Aithris I:XIII

CAIBIDEAL A TRÍDÉAG.

GAN GÉILLEADH DO CHATHAÍBH AN DIABHAIL.

1. An fhaid a bheimíd ar an saol ní féidir dúinn bheith gan buaireamh ná gan cathanna ón áirseóir.

Uime sin atá scríofa in Iób: Níl i mbeatha an duine ar an dtalamh so ach cath.

Ba cheart do gach duine dá bhrí sin, na cathanna atá le teacht air féin a bheith ag déanamh buartha dhò, agus bheith ag faire agus ag cur a ghuí suas chun Dé, le heagla go bhfaigheadh an mac mallachtain lom air agus go meallfadh sé é. Ní chodlann an mac mallachtain choíche, ach é ag gabháil tímpall ag cuardach féachaint cé ’ gheóbhadh sé le slogadh.

Níl éinne chómh fíoraonta ná chómh naofa san ná tagann cathanna air uaireanta. Ní féidir dúinn bheith saor ar fad uathu.

2. Ach tá tairbhe mór go minic, don duine, in sna cathannaibh. Úmhlaíd siad é, agus glanaid siad é agus múinid siad ciall dò, bíodh gur mór an cruatan iad, agus gur trom.

B’éigean do sna naoimh go léir gabháil trí mórán cathanna agus trí mórán trioblóidí, agus iad a chur díobh, le tairbhe dhóibh féin.

Agus an mhuíntir nár fhéad na cathanna do sheasamh, do thiteadar ó ghrásta Dé, agus dheineadar aimhleas a n-anama.

Níl aon órd chómh beannaithe ná aon áit chómh huaigneach san ná fuil cathanna agus míshásamh aigne le fáil ann.

3. Níl aon bhreith ag an nduine, an fhaid is beó ar an saol so dhò, ar bheith saor ar fad ó chathannaibh, mar is ionainn féin atá abhar na gcathanna, de bhrí gur i gcolnaíocht a geineadh sinn.

Nuair a bhíonn cath curtha dhínn againn tagann cath eile orainn, agus nuair a bhíonn trioblóid curtha dhínn againn tagainn trioblóid eile orainn. Beidh rud éigin againn i gcónaí le fulag, mar gheall ar an ndíobháil a dhein peaca an tsínsir dúinn.

Tá mórán daoine a bhíonn a d’iarraidh imeacht ó sna cathannaibh, agus is amhlaidh a seóltar isteach níos daingne iontu iad.

Ní thabharfaidh teitheadh, gan a thuilleadh, an bua dhúinn; ach le foighne agus le fíorúmhlaíocht gheóbhaimíd bua ar ár namhaid go léir.

4. An té ná cuireann ’na gcoinnibh ach ón dtaobh amu’ agus d’fhágann an phréamh gan stathadh, ní dhéanfaidh sé puínn tairbhe, ní hea, ach fíllfidh an cath níos géire air, agus beidh an scéal níosa mheasa aige.

I ndiaidh ar ndiaidh, le foighne agus le fadaraí, agus Dia ag cabhrú leat, is ea is feárr a gheóbhair bua, agus ní led ghruamacht ná led mhíshástacht féin.

Glac cómhairle go minic in am an chatha; agus ná bí dian ar an té go mbeidh cath á chur air, ach bí cneasta leis, fé mar ba mhaith leis a bheifí leat féin.

5. Bunchúis na ndroch-chathanna go léir an aigne ghuagach atá ionainn, agus luíghead ár muiníne as Dia.

Ar nós luinge gan stiúir a bhíonn dá caitheamh anonn ’s anall le neart na dtonn, sin mar a thagaidh na cathanna ar an nduine a bhíonn guagach agus ná bíonn seasmhach sa rud a cheap sé dhò féin.

Trialann an tine an t-iarann, agus trialann an cath an fíoraon.

Ní fheadramair go minic cad ’tá ar ár gcumas, ach tispeánann an cath cad é an saghas sinn.

6. Ní foláir faire, áfach, go mór mór i dtosach an chatha. An uair sin is ea is usa an bua ’ dh’fháil ar an namhaid, nuair ná leogtar dò teacht thar doras na haigne isteach, ach bheith ’na choinnibh lasmu’ den táirsigh chómh luath agus a bhuaileann sé an chéad bhuille. Uime sin aduairt duine éigin:

“Coisc tosach an uilc. Beidh an leigheas ródhéanach nuair a bheidh an t-olc neartaithe leis an ríghneas”.

Mar ní thagann ar dtúis ach an smaoineamh. Ansan tagann samhlaíocht láidir. Ansan taithneamh. Ansan corraí na fola. Agus ansan toil.

Mar sin, i ndiaidh ar ndiaidh, gheibheann an namhaid mhallaithe seilbh go hiomlán, toisc ná curtar ’na choinnibh ó thosach.

Agus dá fhaid a deintear faillí de chur ’na choinnibh is ea is mímhisniúla a bheidh an duine, in aghaidh an lae, agus is ea is treise a bheidh an namhaid.

7. Tá daoine agus i dtosach a ndei-bheatha is ea ’ thagaid na cathanna is truime orthu. Tá daoine eile agus i ndeireadh na dei-bheatha a thagaid siad orthu.

Agus tá daoine agus bíonn an scéal go holc acu i gcaitheamh a mbeatha go léir.

Ta daoine agus ní thagann orthu ach cathanna éadroma, le leamhnú Dé, a mheánn, de réir a mhóreagna agus a mhórchirt, nádúr an duine agus cumas an duine, agus a riarann gach ní roim ré cun leasa anama na bhfíoraon.

8. Dá bhrí sin ní ceart dúinn titim in éadóchas nuair a thagann cath orainn. Is amhlaidh is ceart dúinn ár nguí do chur suas chun Dé níos dúthrachtaí, sinn féin do chaitheamh suas ar Dhia ó is É do dheónfaidh sinn a thabhairt saor à gach guais lena chabhair. Mar adeir Naomh Pól: cuirfidh Sé an cath chun cínn ar chuma ’na bhféadfaimíd an cath do sheasamh.

Úmhlaímís, dá bhrí sin, ár gcroí agus ár n-aigne fé láimh Dé i ngach cath agus i ngach trioblóid, mar tabharfaidh Sé saor lucht na húmhlaíochta agus árdóidh Sé iad.

9. Is iad na cathanna agus na trioblóidí a thispeánann cad é an dul ar aghaidh atá déanta ag duine i bhfíoraontacht.

Is leó is feárr a tuílltear luacht saothair agus is iontu is feárr a nochtar súáilce.

Ní mór le rá é duine ’ bheith diaga dúthrachtach nuair ná bíonn aon rud ag cur air, ach má bhíonn sé foighneach seasmhach in am cruatain, is maith an cómhartha é go bhfuil an duine sin i bhfad ar aghaidh i bhfíoraontacht.

Tá daoine agus cosantar iad ar chathannaibh móra, agus buaitear orthu go minic, in aghaidh an lae, i gcathannaibh suaracha. Úmhlaíonn san iad. Múineann san dóibh conas gan aon iontaoibh a bheith acu as a neart féin i nithibh móra, toisc iad a bheith chómh lag i nithibh suaracha.

Foclóirín

à: “from”, as in GCh. The preposition as historically appeared with an s only before the singular and plural articles (as an, as na), the relative pronoun (as a), possessive adjectives (as mo), and before gach, but this usage was not always adhered to in late WM Irish.
abhar: ábhar in GCh. WM Irish distinguishes between abhar (originally spelt adhbhar, now pronounced /aur/), “material”, and ábhar (sometimes written ádhbhar, pronounced /ɑ:vər/), “amount”. Abhar na gcathanna, “the material, the subject matter for temptations, the matter that temptations work on”.
bunchúis: “basic cause, root cause”.
caithim, caitheamh: “to throw”. Tu féin a chaitheamh suas ar Dhia, “to throw yourself on God’s mercy”.
cath: “temptation”, with cathanna in the nominative plural, and either cathaíbh or cathannaibh in the dative plural, the first of which is found in chapter 13 here.
coiscim, cosc: “to prevent”.
codlaim, codladh: “to sleep”, or codlaím, codladh in GCh. Pronounced /kolimʹ, kolə/.
colnaíocht: “carnality”, or collaíocht in GCh. The LS version of Aithris indicates the pronunciation is /kolə’niːxt/. I think it likely that Shán Ó Cuív has given the wrong transcription here.
corraí: “stirring, movement”. Corraí na fola, “excitement, stirring of the blood”.
cosnaim, cosaint: “to defend”. This would be cosnaím, cosaint in GCh and CFBB also has cosnaím. PUL has this in the first conjugation in most tenses (cf. cosantar in chapter 13 of book 1 here), but cosnód and cosnódh in the future and conditional. Pronounced /kosnimʹ~kos’niːmʹ, kosintʹ/.
cuirim, cuir: “to put”. Rud a chuir ort, “for something to afflict you, affect you adversely”.
daingean: “firm”, with daingne in the comparative. Pronounced /daŋʹən, daŋʹinʹi/.
dei-bheatha: “good, virtuous life”, or dea-bheatha in GCh. Pronounced /dʹəi-vʹahə/.
deónaím, deónú: “to consent, grant”. This appears to be a second-conjugation verb in the imperative deónaigh (cf. PUL’s An Teagasg Críostaidhe), but deónfaidh here is a first-conjugation form. More research required here.
diabhal: “devil”, pronounced /dʹiəl/.
droch-chath: “temptation to commit evil”.
dúthrachtach: “fervent, earnest”, pronounced /duːrhəxtəx/.
éadóchas: “despair”.
éadrom: “light”, pronounced /iadərəm/.
fadaraí: “long-suffering”, a word spelt faidearaí in some of PUL’s works (cf. his novel Niamh).
faillí: “neglect”. Faillí dhéanamh de rud a dhéanamh, “to neglect to do something”.
foighne: “patience”, pronounced /fəiŋʹi/.
foighneach: “patient”, pronounced /fəiŋʹəx/.
fuiligim, folag/fulag: “to suffer, endure”, or fulaingím, fulaingt in GCh. PUL used the spelling fulang in the original text, adjusted in the editing here in line with WM pronunciation.
geinim, giniúint: “to beget, give birth to”. Often used in the autonomous preterite. Geineadh is transcribed geneag in the LS editions of Aithris, and there may be an /e/ in this word in order to differentiate the lenited version of the work from forms of the verb deinim, déanamh.
gruamacht: “gloominess, despondency”. Traditionally spelt, as in the original here, gruamdhacht, the pronunciation is with a devoiced m, /gruəmhəxt/. The transcription in LS is simply gruamacht.
guais: “danger”.
Iób: Job, a book of the Old Testament that tells of the suffering of Job.
leamhnú: “grant, consent”, or deonú in GCh, pronounced /lʹo:’nu:/ according to IWM, although PUL’s spelling points to a possible diphthongal pronunciation in his Irish. PUL indicates in Notes on Irish Words and Usages p71 that the word can be leamhnú and leómhnú. Leamhnú, “the will of God”. Note that this is one of a number of words where l has replaced d in Munster Irish.
leigheas: “remedy, cure”, pronounced /ləis/.
leogaim, leogaint: “to let, allow”, ligim, ligean in GCh. PUL uses the spelling leigtear, etc, in the original, influenced by classical norms, but the WM pronunciation of this word is /lʹogimʹ, lʹogintʹ/.
lom: “a chance at something, an opportunity”, pronounced /loum/.
long: “ship”, with luinge in the genitive, pronounced /lu:ŋg, liŋʹi/.
luacht saothair: “reward”, or luach saothair in GCh. Both forms are found in PUL’s works.
mallacht: “curse”, with mallachtain here in the genitive, where GCh has mallachta. Mac mallachtain, “the Evil One, the Devil, the son of malediction”. Pronounced /mə’lɑxt/. PUL’s novel Séadna had mac mallachtan, although the authorised Foclóir do Shéadna advocated a genitive with a slender n, as found here in the original text of Aithris.
mímhisniúil: “discouraged”.
mór le rá: “important, significant”. Possibly better written as a single hyphenated word.
mórcheart: “great justice”, pronounced /muər-xʹart/.
móreagna: “great wisdom”, pronounced /muər-ɑgənə/.
namhaid: “enemy”, pronounced /naudʹ/. Traditionally námha, the dative has now replaced the nominative. The plural here is namhaid, where GCh has naimhde.
Naomh Pól: Saint Paul.
níos: “more”. The form níosa, which lenites (níosa mheasa), is also found here. PUL stated in his Notes on Irish Words and Usages (p82) that the use of níosa implied a progressive increase (níosa mheasa, “worse and worse”).
nochtaim, nochtadh: “to uncover, reveal, disclose”. The present autonomous, edited here as nochtar, was spelt nochtthar in the original text, and was transcribed in the LS version of Aithris as nochdahar. It is likely that /noxtər/ and /noxtəhər/ both existed.
órd: “order”, including religious and monastic orders.
riaraim, riar/riaradh: “to manage, arrange”.
ríghneas: “slowness, delay”.Pronounced /riːnʹəs/.
roim: “before”, or roimh in GCh. Roim ré, “beforehand, in advance”, pronounced /rimʹ rʹeː/.
saghas: “sort, kind”, pronounced /səis/. Cad é an saghas sinn, “what we are, what we are like”.
samhlaíocht: “imagination”.
seilbh: “possession”, pronounced /ʃelʹivʹ/.
sínsear: “ancestor”, or sinsear in GCh. This word was traditionally spelt sinnsear, and had a long /i:/ in WM Irish. The singular form can have collective meaning, “ancestors”. Peaca an tsínsir, “original sin”.
sloigim, slogadh: “to swallow, devoir”, or slogaim, slogadh in GCh.
staithim, stathadh: “to pick, pluck”, or stoithim, stoitheadh in GCh.
stiúir: “rudder”.
táirseach: “threshold of a door”, with táirsigh in the dative. The LS edition of Aithris shows no long vowel in the first syllable, whereas the LS edition of PUL’s Eisirt did. More research required here.
taithneamh: “pleasure, delight”, or taitneamh in GCh. Pronounced /taŋʹhəv/.
tímpall: “around”, or timpeall in GCh. The broad p in WM Irish is preserved here: /tʹi:mʹpəl/.
tonn: “wave”, with tonn in the genitive plural also. Pronounced /tuːn/.
trialaim, triail: “to try, test”, or triailim, triail in GCh.
trom: “heavy, hard to bear”, with truime for the comparative, pronounced /troum, trimʹi/.
uaigneach: “lonely, desolate”, pronounced /uəgʹinʹəx/.
um: “about”. Uime sin, “on that account, for that reason”.

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