Séadna chapter 1

SÉADNA.

[Note: the best resources for study of Séadna are PUL’s own authorised Foclóir do Shéadna, and  also the official translation of Séadna, published in 1915 “by the author’s wish and authority” by the Irish Book Company, which also published many of PUL’s Irish-language books. That translation can be read at http://archive.org/stream/shianafromirish00oleauoft#page/n7/mode/2up, and the PDF is at http://archive.org/download/shianafromirish00oleauoft/shianafromirish00oleauoft.pdf . Shán Ó Cuív’s Letiriú Shímplí version is an excellent guide to the pronunciation of the entire book.]


Caibideal a haon.

Cois na tine. Peig, Nóra, Gobnait, Síle bheag, agus Cáit Ní Bhuachalla.

Nóra. A Pheig, inis scéal dúinn.

Peig. B’aith liom san! Inis féin scéal.

Gobnait. Níl aon mhaith inti, a Pheig. B’fheárr linn do scéalsa.

Síle. Dein, a Pheig. Beimíd ana-shocair.

Peig. Nách maith nár fhanais socair aréir, nuair a bhí “Madra na nOcht gCos” agam dá ínsint!

Síle. Mar sin ní stadfadh Cáit Ní Bhuachalla ach am priocadh.

Cáit. Thugais d’éitheach! Ní rabhas-sa ad phriocadh, a chaillichín!

Gobnait. Ná bac í féin, a Cháit. Ní raibh éinne dhá priocadh ach í dhá leogaint uirthi.

Síle. Do bhí, is dóin; agus mura mbeadh go raibh, ní liúfainn.

Nóra. Abair le Peig ná liúfair anois, a Shíle, agus neósaidh sí scéal dúinn.

Síle. Ní liúfad, a Pheig, pé rud ’ imeóidh orm.

Peig. Más ea, suigh anso im aice, i dtreó ná féadfaidh éinne thu ’ phriocadh i ganfhios dom.

Cáit. Bíodh geall go bpriocfaidh an cat í. A thoice bhig, bheadh scéal breá againn mura mbeadh tu féin agus do chuid liúirí.

Gobnait. Éist, a Cháit, nú cuirfir ag gol í, agus beimíd gan scéal. Má curtar fearg ar Pheig ní neósaidh sí aon scéal anocht. ’Sea anois, a Pheig, tá gach éinne ciúin ag brath ar scéal uait.

Peig. Bhí fear ann fadó agus is é ainm a bhí air ná Séadna. Gréasaí ab ea é. Bhí tigh beag deas cluthar aige ag bun cnuic, ar thaobh na fothana. Bhí cathaoir shúgáin aige do dhein sé féin do féin, agus ba ghnáth leis suí inti um thráthnóna, nuair a bhíodh obair an lae críochnaithe, agus nuair a shuíodh sé inti bhíodh sé ar a shástacht. Bhí mealbhóg mine aige ar crochadh in aice na tine, agus anois agus arís chuireadh sé a lámh inti agus thógadh sé lán a dhoirn den mhin, agus bhíodh sé dhá cogaint ar a shuaimhneas. Bhí crann úll ag fás ar an dtaobh amu’ de dhoras aige, agus nuair a bhíodh tart air ó bheith ag cogaint na mine, chuireadh sé lámh sa chrann san agus thógadh sé ceann de sna húllaibh, agus d’itheadh sé é.

Síle. Ó, a thiarcais! a Pheig, nár dheas é!

Peig. Ceoca an chathaoir nú an mhin nú an t-úll ba dheas?

Síle. An t-úll, gan amhras!

Cáit. B’fheárr liomsa an mhin. Ní bhainfeadh an t-úll an t-ocras de dhuine.

Gobnait. B’fheárr liomsa an chathaoir, agus chuirfinn Peig ’na suí inti, ag ínsint na scéal.

Peig. Is maith chun plámáis tu, a Ghobnait.

Gobnait. Is feárr chun na scéal tusa, a Pheig. Conas d’imigh le Séadna?

Peig. Lá dá raibh sé ag déanamh bróg, thug sé fé ndeara ná raibh a thuilleadh leathair aige, ná a thuilleadh snátha, ná a thuilleadh céireach. Bhí an taoibhín déanach thuas agus an greim déanach curtha, agus níorbh fholáir do dul agus abhar do sholáthar sula bhféadfadh sé a thuilleadh bróg a dhéanamh. Do ghluais sé ar maidin, agus bhí trí scillinge ’na phóca, agus ní raibh sé ach míle ón dtigh nuair a bhuail duine bocht uime, a d’iarraidh déarca.

“Tabhair dhom déirc ar son an tSlánaitheóra agus le hanman do mharbh, agus tar cheann do shláinte,” arsan duine bocht.

Thug Séadna scilling do, agus ansan ní raibh aige ach dhá scilling. Duairt sé leis féin go mb’fhéidir go ndéanfadh an dá scilling a ghnó. Ní raibh sé ach míle eile ó bhaile nuair a bhuail bean bhocht uime agus í cosnochtaithe.

“Tabhair dhom cúnamh éigin,” ar sise, “ar son an tSlánaitheóra, agus le hanman do mharbh, agus tar cheann do shláinte.”

Do ghlac trua dhi é, agus thug sé scilling di, agus d’imigh sí. Do bhí aon scilling amháin ansan aige, ach do chomáin sé leis, ag brath air go mbuailfeadh seans éigin uime a chuirfeadh ar a chumas a ghnó a dhéanamh. Níorbh fhada gur casadh air leanbh agus é ag gol le fuacht agus le hocras.

“Ar son an tSlánaitheóra,” arsan leanbh, “tabhair dhom rud éigin le n-ithe.”

Bhí tigh ósta i ngar dóibh, agus do chuaigh Séadna isteach ann, agus cheannaigh sé bríc aráin agus thug sé chun an linbh é. Nuair a fuair an leanbh an t-arán d’athraigh a dhealbh. D’fhás sé suas in aoirde, agus do las solas iúntach ’na shúilibh agus ’na cheannachaibh, i dtreó go dtáinig scannradh ar Shéadna.

Síle. Dia linn! a Pheig, is dócha gur thit Séadna bocht i laige.

Peig. Níor thit; ach más ea, ba dhícheall do. Chómh luath agus d’fhéad sé labhairt, duairt sé:–

“Cad é an saghas duine thusa?” Agus is é freagra a fuair sé:–

“A Shéadna, tá Dia baoch díot. Aingeal is ea mise. Is me an tríú haingeal gur thugais déirc do inniu ar son an tSlánaitheóra. Agus anois tá trí ghuí agat le fáil ó Dhia na glóire. Iarr ar Dhia aon trí ghuí is toil leat, agus gheóbhair iad. Ach tá aon chómhairle amháin agamsa le tabhairt duit. —Ná dearúid an Trócaire.”

“Agus an ndeirir liom go bhfaighead mo ghuí?” arsa Séadna.

“Deirim, gan amhras,” arsan t-aingeal.

“Tá go maith,” arsa Séadna. “Tá cathaoir bheag dheas shúgáin agam sa bhaile, agus an uile dhailtín a thagann isteach, ní foláir leis suí inti. An chéad duine eile a shuífidh inti, ach me féin, go gceanglaidh sé inti!”

“Faire, faire, a Shéadna,” arsan t-aingeal; “sin guí breá imithe gan tairbhe. Tá dhá cheann eile agat, agus ná dearúid an Trócaire.”

“Tá,” arsa Séadna, “mealbhóigín mine agam sa bhaile, agus an uile dhailtín a thagann isteach, ní foláir leis a dhorn a shá inti. An chéad duine eile a chuirfidh lámh sa mhealbhóig sin, ach me féin, go gceanglaidh sé inti, féach!”

“Ó, a Shéadna, a Shéadna, níl fasc agat,” arsan t-aingeal. “Níl agat anois ach aon ghuí amháin eile. Iarr Trócaire Dé do t’anam.”

“Ó, is fíor dhuit,” arsa Séadna, “ba dhóbair dom é ’ dhearúd. Tá crann beag úll agam i leataoibh mo dhorais, agus an uile dhailtín a thagann an treó, ní foláir leis a lámh do chur in áirde agus úll do stathadh agus do bhreith leis. An chéad duine eile, ach me féin, a chuirfidh lámh sa chrann san, go gceanglaidh sé ann! —Ó! a dhaoine!” ar seisean, ag scairteadh ar gháirí, “nách agam a bheidh an spórt orthu!”

Nuair a tháinig sé as na trithíbh, d’fhéach sé suas agus bhí an t-aingeal imithe. Dhein sé a mhachnamh air féin ar feadh tamaill mhaith. Fé dheireadh thiar thall, duairt sé leis féin: “Féach anois, níl aon amadán in Éirinn is mó ná me! Dá mbeadh triúr ceangailte agam um an dtaca so, duine sa chathaoir, duine sa mhealbhóig, agus duine sa chrann, cad é an mhaith a dhéanfadh san dómhsa agus me i bhfad ó bhaile, gan bhia, gan deoch, gan airgead?”

Ní túisce ’ bhí an méid sin cainnte ráite aige ná ’ thug sé fé ndeara os a chómhair amach, san áit ’na raibh an t-aingeal, fear fada caol dubh, agus é ag glinniúint air, agus tine chreasa ag teacht as a dhá shúil ’na spréachaibh nímhe. Bhí dhá adhairc air mar ’ bheadh ar phocán gabhair; agus meigeall fada liathghorm garbh air, eireaball mar ’ bheadh ar mhada rua, agus crúb ar chois leis mar chrúb thairbh. Do leath a bhéal agus a dhá shúil ar Shéadna, agus do stad a chainnt. I gceann tamaill do labhair an Fear Dubh.

“A Shéadna,” ar seisean, “ní gá dhuit aon eagla do bheith ort rómhamsa. Nílim ar tí do dhíobhála. Ba mhian liom tairbhe éigin a dhéanamh dhuit, dá nglacthá mo chómhairle. Do chloiseas thu, anois beag, dhá rá go rabhais gan bhia, gan deoch, gan airgead. Thabharfainnse airgead do dhóthain duit ar aon choinníll bheag amháin.”

“Agus greadadh trí lár do scairt!” arsa Séadna, agus tháinig a chainnt do; “ná féadfá an méid sin do rá gan duine do mhilleadh led chuid glinniúna, pé hé thu féin?”

“Is cuma dhuit cé hé me, ach bhéarfad an oiread airgid duit anois agus ’ cheannóidh an oiread leathair agus ’ chimeádfaidh ag obair thu go ceann trí mblian ndéag, ar an gcoinníll seo—go dtiocfair liom an uair sin.”

“Agus má réitím leat, cá raghaimíd an uair sin?”

“Cá beag duit an cheist sin do chur nuair a bheidh an leathar ídithe agus ’ bheimíd ag gluaiseacht?”

“Táir géarchúiseach. Bíodh agat. Feiceam an t-airgead.”

“Táirse géarchúiseach. Féach!”—do chuir an Fear Dubh a lámh ’na phóca agus thairrig sé amach sparán mór, agus as an sparán do leog sé amach ar a bhais carn beag d’ór bhreá bhuí.

“Féach!” ar seisean, agus shín sé a lámh agus chuir sé an carn de phíosaibh gleóite gléineacha suas fé shúilibh Shéadna bhoicht. Do shín Séadna a dhá láimh, agus do leathadar a dhá ladhar chun an óir.

“Go réidh!” arsan Fear Dubh, ag tarrac an óir chuige isteach. “Níl an margadh déanta fós.”

“Bíodh ’na mhargadh,” arsa Séadna.

“Gan teip?” arsan Fear Dubh.

“Gan teip,” arsa Séadna.

“Dar bhrí na mionn?” arsan Fear Dubh.

“Dar bhrí na mionn,” arsa Séadna.

Nótaí

Madra na nOcht gCos: the Irish tale “the eight-legged dog”, for the relating of which Mícheál Ó Loingsigh of Ballymakeera in the Muskerry Gaeltacht won a prize in the 1901 Oireachtas competition.

Am priocadh: this would be do mo phriocadh in the CO. It was pointed out by 19th-century grammarians such as John Donovan and Ulick Bourke that such constructions derived from ag and not do, and so the choice of do mo in the CO is remarkable in that is both etymologically unsound and contrary to the spoken usages of any of the Gaeltacht areas, possibly indicating that the compilers of the CO incorrectly believed the use of go do (gə də) in the Connemara derived, via dho and then gho, from an original do. Also note delenition of a labial (the first letter of phriocadh) following a labial that would otherwise occasion lenition.

A thoice bhig: the vocative singular of feminine nouns and adjectives is generally slenderised in traditional WM Irish, as with bhig here, thus aligning the feminine declension with the masculine. Such usage is not fully consistent in PUL’s works. See also “The Vocative in Modern Irish”, T. F. O’Rahilly, in Ériu, Vol. 9, (1921/1923), pp. 85-91.

Is é ainm a bhí air ná Séadna: note that although ainm is a feminine noun in WM Irish, it is correct to use the pronoun é here, as it refers to the name itself, and not the noun ainm.

Ag ínsint na scéal: note the use of scéal in the genitive plural, where scéalta is more commonly found nowadays.

Bhí an taoibhín déanach thuas: the original text said bhí an taoibhín déanach shuas, as shuas was a variant spelling of suas, given that sh and th are pronounced identically in Irish. Yet Liam Mac Mathúna’s edition of Séadna transcribes this as bhí an taoibhín déanach suas, a schoolboy howler, as suas in Irish means “motion to a higher place”, whereas thuas/tuas means “location in a higher place”. Shán Ó Cuív makes the same mistake in his LS edition of Séadna.

Cosnochtaithe: a poor person might be more likely to go barefoot, but PUL also explained in his Mo Sgéal Féin that most Irish people did not wear shoes, other than on the way to Mass, until the end of the 19th century.

Rud éigin le n-ithe: WM Irish prefixes n to ithe and ól, where other dialects and the CO prefix h.

Bhéarfad: “I will give”. bheirim (originally do-bheirim) is the absolute form to which the dependent form tugaim corresponds. Bheirim has largely been replaced by tugaim in absolute use in PUL’s works.

Go ceann trí mblian ndéag: the original had go ceann trí mbliaghain ndeug, but the genitive plural should be blian here, and it seems the slender nd of ndéag may have influenced the spelling of blian given in the original text.

Feiceam: “let’s see”. The first-person plural imperative can either be in a broad –m or in -mís; feicimís.

Names

An Fear Dubh: a representation of the Devil.
Cáit Ní Bhuachalla: the name Cáit is a diminutive of Caitlín, or Catherine. Ó Buachalla is anglicised as Buckley, a common surname in Co. Cork.
Gobnait: a feminine personal name, spuriously associated with the English names Abigail and Deborah. Pronounced /gobənitʹ/. The sixth-century St. Gobnait is venerated in Baile Mhúirne in the Múscraí Gaeltacht, where the ruins of a church dedicated to her, Cíll Gobnatan, can be seen.
Nóra: a feminine personal name, ultimately derived from the Latin Honoria.
Peig: a feminine personal name associated with the English name Margaret, of which Peg is a traditional English abbreviation.
Séadna: a masculine personal name, pronounced /ʃianə/. Séadna is an ancient Irish name, but has been (spuriously) associated with the English name Sidney.
Síle: a feminine personal name, anglicised as Sheila and Julia. Síle is the Irish form of the Latin name Cecilia.

Foclóirín

sea: “well”, often replaced by the Béarlachas bhuel, which is not found in PUL’s works. ’Sea go díreach, “just so, quite right”, or “that’s all very well!” before a refutation of one’s interlocutor’s views.
abhar: ábhar in the CO. WM Irish distinguishes between abhar (originally spelt adhbhar, now pronounced /aur/), “material”, and ábhar (sometimes written ádhbhar, pronounced /ɑ:vər/), “amount”.
ainm: “name”, feminine here, but masculine in the CO. Pronounced /anʹimʹ/.
airgead: “money, silver”, pronounced /arʹigʹəd/.
aith: ait means “queer, strange, pleasant”, but the t is lenited in pronunciation before l. The spelling ait was used in the original, but the editing approach here aligns it with the pronunciation by showing the lenition. B’aith liom san, /bɑ hlʹum son/, “I liked that”, usually sarcastic in tone. An alternative view is that b’aith liom san is derived from ba mhaith liom san.
amu’: “outside”, or amuigh in the CO. PUL here used the spelling amuich, probably to forestall a pronunciation in /gʹ/, as the pronunciation is /ə’mu/.
anam: “soul”. Note the dative anman in le hanman do mharbh, “for pity’s sake; for the sake of the souls of your dead loved ones”. The dative is generally anam other than in this phrase (cf. do t’anam in chapter 1 here). The historic dative was anmain, the ending of which appears to be broadened by assimilation to the following broad consonant.
ansan: “then”, ansin in the CO.
anso: “here”, anseo in the CO.
aoirde: “height”, or airde in the CO. WM Irish draws a distinction between in áirde, “up on high”, and in aoirde, “in height”.
arís: “again”. PUL used the spelling airís, indicating a slender r, /i’rʹi:ʃ/, whereas Amhlaoibh Ó Loingsigh had /ə’ri:ʃ/, as shown in IWM.
baoch: “grateful”, buíoch, pronounced /be:x/ in WM Irish. Buidheach stood in the original.
bheirim, tabhairt: “to give”. Bheirim is the absolute form of tugaim, not used in the CO, and not always found in PUL’s works. See also under tugaim, tabhairt.
bríc: “brick”. Bríc aráin, “a loaf of bread”.
caibideal: caibidil, “chapter”. PUL seems to have pronounced this word with a broad l, /kabʹidʹəl/, although Shán Ó Cuív transcribes this word as caibidil in his LS edition.
caillichín: “little witch; precocious little girl”.
cainnt: “speech”, or caint in the CO. The traditional double n is preserved here to show the diphthong, /kaintʹ/.
carn: “heap”, pronounced /kɑrən/.
ceanglaim, ceangal: “to bind, tie; get stuck”, or ceanglaím in the CO. Pronounced /kʹaŋə’li:mʹ, kʹaŋəl/.
ceannacha: “facial features”, or ceannaithe in the CO. Pronounced /kʹə’nɑxə/.
céir: “wax”, with céireach in the genitive, where the CO has céarach.
ceoca: “which? which of them?” From cé acu or cé’cu. Pronounced /kʹukə/. Often followed by a relative clause. Spelt ciacu in the original.
chím, feiscint: “to see”, or feicim, feiceáil in the CO.
cimeádaim, cimeád: “to keep”. This word and all cognates (chimeádaidís, etc) have a broad c in the classical spelling and in the CO, but a slender c (as applicable) in WM Irish: /kʹi’mʹa:d/, /xʹi’mʹa:didʹi:ʃ/, etc; PUL used the classical spelling in the original here. PUL’s spelling varied over the years, but he certainly used cimeád in his Irish; cf. cimeád a bhfaighir in Notes on Irish Words and Usages, p117. Also note that the the CO distinction between coimeád, “keep”, and coimhéad, “watch over”, does not obtain in WM Irish: coimhéad is an Ulster word.
cloisim, clos/cloisint: “to hear”. Airím, aireachtaint are more commonly used in WM. Cloisteáil is found as the verbal noun in the CO. Also note the preterite here, do chloiseas, where the CO has chuala mé.
cluthar: “cosy, comfortable”.
cnuc: “hill”, or cnoc in the CO. Pronounced /knuk/. Cnuc air mar scéal, “what nonsense!”
cognaim, cogaint: “to chew”, or cognaím,cogaint in the CO. Pronounced /kogənimʹ, kogintʹ/.
coinníoll: “condition”, pronounced /ki’nʹi:l as with a single n. Coinníll in the dative.
comáinim, comáint: “to drive, drive forward”, or tiomáinim, tiomáint in the CO. Tiomáint is also found here, but comáint is the form generally used in the original text. Comáint leat (tiomáint leat), “to press on, proceed, continue on”.
cosnochtaithe: “barefoot”, or cosnochta in the CO. Also found as coslomrachta.
crios: “flint”, with creasa in the genitive. Tine chreasa, “sparks, frictional sparks”.
crúb: “hoof”. Mar chrúb thairbh, “like an ox’s hoof”, does not give the expected dative crúib here, as crúb thairbh is bracketed together as a noun phrase.
cuirim, cur: “to put”. Rud a chur ar dhuine, “to put the blame for something on someone”. Note the present autonomous form, curtar, where cuirtar would be more likely in later WM Irish.
dailtín: “brat, spoilt child”, pronounced /dalʹ’hi:nʹ/.
dealbh: “appearance, shape”, or deilbh in the CO, where the historical dative has replaced the nominative.
dearúdaim, dearúd: “to forget”, with the imperative/preterite often slenderised, dearúid.
deinim, déanamh: “to do, make”, or déanaim, déanam in the CO. Deinim is a corruption of the historical form do-ghním, whereas déanaim is historically the dependent form of do-ghním. Note do dhein in the past tense, where the CO has rinne sé.
déirc: “alms, charity”, with déarca in the genitive.
deirim, rá: “to say, tell”. A diphthong is used throughout the past tense: duart, duairt sé, dúradh, pronounced /duərt, duərtʹ ʃe:, duərəg/. Note the use of deirir, an older second-person singular form in the present tense, otherwise deireann tú. The verbal noun, , is pronounced with a slender r in the combination á rá, /ɑ: rʹɑ:/, transcribed by Shán Ó Cuív as á reá.
do: “to”. Note that the classical spelling of the preposition pronoun is adopted in the CO, but this form is pronounced /do/ in the dialect and so edited as do here. Forms of this word are often elited in pronunciation, as in is fíor dhuit, “you’re right”, pronounced /əs fʹi:r otʹ/.
dó’: “hope, expectation; source of expectation”, or dóigh in the CO. This occurred as dóigh in the original, but is uniformly edited as dó’ here, in line with the pronunciation. Is dó’, “well, however, indeed”. Is dóin, “well, however, indeed” (PSD states that dóin is a corruption of dóigh). Another variant is dóil: ní dóil, “I don’t think so”. Dar ndó’, “of course”, also found as ar ndó’.
dóbair: “it nearly happened”, originally the preterite of the verb fóbraim. Ba dhóbair dom é ’ dhearúd, “I almost forgot”.
dorn: “fist”, with doirn in the genitive. Pronounced /dorən, dirʹinʹ/.
éistim, éisteacht: “to hear”. Note that éist is normally /e:ʃtʹ/, but a byform eist /eʃtʹ/ may also be heard in the phrase eist do bhéal, “hold your tongue”, or as an imperative meaning “hush”. Éist in chapter 1 here is retained as in the original, as éist is also corrected found in such contexts.
éitheach: “falsehood”. Thugais d’éitheach, “that was a lie; you are lying”, where the slender s of thugais appears to de aspirate the follow t’éitheach, producing d’éitheach.
fasc: “an iota of sense”.
fé ndeár, fé ndeara: thug sé fé ndeara, “he noticed”. This would be thug sé faoi deara in the CO. Pronounced /fʹe: nʹa:r~fʹe: nʹarə/. Fé ndeara also has a additional meaning, “cause, reason”.
féachaim, féachaint: “to look”. As interjections: féach, “can you imagine it? just think of it!”; féach anois, “mind you!”; féach air sin, “just think of it! can you imagine that?” Go bhféachaidh Dia orainn! “God save us!”
feárr, fearra: “better”, the comparative of maith, pronounced /fʹa:r/. Also found in WM Irish as fearra, /fʹarə/.
féin: “self”. This is usually pronounced /fʹe:nʹ/ in WM Irish, although the f is often pronounced as h in other dialects.
foláir: “excessive, superfluous”. Note the difference between ní foláir dom, “I must”, and ní foláir liom, “I feel I ought to”. When Séadna says every local rascal sits in his chair—ní foláir leis suí inti—clearly this is not something they “must” do, but it is something they feel they have to do. Pronounced /flɑ:rʹ/.
fothain: “shelter”, with fothana in the genitive. Ar thaobh na fothana, “on the sheltered side”.
freagra: “answer”, pronounced /frʹagərə/.
gheibhim, fáil: “to get, find”. Gheibhim is the absolute form of the verb faighim; the distinction is not observed in the Standard, which has faighim alone. The imperative faigh is pronounced /fəigʹ/ or /fɑgʹ/. The future form is found here, gheóbhair, pronounced /jo:rʹ/.
gléineach: “glittering”.
gleóite: “lovely, delightful”.
glinním, glinniúint: “to stare, examine closely”, with ar.
greadaim, greadadh: “to scorch”. Greadadh trí lár do scairt!, “may your entrails be scorched!” PUL explains in FdS that the force of this expression was much weakened, and the meaning is rather “confound you!” Greadadh chút! means the same thing.
gréasaí: “cobbler”.
guí: “prayer”, masculine here, but feminine in the CO. Some of PUL’s works have this word as feminine, including the version of An Teagasg Críostaidhe edited by him.
i ganfhios: “unbeknown, unawares”. Pronounced /ə’gɑnis/.
inniu: “today”, /i’nʹuv/. The final consonant heard in the pronunciation is left untranscribed, as it was not indicated in the historical orthography and is not indicated in the spelling adopted in the CO. The spelling aniogh was found in the works of Seathrún Céitinn.
ínsim, ínsint: “to tell”, or insím, insint in the CO. Note the use of d’inis here in the preterite: the spellings d’innis and d’inis are both found in PUL’s works. The future form is neósaidh sé, from an earlier inneósaidh sé.
iúntach: “wonderful”, iontach. Pronounced /u:ntəx/.
ladhar: “the space between the fingers”, pronounced /ləir/.
leanbh: “child”, with linbh in the genitive. Pronounced /lʹanəv, lʹinʹivʹ/.
leataoibh:i leataoibh, or i leataobh in the CO, “to one side”. Pronounced /i lʹa ‘ti:vʹ/.
leogaim, leogaint: “to let, allow”, ligim, ligean in the CO. PUL uses the spelling leigim in the original, influenced by classical norms, but the WM pronunciation of this word is /lʹogimʹ/. PUL’s spelling varied over the years, but he certainly used leogaint in his Irish; cf.rud do leogaint in aiscein Notes on Irish Words and Usages, p3. Shán Ó Cuív transcribed leig as leog in his LS edition of Séadna. Leogaint ort, “to let on; pretend”.
liathghorm: “grey-blue, steel-grey”. Pronounced /lʹiə-ɣorəm/.
liúireach: “shouting”, with liúirí in the genitive.
mada rua: “fox”, or madra rua in the CO.
madra: “dog”, pronounced /mɑdərə/.
mar sin: “that’s because…”.
marbh: “dead; dead person”, pronounced /mɑrəv/.
margadh: “bargain”, pronounced /mɑrəgə/.
me: disjunctive form of the first person pronoun, pronounced /mʹe/ (or /mʹi/ through raising of the vowel in the vicinity of a nasal cononant). Always in the CO.
mealbhóg: “knapsack, small bag”. Pronounced /mʹalə’vo:g/. The diminutive mealbhóigín is also found here.
meigeall: “goatee beard”.
min: “meal, flour”.
mionn: “oath”. Dar bhrí na mionn, “by all that is holy”. Note: the original meaning of mionn was “diadem, crown”, part of a druid’s attire.
mura: “if not, unless”. This is found as both mura and mara in PUL’s works. Mura is the form adopted in the CO, whereas mara appears to be the more dialectal form. Similarly, murab is found here where marab could have been used.
nách: nach in the CO, /nɑ:x/.
nimh: “poison”. With nímhe in the genitive. Pronounced /nʹivʹ, nʹi:/.
nú: “or”, , pronounced /nu:/.
ocras: “hunger”, pronounced /okərəs/.
os cómhair: “in front of”. Pronounced /ɑs ko:rʹ/.
pé: “whichever, whatever”. combines with the copula to produce pé hé féin in the present and pérbh é féin in the past.
plámás: “flattery”.
pocán: “he-goat”. Also pocán gabhair.
priocaim, priocadh: “to prick”.
réidh: “smooth, even”, but also “done for”. Pronounced /re:gʹ/. Go réidh, “easy now, hold on!”
sáim, sá: “to thrust, plunge”. The verbal noun, written sáthadh in the original, is here edited as . This word is one of many that may have an audible “h”, particularly before a following vowel: /sɑ:~sɑ:h/.
scairt: “entrails”. Greadadh trí lár do scairt, “may your entrails be scorched!”
scannradh: “terror”, scanradh in the CO, pronounced /skaurə/ in WM.
sceartaim, sceartadh: “to burst”, or scairtim, scairteadh in the CO. Ag scairteadh ar gháirí, “bursting out laughing”. Note that PUL’s Séadna uses both sceartaim and scairtim.
scilling: “shilling”. The general plural is scillingí, but scillinge is the plural used with numerals.
snáth: “thread, yarn”, with snátha in the genitive. The original text had snáithe in the genitive, but this yields the same pronunciation as snátha and is hard to reconcile in terms of declension pattern.
soláthraím, soláthair: “to get, procure”. Pronounced /slɑ:r’hi:mʹ, slɑ:hər/.
sparán: “purse, pouch”.
spréach: “spark”. ’Na spréachaibh nímhe, “in venomous sparks”.
staithim, stathadh: “to pick, pluck”, orstoithim, stoitheadh in the CO.
súgán: “straw-rope”.
sula: “before”. WM Irish usually has sara, but PUL used sula here in the original.
taca: “peg, pin, nail; point of time, juncture”. Um an dtaca so, “by this time”. Pronounced /tɑkə~takʹi/; PUL’s spelling points to the former pronunciation.
táim, bheith: “to be”. PUL uses táir as the second-person singular present-tense form here; otherwise tánn tú or taíonn tú. Bíodh agat, have it your way!
tairbhe: “benefit”, pronounced /tɑrʹifʹi/.
tairrigim, tarrac: “to pull”, or tarraingím, tarraingt in the CO. Pronounced /tarʹigʹimʹ, tɑrək/. The various forms of this verb exhibit the same changes: the past is do thairrig /harʹigʹ/. This verb was in the first declension in PUL’s works (do thairrigeadar), where modern Munster Irish would have do thairrigíodar. PUL used the classical spellings (tarraingim, etc) in the original, but Shán Ó Cuív transcribed tharaing as hairig in his LS edition of Séadna.
taoibhín: “a small addition; a patch on a shoe-upper”.
thar: “through, across, past”, often delenited to tar after a dental sound (including s). Thar cheann, “on behalf of”. Tháirsi, “beyond or across her”, or thairsti in the CO; pronounced /hɑ:rʃi/. Thar a bhfeacaís riamh! “exactly so!” [literally, “beyond everything you ever saw!”]
tí: “point, mark”. Ar tí, “on the point of, intending to”. tiarcas: found in a thiarcais!, “O God!, my goodness!” FdS explains the exclamation a thiarcais! is a way of avoiding the blasphemous a Thiarna!
tigh: “house”, or teach. The historic dative has replaced the nominative in WM Irish. Note that the pronunciation, usually /tʹigʹ/, frequently becomes /tʹi/ where the noun is qualified, as in tigh ósta /tʹi o:stə/. Tigh tábhairne, inn, pronounced /tʹi tɑ:rnʹi/.
toice: “hussy, wench”, pronounced /tokʹi/. A thoice bhig, “you little wench!”
tritheamh: “fit (eg, of laughter)”, with the plural trithí. In sna trithíbh gáirí, “in fits of laughter”.
trócaire: “mercy”.
tu, thu: disjunctive form of the second person pronoun, pronounced /tu, hu/. Always in the CO.
tugaim, tabhairt: “to give”. Note that tabhair dhom, “give me”, is pronounced /trom/. The verbal adjective here is tabhartha, where the CO has tugtha.
um: “about, round”. PUL uses the /emdéanaimem/emtraditional do bhuail sé uime in preference to do bhuaileas leis to mean “I met him, bumped into him”.

Abbreviations

CO: An Caighdeán Oifigiúil.
FdS: Foclóir do Shéadna, Peadar Ua Laoghaire, 1922.
IWM: The Irish of West Muskerry, Brian Ó Cuív, 1943.
LS: Letiriú Shímplí.
PSD: Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla, Patrick S. Dinneen, 1927.
PUL: Peadar Ua Laoghaire.
WM: West Muskerry.

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