deirim

Deirim is an irregular verb. Its verbal noun is /rɑ:/. The verbal adjective is ráite /rɑ:tʹi/.

Audio files were read by Eoiní Mhaidhc Ó Súilleabháin, native speaker in the Cork Gaeltacht, August 10th-11th 2010.

Habitual present tense

affirmative form negative form
I deirim audio dʹerʹimʹ ní deirim audio nʹi: dʹerʹimʹ
you s. deireann tú dʹerʹən tu: ní deireann tú nʹi: dʹerʹən tu:
he deireann sé dʹerʹən sʹe: ní deireann sé nʹi: dʹerʹən sʹe:
we deirimíd dʹerʹimʹi:dʹ ní deirimíd nʹi: dʹerʹimʹi:dʹ
you pl. deireann sibh dʹerʹən sʹivʹ ní deireann sibh nʹi: dʹerʹən sʹivʹ
they deirid siad dʹerʹidʹ sʹiəd ní deirid siad nʹi: dʹerʹidʹ sʹiəd
one deirthear dʹerʹhər ní deirthear nʹi: dʹerʹhər

Note: this historically correct forms are adeirim and ní abraim, explaining the lack of lenition; the dependent form is rarely seen and was almost never used by Peadar Ua Laoghaire in the negative. However, he did use má abraim in Aithris ar Chríost, ní abrann in Táin Bó Cuailnge, abraim libh go deimhin and ná habrann tú? in PUL’s Gospels. Also note cad ‘na thaobh go n-abrann tusa san? in PUL’s Guaire and nuair a bhímse ag teacht aníos ag triall oraibhse fágaim thíos é fén dtalamh agus abraim leis fanúint sa bhaile in Lúcián. Other examples could also be cited. Some of these usages can be explained by PUL’s view in Notes on Irish Words and Usages that abartha was more emphatic than ráite. A historical 2nd person singular is used by Peadar Ua Laoghaire in the phrase cad ‘deirir?

Simple past tense

affirmative form negative form
I duart audio duərt ní duart audio nʹi: duərt
you s. dúraís duə’ri:sʹ ní dúraís nʹi: duə’ri:sʹ
he duairt sé duərʹtʹ sʹe: ní duairt sé nʹi: duərʹtʹ sʹe:
we dúramair duərəmirʹ ní dúramair nʹi: duərəmirʹ
you pl. dúrabhair duəru:rʹ ní dúrabhair nʹi: duəru:rʹ
they dúradar duərədər ní dúradar nʹi: duərədər
one dúradh duərəg ní dúradh nʹi: duərəg

Note: historically this verb was aduart. I’m following Donncha Ó Cróinín in indicating /uə/ throughout the past tense here, although I use the spellings above, as the diphthong may be clearer in the monosyllabic forms. Note níor habradh in Séadna (meaning “it has not been asserted”, rather than merely “it has not been said”).

Future tense

affirmative form negative form
I déarfad, déarfaidh mé audio dʹiarhəd, dʹiarhi mʹe: ní déarfad, ní déarfaidh mé audio nʹi: dʹiarhəd, nʹi: dʹiarhi mʹe:
you s. déarfair, déarfaidh tú dʹiarhirʹ, dʹiarhi tu: ní déarfair, ní déarfaidh tú nʹi: dʹiarhirʹ, nʹi: dʹiarhi tu:
he déarfaidh sé dʹiarhi sʹe: ní déarfaidh sé nʹi: dʹiarhi sʹe:
we déarfaimíd dʹiarhimʹi:dʹ ní déarfaimíd nʹi: dʹiarhimʹi:dʹ
you pl. déarfaidh sibh dʹiarhi sʹivʹ ní déarfaidh sibh nʹi: dʹiarhi sʹivʹ
they déarfaid siad dʹiarhidʹ sʹiəd ní déarfaid siad nʹi: dʹiarhidʹ sʹiəd
one déarfar dʹiarfər ní déarfar nʹi: dʹiarfər

Note: the historically correct forms here are adéarfad and ní abród; the dependent form is rarely seen and was not used by Peadar Ua Laoghaire.

Conditional tense

affirmative form negative form
I déarfainn audio dʹiarhiŋʹ ní déarfainn audio nʹi: dʹiarhiŋʹ
you s. déarfá dʹiarfɑ: ní déarfá nʹi: dʹiarfɑ:
he déarfadh sé dʹiarhəx sʹe: ní déarfadh sé nʹi: dʹiarhəx sʹe:
we déarfaimís dʹiarhimʹi:sʹ ní déarfaimís nʹi: dʹiarhimʹi:sʹ
you pl. déarfadh sibh dʹiarhəx sʹivʹ ní déarfadh sibh nʹi: dʹiarhəx sʹivʹ
they déarfaidís dʹiarhidʹi:sʹ ní déarfaidís nʹi: dʹiarhidʹi:sʹ
one déarfí dʹiarfʹi: ní déarfí nʹi: dʹiarfʹi:

Note: the historically correct forms here are adéarfainn and ní abróinn; the dependent form is rarely seen and was not used by Peadar Ua Laoghaire.

Habitual past or imperfect tense

affirmative form negative form
I deirinn audio dʹerʹiŋʹ ní deirinn audio nʹi: dʹerʹiŋʹ
you s. deirthá dʹerʹhɑ: ní deirthá nʹi: dʹerʹhɑ:
he deireadh sé dʹerʹəx sʹe: ní deireadh sé nʹi: dʹerʹəx sʹe:
we deirimís dʹerʹimʹi:sʹ ní deirimís nʹi: dʹerʹimʹi:sʹ
you pl. deireadh sibh dʹerʹəx sʹivʹ ní deireadh sibh nʹi: dʹerʹəx sʹivʹ
they deiridís dʹerʹidʹi:sʹ ní deiridís nʹi: dʹerʹidʹi:sʹ
one deirthí dʹerʹhi: ní deirthí nʹi: dʹerʹhi:

Note: the historically correct forms are adeirinn and ní abrainn; the dependent form is rarely seen and was not used by Peadar Ua Laoghaire.

Imperative mood

affirmative form negative form
I abraim audio ɑbərimʹ ná habraim audio nɑ: hɑbərimʹ
you s. abair ɑbirʹ ná habair nɑ: hɑbirʹ
he abradh sé ɑbərəx sʹe: ná habradh sé nɑ: hɑbərəx sʹe:
we abraimís ɑbərimʹi:sʹ ná habraimís nɑ: hɑbərimʹi:sʹ
you pl. abraidh ɑbərigʹ ná habraidh nɑ: hɑbərigʹ
they abraidís ɑbəridʹi:sʹ ná habraidís nɑ: hɑbəridʹi:sʹ
one abarthar ɑbərhər ná habarthar nɑ: hɑbərhər

Present subjunctive

affirmative form negative form
I go n-abrad audio gə nɑbərəd nár abrad audio nɑ:r ɑbərəd
you s. go n-abrair gə nɑbərirʹ nár abrair nɑ:r ɑbərirʹ
he go n-abraidh sé gə nɑbəri sʹe: nár abraidh sé nɑ:r ɑbəri sʹe:
we go n-abraimíd gə nɑbərimʹi:dʹ nár abraimíd nɑ:r ɑbərimʹi:dʹ
you pl. go n-abraidh sibh gə nɑbəri sʹivʹ nár abraidh sibh nɑ:r ɑbəri sʹivʹ
they go n-abraid siad gə nɑbəridʹ sʹiəd nár abraid siad nɑ:r ɑbəridʹ sʹiəd
one go n-abarthar gə nɑbərhər nár abarthar nɑ:r ɑbərhər

Note: forms in deir- have been adopted in the official Standardized Irish. Occasional subjunctive forms like nú go n-abraidh sibh can be found in PUL’s works. The negative forms are not attested in PUL’s works.

Imperfect subjunctive

affirmative form negative form
I dá n-abrainn audio dɑ: nɑbəriŋʹ mara n-abrainn audio mɑrə nɑbəriŋʹ
you s. dá n-abarthá dɑ: nɑbərhɑ: mara n-abarthá mɑrə nɑbərhɑ:
he dá n-abradh sé dɑ: nɑbərəx sʹe: mara n-abradh sé mɑrə nɑbərəx sʹe:
we dá n-abraimís dɑ: nɑbərimʹi:sʹ mara n-abraimís mɑrə nɑbərimʹi:sʹ
you pl. dá n-abradh sibh dɑ: nɑbərəx sʹivʹ mara n-abradh sibh mɑrə nɑbərəx sʹivʹ
they dá n-abraidís dɑ: nɑbəridʹi:sʹ mara n-abraidís mɑrə nɑbəridʹi:sʹ
one dá n-abarthí dɑ: nɑbərhi: mara n-abarthí mɑrə nɑbərhi:

Note: the historically correct forms are shown, as they are attested in Peadar Ua Laoghaire, but dá n-abrainn is probably rivalled by dá ndeirinn.

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