mian leis éisteacht.

Níl éinne ó bhaol in’ uachtarán ach an té gur mian leis bheith fé smacht.

Níl éinne ó bhaol ag órdú ach an té go bhfuil ’ fhios aige conas úmhlú.

3. Níl éinne ó bhaol in áthas ach an té go bhfuil coínsias maith aige.

Ní raibh na naoimh riamh gan eagla Dé orthu, pé méid a bhíodar ó bhaol. Agus pé grásta a bhí acu nú pé súáilcí móra a bhí iontu, níor fhág san iad gan bheith go han-úmhal agus go han-aireach orthu féin.

Nuair a mheasann an drochdhuine go bhfuil sé ó bhaol is le huabhar agus le buirbe a mheasann sé é, agus deineann sé amadán de féin sa deireadh.

Ná meas choíche go bhfuilir ó bhaol an fhaid a bheidh tú ar an saol so, bíodh gur manach fónta thu, dar leat, nú díthreabhach dílis.

4. Na daoine is aoirde cáil is minic gurb iad is ísle a thiteann, toisc iomad iontaoibhe a bheith acu astu féin.

Uime sin tá a lán daoine agus is é a leas gan bheith saor ar fad ó chathannaibh, ach an namhaid a bheith ag cur orthu go minic, i dtreó ná beidís ródheimhnitheach d’iad a bheith ó bhaol, le heagla go dtiocfadh uabhar orthu, agus le heagla, leis, go leogfaidís dóibh féin dul i ndiaidh sóláis an tsaeil seo.

Ó, nách álainn an coínsias a bheadh ag duine dá mba ná loirgeódh sé choíche sólás neambuan an tsaeil seo, dá mba ná cuirfeadh sé aon tsuím in aon chor sa tsaol so! Dá mbeadh sé geárrtha amach glan ó bhuaireamh neamhthairbheach an tsaeil seo, agus gan de mhachnamh ’na chroí ach Dia agus leas a anama féin i gcómhair na síoraíochta! Cad é an suaimhneas aigne a bheadh aige.

5. Níl éinne oiriúnach don tsólás a thagann ó Dhia ach an té a dheineann taithí maith den aithrí naofa.

Más maith leat an aithrí cheart a bheith it chroí agat, éirigh isteach it sheómra féin agus fág gleó an tsaeil lasmu’, mar atá scríofa: Deinidh an aithrí istigh ’núr seómraíbh. Gheóbhair istigh it sheómra an rud a chaillfir go minic lasmu’.

Taithnfidh an seómra leat má dheineann tú taithí d’fhanúint ann. Má dheineann tú taithí d’fhanúint as, tiocfaidh fuath agat dò.

Má thugann tú mar bhéas duit féin ó thosach fanúint it sheómra agus cónaí ann, tiocfaidh grá agat dò mar a bheadh ag duine dá chara dhílis, agus gheóbhair sólás ana-mhór ann.

I gciúnas agus i socracht is ea ’ théann an Críostaí diaga ar aghaidh, agus is ea ’ dh’fhoghlamaíonn sé na nithe diamhra atá sa Scriptiúir.

6. I gciúnas agus i suaimhneas is ea ’ gheibheann sé na frasa deór a dheineann a anam do ní agus do ghlanadh gach oíche, i dtreó go mbíonn sé níos taithneamhaí i láthair Dé de réir mar a bhíonn sé níos deighilte amach ón saol agus ó ghleó an tsaeil.

An té ’ dh’imíonn óna cháirde agus óna mhuíntir, le grá do Dhia, tagann Dia agus na haingil chuige mar chuideachtain.

Is feárr bheith in uaigneas agus aire ’ thabhairt do dhuine féin ná faillí a thabhairt i nduine féin agus ansan míorúiltí móra do dhéanamh.

Rud ana-mhaith don mhanach is ea gan dul os cómhair daoine ach go hannamh; cimeád ó shúilibh daoine, agus a shúile féin do chimeád ó fhéachaint ar chách.

7. Cad ab áil leat ag féachaint ar ní nách dleathach duit a bheith agat? Tá an saol agus a mhianta ag imeacht chun siúil.

Tarraigid do dhrochmhianta amach tu. Ach nuair a bheidh an tráth san imithe cad a thabharfair leat abhaile ach ualach ar do choínsias agus trí chéile aigne?

Is minic a dheineann dul amach fé áthas teacht abhaile fé bhrón. Agus deineann oíche shúgach maidean bhrónach.

Deineann gach áthas corpartha tosnú suairc, ach is goin agus bás a dheireadh.

Cad ’tá le feiscint in aon bhall eile agat ná fuil le feiscint anso agat?

Féach an spéir agus an talamh agus na dúile go léir. Is díobh san atá gach ní déanta.

8. Cá bhfuil le feiscint in aon bhall agat aon ní a mhairfidh i bhfad fé luí na gréine?

B’fhéidir gur dó’ leat go bhfaighir sásamh aigne. Ní bhfaighir.

Dá bhfeicfá an saol go léir cad a chífá ach neamhní?

Féach suas chun Dé na glóire in sna flathais. Iarr ar Dhia na peacaí agus an fhaillí atá déanta agat do mhaitheamh duit.

Fág nithe baoithe ag daoine baoithe agus féach féin chun an ghnótha a thug Dia le déanamh duit.

Éirigh isteach it sheómra agus dún an doras ort féin, agus glaeigh chút do chara dílis, Íosa Críost.

Fan in’ fhochair sin it sheómra, mar níl an suaimhneas céanna agat le fáil in aon áit eile.

Dá bhfantá gan dul amach agus gan éisteacht leis na ráflaíbh, d’fhanfadh an tsíocháin agus an suaimhneas aigne ní b’fheárr agat. Ach ós mian leat uaireanta scéalta nua d’aireachtaint ní foláir duit buaireamh aigne ’ dh’fhulag dá bhárr.


Dá chara dhílis: the failure to decline cara in the dative here can be explained by the fact that cara forms part of a phrase, as a noun qualified by an adjective.


aireachas: “care, attention”, pronounced /i’rʹɑxəs/.
airím, aireachtaint: “to hear”, or airím, aireachtáil in the GCh. Pronounced /a’rʹi:mʹ, i’rʹɑxtintʹ/.
aon bhall: “anywhere”, transcribed as äval in the LS version of Aithris, showing the pronunciation /eːvəl/.
aon ní: “anything”, a word that could be writte éinní and that is transcribed as éngí in the LS edition of Aithris.
buirbe: “fierceness, rudeness”, or boirbe in GCh, pronounced /birʹibʹi/. Le buirbe, “out of presumption”.
deighilte: “separated (from)”, pronounced /dʹəilʹhi/.
deimhnitheach: “certain”, or deimhneach in GCh. Pronounced /dʹəiŋʹihəx/, although I’m still not certain about the pronunciation of the medial n. The LS edition of Aithris shows an n, not ng.
diamhar:“mysterious, mystic”, or diamhair in GCh. PUL regularly writes this adjective with a broad r, although IWM would point to a slender r. The plural is given here as diamhara in the original. This is edited as diamhra in this edition, in line with the policy of adhering to standard spellings wherever possible, without writing out epenthetic vowels.
díthreabhach: “hermit, recluse”. The LS transcription of this word indicates it is pronounced /dʹiː-hrʹaux/.
dleathach: “legal; proper”, pronounced /dlʹi’hɑx/.
dóthain: “enough, sufficiency”. Dóthain is masculine here, but feminine in GCh. Do dhóthain mór, “more than enough for you”.
dúil: “element”. Na dúile, “the elements of which all creation is made”.
duine: “man, person”. Duine féin often means “oneself, yourself”.
éirím, éirí: “to rise”. This word is pronounced /əi’rʹi:mʹ, əi’rʹi:/ in WM Irish. This is often used simply to mean “to go”: éirigh isteach it sheómra, “to into your room”.
fanaim, fanúint: “to wait, stay”, or fanaim, fanacht in GCh.
fras: “shower, hail”. Frasa deór, “floods of tears”.
gnó: “business, affair”, with gnótha in the genitive.
goin: “wound”.
greannúr: “funny”, or greannmhar in GCh, pronounced /grʹa’nu:r/. PUL clarifies in his Notes on Irish Words and Usages that this word means “queer, comical, peculiar”, but not “witty”. The word spelt greannmhara in the original is transcribed greaunvara in LS, but this appears to be a mistranscription.
i ganfhios: “unbeknown, unawares”. Pronounced /ə’gɑnis/.
i: “in”.I becomes ins before the article (in sna), and before gach in WM Irish. I ngach is also occasionally found in PUL’s works, as in I:XIII. Id is often found as it in PUL’s works, even before a consonant, and it seems that this is particularly the case when followed by ch and dh/gh. Theoretically, an unvoiced consonant like ch could devoice the d, but dh/gh is not unvoiced, and so it seems that voiced guttural consonants have the same effect. Note it chroí in I:XX here. It rí is found in I:XVII here. Sh is also found with it in it sheómra in I:XX here: IWM shows that sheómra is pronounced /hoːmrə/, being one of a handful of words where sh before a long and back vowel becomes /h/ and not /xʹ/. Consequently, it seems that the /h/ devoices the preceding prepositional pronoun, producing it.
loirgim/loirgím, lorg: “to search, seek”, or lorgaím, lorg in GCh. Pronounced /lirʹi’gʹiːmʹ, lorəg/. The present and future are in the second conjugation in this work, but the imperative given here is loirg, the LS transcription of which is loruig, apparently showing a broad r here. Loirgeódh is transcribed loruigeódh, and loirgimíd loirigimíd.
míorúilt: “miracle”, pronounced /mʹi:’ru:hlʹ/.
neambuan: “fleeting, transient”, or neamhbhuan in GCh. Pronounced /nʹa’muən/.
neamhthairbheach: “unprofitable”, pronounced /nʹa’harʹifʹəx/.
sanntaím, sanntú: “to covet”. The double n in the original text here shows the diphthongal pronunciation, /saun’tiːmʹ, saun’tuː/.
scriptiúir: “Scripture”, or scrioptúr in GCh.
Seneca: the Roman philosopher, Lucius Annaeus Seneca (ca. 4 BC-AD 65).
seómra: “room”. This word is transcribed both with and without an epenthentic vowel in the various LS editions of PUL’s works, but IWM §383 shows it is just /ʃoːmrə/.
sprideáltacht: “spirituality”, or spioradáltacht in GCh, which spelling was also used in the original text here.
suairc: “pleasant, agreeable, gay”.
súgach: “merry”.
tabharthas: “gift”, or tabhartas in GCh, pronounced /tourhəs/. The plural here is tabharthaistí, where GCh has tabhartais.
uachtarán: “head, superior, ruler” of various kinds, and not necessarily a head of state.
usa: see under fuiriste.

Aithris ar Chríost I:XIX



1. Ba cheart na súáilcí go léir a bheith le fáil i mbeatha an dei-mhanaigh, agus ba cheart dò bheith chómh maith laistigh, fé shúil Dé, agus a dh’fhéachann sé lasmu’, fé shúilibh daoine.

Ní hea, ach ba cheart dò bheith níos feárr go mór laistigh ná mar a chítear lasmu’ é ’ bheith, mar is é Dia a chíonn sinn laistigh, agus ba cheart dúinn eagla ’ bheith againn roimena shúil, pé áit ’na mbímíd, agus bheith chómh glan leis an aingeal os a chómhair.

Ba cheart dúinn ár rún diongbhálta d’athnuachaint gach aon lá, agus ár ndíogras do spriocadh, chómh maith agus dá mb’é sin an chéad lá againn ag iompáil ar Dhia, agus a rá le Dia:

Cabhraigh liom, a Thiarna Dia, sa ghnó so atá curtha rómham agam chun do sheirbhíse naofa. Tabhair dhom tosnú inniu dáiríribh, mar níl ach neamhní ’na bhfuil déanta go dtí so agam”.

2. De réir mar a chuirfimíd rómhainn is ea do raighimíd ar aghaidh, agus an té a bheartaíonn dul ar aghaidh go maith ní foláir dò bheith ana-dhícheallach.

Agus más fíor é go dteipeann go minic ar an nduine go bhfuil an rún diongbhálta aige, cad ’tá le himeacht ar an nduine ná deineann aon rún ach go hannamh nú go lag?

Is mó cuma ’na dtréigeann duine a rún diongbhálta, agus an tréigean is suaraí is annamh ná deineann sé díobháil.

Is ar ghrásta Dé atá rún diongbhálta an fhíoraein ag brath, agus ní har eagna an duine féin. Agus is a’ Dia atá a mhuinín ag an bhfíoraon, pé gnó a ghabhann sé ar láimh.

Óir, “Labhraidh duine, innisidh Dia”, agus ní hag an nduine atá ceapadh a shlí féin.

3. Má leogaimíd gnáthobair ar lár uair fhánach, trí chráifeacht nú chun tairbhe bráthar, tiocfaimíd, suas leis an obair ’na dhiaidh san. Ach má leogtar an obair ar lár le neamhfhonn, nú le faillí, ní locht beag é sin, agus mothófar díobhálach é. Ach pé dícheall a dhéanfaimíd beimíd beagán i ndiaidh lámha ’na lán nithe.

Tá sé ceart againn, áfach, i gcónaí, gnó éigin áirithe do chur rómhainn, go mór mór, i gcoinnibh na nithe is mó a bhíonn ag cur cosc linn i ngnó Dé.

Ní foláir dúinn féachaint chúinn féin go maith agus sinn féin do chur i dtreó, ón dtaobh amu’ agus ón dtaobh istigh, mar tá orainn dul ar aghaidh ón dtaobh amu’ agus ón dtaobh istigh.

4. Mura féidir leat t’aigne ’ chimeád ar Dhia i gcónaí, dein é uaireanta. Dein é ar maidin agus um thráthnóna.

Cuir rómhat ar maidin cad a dhéanfair. Ansan, um thráthnóna, féach conas atá sé déanta agat; féach conas a chaithis an lá, i mbriathar, i ngníomh, agus i smaoineamh. In sna trí nithibh sin is ea is mó, b’fhéidir, a bheidh rud déanta agat in aghaidh Dé nú in aghaidh do chómharsan.

Fáisc suas tu féin mar a dhéanfadh fear in aghaidh mhallaitheachta an diabhail. Smachtaigh craos, agus tiocfaidh smachtú gach anmhian eile níos saoráidí chút.

Ná bí choíche díomhaoin ar fad. Bí i gcónaí ag lé’ leabhair, nú ag scrí’, nú ag guí chun Dé, nú ag machnamh, nú ag déanamh ruda éigin a bheidh tairbheach don teaghlach.

Ní foláir, áfach, oibreacha corpartha do ghlacadh le breithiúntas. Ní mar a chéile a dh’oirid siad do gach éinne.

5. Ná deintear os cómhair an phobail nithe nách gnáth. Is feárr démhóid nách gnáth do dhéanamh in uaigneas ná é ’ dhéanamh os cómhair daoine.

Ach seachain agus ná bhí ríghin leis na gnáthoibreachaibh agus chun tosaigh led dhémhóidíbh féin. Dein ar dtúis, go dúthrachtach agus go dílis, na gnáthoibreacha atá ceangailte ort a dhéanamh, agus ansan, má bhíonn uain agat air, dein tu féin a shásamh ar do dhémhóid féin.

Ní oireann an obair chéanna do gach aon duine. Is feárr a thiocfaidh an obair seo do dhuine agus an obair eile úd do dhuine eile.

Agus i dtaobh oiriúnaí aimsire, bíonn obair seochas a chéile oiriúnach. Tá obair is feárr a thaithneann le duine lá saoire, agus obair is fearr a thaithneann le duine lá nách saoire.

Ní hiad na hoibreacha céanna a dh’oireann dúinn in am an chatha agus in aimsir suaimhnis agus síochána.

Ní hé an machnamh céanna is maith linn a dhéanamh nuair a bhíonn dólás orainn agus nuair a bhíonn sólás ó Dhia orainn.

6. Nuair a thagann lá saoire mór orainn ba cheart dúinn ár bhfonn in sna dea-oibreacha d’athnuachaint, agus ímpí na naomh a dh’iarraidh.

Ba cheart dúinn ár rún diongbhálta do dhéanamh ó fhéile go féile, chómh maith agus dá mbeimís le himeacht as an saol an uair sin, agus dul chun na féile síoraí.

Ba cheart dúinn, dá bhrí sin, bheith dhár n-ollmhú féin in aimsir démhóide, agus bheith níos démhóidí ’nár gcómhrá, agus gach dualgas do chómhlíonadh níos dílse, ós daoine sinn atá ag súil lenár dtuarastal a dh’fháil go luath ó Dhia.

7. Ansan, má curtar ríghneas orainn, tuigimís ’nár n-aigne gurb amhlaidh ná fuilimíd ollamh i gceart agus nách fiú sinn fós go dtabharfí dhúinn an ghlóire mhór a nochtfar ionainn nuair a thiocfaidh an t-am, agus deinimís dícheall ar sinn féin d’ollmhú níos feárr i gcómhair an lae sin.

Is aoibhinn don tseirbhíseach san, adeir an Soíscéalaí Lúcás, a gheófar ag déanamh na faire nuair a thiocfaidh an Tiarna. Go deimhin adeirim libh, cuirfidh sé os cionn a mhaoine go léir é.


Labhraidh duine, innisidh Dia: this phrase, meaning “man proposes, God disposes”, uses a calcified older form of the present tense of the two verbs used. The pronunciation indicated in the LS version of Aithris is /lourigʹ dinʹi, inʹiʃigʹ dʹiə/.


athnuaim, athnuachaint: “to renew, renovate”, or athnuaim, athnuachan in GCh. Pronounced /ɑnhuəmʹ, ɑnhuəxintʹ/,although Shán Ó Cuív’s LS version of Aithris has ahnóchuint and ahnuachuint. More research required here.
bráthair: “brother; cousin, kinsman.” This word contrasts with driotháir, “brother”, originally spelt dearbh-bhráthair, and is used for more derived meanings, e.g. religious brothers. The genitive is bráthar.
cabhraím, cabhrú: “to help”, pronounced /kou’riːmʹ, kou’ruː/. The syntax is cabhrú le duine i rud/chun ruda.
corpartha: “bodily, material”, pronounced /korpərhə/.
dei-mhanach: “good monk”, or religious man. The original spelling here, deigh-mhanaigh in the genitive, shows the pronunciation is /dʹəi-və’nɑx/.
démhóid: I haven’t found this word in dictionaries, but it stands where “duty”, i.e. a religious duty, stands in the English. It may be derived from the English word “devotion”, but spelt with mh here, seeing some kind of connection with móid.
démhóideach: “solemn, dedicated”, a word not found in dictionaries. See under démhóid.
díogras: “zeal, passion”, or díograis in GCh.
diongbhálta: “steadfast, staunch”, or diongbháilte in GCh, pronounced /dʹiŋə’vɑ:lhə/. Rún diongbhálta, “a monk’s vow to remain steadfast”.
dólás: “sorrow”.
fáiscim, fáscadh: “to squeeze, tighten”. Fáisc suas tu féin, “brace yourself, ready yourself”.
fánach: “wandering, scattered”. Uair fhánach, “sometimes, on the odd occasion”.
glacaim, glacadh: “to accept”. Note that this takes a direct object (rud do ghlacadh), whereas GCh has glacadh le rud.
gnáthobair: “ordinary work”, used here where “a holy exercise” stands in the English version of Imitatio Christi, possibly because prayer and other holy exercises are the ordinary duties of monks.
i gcómhair: “for, in store for”. This phrase was generally spelt i gcóir in PUL’s works, in line with PUL’s view (cf. Notes on Irish Words and Usages) that this phrase derives from cóir, “proper arrangement (among other meanings)” and not cómhair, “presence”. He indicated he did not have a nasal vowel in this phrase, but the issue is complex, as his etymology seems faulty (The Dictionary of the Irish Language has i gcomhair) and it is possible that i gcómhair has become conflated with a separate phrase i gcóir, “ready” in WM Irish. In any case, nasalisation is not a noted feature of modern-day WM Irish, and so the GCh form produces the correct pronunciation.
i ndiaidh lámha: “falling behind”, in a number of sense, pronounced /i nʹiə lɑː/. This often means “in arrears with the rent”, but is used here of “falling short”, as of our personal failings.
ímpí: “intercession”.
inniu: “today”, /i’nʹuv/. The final consonant heard in the pronunciation is left untranscribed, as it was not indicated in the historical orthography and is not indicated in the spelling adopted in GCh. The spelling aniogh was found in the works of Seathrún Céitinn.
Lúcás: St. Luke, the Evangelist.
naoidéag: “nineteen”, pronounced /neː-dʹiag/.
neamhfhonn: “disinclination”, pronounced /nʹav-uːn/.
oiriúnaí: “suitability”, a word not found in dictionaries, which have oiriúnacht.
ollmhaím, ollmhú:ullmhaím, ullmhú in GCh, “to prepare”. Pronounced /o’li:mʹ, o’lu:/ in WM Irish.
ríghin: “slow” pronounced /riːnʹ/.
saoire: “day of rest”. Lá saoire, “feast, holiday”. Lá nách saoire, “a day not a feast; a fast-day”.
scrí’m, scrí’: “to write”, or scríobhaim, scríobh in GCh. All forms of this word are spelt according to the pronunciation here.
soíscéalaí: “evangelist”. Pronounced /si:ʃ’kʹe:li:/.
teaghlach: “household”, pronounced /tʹəiləx/. This word is used here where “community” stands in the English version of Imitatio Christi, showing the household being referred to is a monastic community.
tosach: “beginning, front”, pronounced /tə’sɑx/. Chun tosaigh, “ahead, advanced”.
tosnaím, tosnú: “to start”, or tosaím, tosú in GCh.
tosnú: “a start”, or tosú in GCh.
uaigneas: “loneliness”, pronounced /uəgʹinʹəs/. In uaigneas, “in solitude”.