gheibhim

Gheibhim is an irregular verb with faighim in the dependent. The dependent form was traditionally spelled with a broad -gh-  (faghaim). The verbal noun is fáil /fɑ:lʹ/. I’m spelling the autonomous with a broad -gh- throughout, as PUL stated had a broad -t- ending in the present autonomous when appended to a broad consonant and a slender one when appended to a slender consonant, and so the spelling needs to be right for PUL’s pronunciation. The verbal adjective is fálta /fɑ:lhə/; more traditional alternatives in use in parts of Munster include faighte and fachta. Fálta and sometimes fachta was used in Peadar Ua Laoghaire’s works.

Audio files were read by Eoiní Mhaidhc Ó Súilleabháin, native speaker in the Cork Gaeltacht, August 10th-11th 2010.

Habitual present tense

affirmative form negative form
I gheibhim audio jəimʹ ní fhaighim audio nʹi: əimʹ
you s. gheibheann tú jəin tu: ní fhaigheann tú nʹi: əin tu:
he gheibheann sé jəin sʹe: ní fhaigheann sé nʹi: əin sʹe:
we gheibhimíd jəimʹi:dʹ ní fhaighimíd nʹi: əimʹi:dʹ
you pl. gheibheann sibh jəin sʹivʹ ní fhaigheann sibh nʹi: əin sʹivʹ
they gheibhid siad jəidʹ sʹiəd ní fhaighid siad nʹi: əidʹ sʹiəd
one gheibhtear jəitʹər ní faghtar nʹi: fəitər

Note: this verb was historically do-gheibhim, explaining the lenition. The negative form is ní fhaighim, and not the Kerry form ní bhfaighim cited in the book Teach Yourself Irish. Faighim is found in AÓL in the affirmative, implying he had no forms in gheibh-. Ní fachtar is also found in the dependent autonomous, as the medial consonant became broadened. AÓL had fhachtar after the relative particle, showing he lenited the autonomous in lenitable circumstances. He probably had fachtar in the affirmative autonomous.

Simple past tense

affirmative form negative form
I do fuaras audio də fuərəs ní bhfuaras nʹi: vuərəs audio
you s. do fuarais də fuərisʹ ní bhfuarais nʹi: vuərisʹ
he do fuair sé də fuərʹ sʹe: ní bhfuair sé nʹi: vuərʹ sʹe:
we do fuaramair də fuərəmirʹ ní bhfuaramair nʹi: vuərəmirʹ
you pl. do fuarabhair də fuəru:rʹ ní bhfuarabhair nʹi: vuəru:rʹ
they do fuaradar də fuərədər ní bhfuaradar nʹi: vuərədər
one do fuaradh də fuərəg níor fuaradh nʹi:r fuərəg

Note: the past-tense autonomous form is not lenited after do or níor or after the direct relative particle.  The negative autonomous is found as níor fuaradh and ní bhfuaradh in PUL’s works. The interrogative forms are an bhfuair?, etc, with an bhfuaradh? in the autonomous. Also note cá bhfuaradh? Go bhfuaradh and gur fuaradh are both found in dependent clauses. AÓL had do fuaradh and ní bhfuaradh, as well as go bhfuaradh and cá bhfuaradh?

Future tense

affirmative form negative form
I gheóbhad, gheóbhaidh mé audio jo:d, jo: mʹe: ní bhfaighead, ní bhfaighidh mé audio nʹi: vəid, nʹi: vəi mʹe:
you s. gheóbhair, gheóbhaidh tú jo:rʹ, jo: tu: ní bhfaighir, ní bhfaighidh tú nʹi: vəirʹ, nʹi: vəi tu:
he gheóbhaidh sé jo: sʹe: ní bhfaighidh sé nʹi: vəi sʹe:
we gheóbhaimíd jo:mʹi:dʹ ní bhfaighimíd nʹi: vəimʹi:dʹ
you pl. gheóbhaidh sibh jo: sʹivʹ ní bhfaighidh sibh nʹi: vəi sʹivʹ
they gheóbhaid siad jo:dʹ sʹiəd ní bhfaighid siad nʹi: vəidʹ sʹiəd
one gheófar jo:fər ní bhfaghfar nʹi: vəifər

Note: The future was traditionally gheóbhad, but the form is generally delenited in Cork Irish today (geóbhad; this means that gheibhim shares a future form with gabhaim in the absolute, and sometimes in the dependent too, in Cork Irish). The dependent is either ní gheóbhad or the traditionally correct ní bhfaighead. The forms found in PUL’s works are given above. AÓL stated he had geóbhad, and that the lenited form was rare (other in lenitable circumstances, such as after the relative particle). He had ní gheóbhad in the negative, as well a forms like ní bhfaighidh. He had cá bhfaghfar? and go bhfaghfar in the dependent autonomous.

Conditional tense

affirmative form negative form
I do gheóbhainn audio də jo:ŋʹ  bhfaighinn audio nʹi: vəiŋʹ
you s. do gheófá də jo:fɑ: ní bhfaighfá nʹi: vəifɑ:
he do gheóbhadh sé də jo:x sʹe: ní bhfaigheadh sé nʹi: vəix sʹe:
we do gheóbhaimís də jo:mʹi:sʹ ní bhfaighimís nʹi: vəimʹi:sʹ
you pl. do gheóbhadh sibh də jo:x sʹivʹ ní bhfaigheadh sibh nʹi: vəix sʹivʹ
they do gheóbhaidís də jo:dʹi:sʹ ní bhfaighidís nʹi: vəidʹi:sʹ
one do gheófí də jo:fʹi: ní bhfaghfí nʹi: vəifʹi:

Note: gheibhim shares a conditional form with gabhaim in the absolute at least.

Habitual past or imperfect tense

affirmative form negative form
I do gheibhinn audio də jəiŋʹ ní fhaighinn audio nʹi: əiŋʹ
you s. do gheibhthá də jəihɑ: ní fhaighthá nʹi: əihɑ:
he do gheibheadh sé də jəix sʹe: ní fhaigheadh sé nʹi: əix sʹe:
we do gheibhimís də jəimʹi:sʹ ní fhaighimís nʹi: əimʹi:sʹ
you pl. do gheibheadh sibh də jəix sʹivʹ ní fhaigheadh sibh nʹi: əix sʹivʹ
they do gheibhidís də jəidʹi:sʹ ní fhaighidís nʹi: əidʹi:sʹ
one do gheibhtí də jəitʹi: ní faghtí nʹi: fəitʹi:

Note: in historical Irish, the imperfect was do gheibhinn, and this form is found in literature and the Irish of some speakers today (my reader preferred do gheibhinn, but also supplied an audio file for the alternative form, d’fhaighinn: audio). The autonomous form can also be do fachtí or do faghtí – do gheibhtí and do faghtí are found in PUL’s works. The spellings gheibhthí and  faghthí are also found in PUL’s works, showing the pronunciation of the ending can be with h. AÓL had forms like d’fhaighidís in the affirmative. No attestation of AÓL’s autonomous form has been found.There is no attestation of his second-person singular form either (whether absolute or dependent).

Imperative mood

affirmative form negative form
I faighim audio fəimʹ ná faighim audio nɑ: fəimʹ
you s. faigh fəigʹ ná faigh nɑ: fəigʹ
he faigheadh sé fəix sʹe: ná faigheadh sé nɑ: fəix sʹe:
we faighimís fəimʹi:sʹ ná faighimís nɑ: fəimʹi:sʹ
you pl. faighidh fəigʹigʹ ná faighidh nɑ: fəigʹigʹ
they faighidís fəidʹi:sʹ ná faighidís nɑ: fəidʹi:sʹ
one faghtar fəitər ná faghtar nɑ: fəitər

Note: the imperative forms are problematic. The current forms are faigh /fəigʹ/ and faighidh /fəigʹigʹ/, but the latter form introduces an adventitious g sound. The forms used by Amhlaoibh Ó Loinsigh were faig /fɑgʹ/and faighis /fəigʹisʹ/ in the plural. This -gis in the imperative plural is attested as faigis, bígis and glaoigis only. See comments above on faghtar.

Present subjunctive

affirmative form negative form
I go bhfaighead audio gə vəid nár fhaighead audio nɑ:r əid
you s. go bhfaighir gə vəirʹ nár fhaighir nɑ:r əirʹ
he go bhfaighidh sé gə vəi sʹe: nár fhaighidh sé nɑ:r əi sʹe:
we go bhfaighimíd gə vəimʹi:dʹ nár fhaighimíd nɑ:r əimʹi:dʹ
you pl. go bhfaighidh sibh gə vəi sʹivʹ nár fhaighidh sibh nɑ:r əi sʹivʹ
they go bhfaighid siad gə vəidʹ sʹiəd nár fhaighid siad nɑ:r əidʹ sʹiəd
one go bhfaghtar gə vəitər nár fhaghtar nɑ:r əitər

See comments above on faghtar.

Imperfect subjunctive

affirmative form negative form
I dá bhfaighinn audio dɑ: vəiŋʹ mara bhfaighinn audio mɑrə vəiŋʹ
you s. dá bhfaighthá dɑ: vəihɑ: mara bhfaighthá mɑrə vəihɑ:
he dá bhfaigheadh sé dɑ: vəix sʹe: mara bhfaigheadh sé mɑrə vəix sʹe:
we dá bhfaighimís dɑ: vəimʹi:sʹ mara bhfaighimís mɑrə vəimʹi:sʹ
you pl. dá bhfaigheadh sibh dɑ: vəix sʹivʹ mara bhfaigheadh sibh mɑrə vəix sʹivʹ
they dá bhfaighidís dɑ: vəidʹi:sʹ mara bhfaighidís mɑrə vəidʹi:sʹ
one dá bhfaghtí dɑ: vəitʹi: mara bhfaghtí mɑrə vəitʹi:

See comments above on faighthá and faghtí.

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