Aithris, I:III

CAIBIDEAL A TRÍ.

TEAGASC ÓN BHFÍRINNE.

1. Is séanmhar an té a gheibheann teagasc ón bhfírinne féin, an té ná faigheann an teagasc trí sholaoidíbh agus trí ghuthannaibh a d’imíonn, ach ón bhfírinne mar atá sí.

Cuireann ár dtuairim féin agus ár gciall féin amú sinn go minic, agus ní puínn a chíd siad.

Cad é an tairbhe mórán aighnis i dtaobh nithe doimhne dorcha ná beidh orainn freagairt iontu lá an bhreithiúntais, peoca ’ bheidh eólas againn orthu nú ná beidh?

Is leamh an gnó dhúinn faillí a thabhairt in sna nithibh atá tairbheach, riachtanach, agus cúram a dhéanamh de nithibh baoithe, díobhálacha. Tá súile againn agus ní fheicimíd.

2. Agus cad é sin dúinne cad a bhaineann le téarmaibh sua?

An té go labhrann an Briathar Síoraí leis, tá sé saor óna lán tuairimí.

Ón aon Bhriathar atá gach uile ní, agus labhraid siad go léir an tAon san, agus is é sin an Tosach a labhrann linne.

Gan É ní tuigtear ná ní breithnítear i gceart.

An té gurb aon ní amháin leis gach ní, agus do tharraigeann gach ní chun aon ní amháin, agus a chíonn gach ní in aon ní amháin, níl bac air bheith seasmhach ’na chroí agus bheith ar a shuaimhneas i láthair Dé.

Ó, a Dhia na fírinne, aontaigh me leat féin i ngrá shíoraí!

Bím go minic tuirseach ó bheith ag lé’ a lán nithe agus ag éisteacht lena lán nithe, agus gurb ionatsa atá mo dhúil agus mo mhian go léir.

Éisteadh gach lucht teagaisc; bíodh gach ní cruthaithe ciúin id láthair, agus labhairse féin liom it aonar.

3. Dá aontaítheacht a bheidh duine ann féin agus dá shímplíocht a bheidh sé in’ aigne, is ea is mó agus is aoirde na nithe a thuigfidh sé gan dua, mar tagann solas tuisceana chuige ón áit thuas.

An té go mbíonn an aigne ghlan, shímplí, shocair aige, ní suaitear é nuair a thagann mórán oibreacha air, mar deineann sé iad go léir in onóir do Dhia, agus deineann sé dícheall ar gach aon chreidiúint a lorg dò féin dá mbárr.

Cá bhfuil an té a dheineann cosc ná ceataí dhuit níos mó ná mar a dheinid na mianta gan smacht atá istigh it chroí féin?

Socraíonn an Críostaí fíoraonta, istigh in’ aigne, i láthair Dé ar dtúis, na hoibreacha atá aige le déanamh os cómhair daoine.

Ansan, in inead iad san dhá tharrac san chun ainmhianta baoise, lúbfaidh seisean iad san chun dea-bhreithiúntais.

Cá bhfuil an té is géire a chaitheann troid ná an té atá a d’iarraidh smacht do chur air féin?

Agus sin é an gnó ba cheart a bheith againne ’á dhéanamh, ag buachtaint orainn féin agus ag fáil lámh uachtair orainn féin in aghaidh an lae, agus ag cur breise ar ár bhfeabhas.

4. Níl feabhas ionainn ar an saol so gan olcas éigin ag gabháil leis, agus níl breithniú dá ndeinimíd gan dul amú éigin ag gabháil leis.

Cuir aithne go húmhal ort féin. Is cruinne de shlí chun Dé dhuit é ná bheith ag breithniú go doimhinn ar ealaíontaibh.

Ní cóir locht ’ fháil ar léann, ná ar aon eólas réidh atá tairbheach ann féin agus órdnaithe ó Dhia, ach is ceart i gcónaí tosach a thabhairt don choínsias ghlan agus don bheatha fhíoraonta.

Ach tá daoine ann agus is mó acu eólas do chruinniú ná beatha mhaith do chaitheamh. Dá bhrí sin bíd siad ag dul amú go minic agus is beag má bhíonn aon tsochar óna saothar.

5. Ó, dá ndeintí oiread díchill ar na dúáilcíbh a dhíbirt agus ar na súáilcíbh do shaothrú, agus a deintear ar cheisteannaibh do chur, ní bheadh oiread uilc ná oiread drochshampla i measc daoine agus ’tá, agus bheadh smacht níos feárr i mainistríbh.

Go deimhin, nuair a thiocfaidh lá an bhreithiúntais ní fiafrófar dínn cad a léamair, ach fiafrófar dínn cad a dheineamair. Agus ní fiafrófar dínn ar labhramair go maith, ach fiafrófar dínn ar chaitheamair ár mbeatha go diaga.

Innis an méid seo dhom. Na máistrí móra agus na huaisle léinn úd go léir go raibh aithne mhaith agat orthu an fhaid a bhíodar beó, agus gur mhór a gcáil i bhfoghlaim, cá bhfuil siad anois?

Tá daoine eile ’na n-inead anois, ag fáil an airgid a bhí acu dá fháil, agus ní fheadar an gcuímhníd siad in aon chor orthu. An fhaid a bhíodar beó bhí meas éigin orthu, ach ní thráchtann éinne anois orthu.

6. Ó! Nách tapaidh a dh’imíonn glóire an tsaeil seo! Is trua ná raibh a mbeatha de réir a n-eólais. Dá mbeadh, ní hin aistear a bheadh an léann ná an fhoghlaim.

Cad é a bhfuil de dhaoine dá gcailliúint trí eólas bhaoth an tsaeil, agus gan puínn suime acu i seirbhís Dé!

Agus, ós túisce leó bheith mór, dar leó, ná bheith úmhal, cuireann a mbaothaireacht féin ar neamhní iad.

Is é an duine mór i gceart an té go bhfuil grá mór do Dhia aige.

Duine mór i gceart is ea an té atá suarach dar leis féin, agus ná cuireann suím san onóir is aoirde.

Duine ciallmhar i gceart is ea an té a mheasann ná fuil ach salachar i nithibh an tsaeil seo go léir seochas Críost a dh’fháil.

Duine fíorléannta is ea an té a dheineann toil Dé agus do shéanann a thoil féin.

Foclóirín

aghaidh: “face”, pronounced /əigʹ/. In aghaidh, “for, for each”, often losing the final slender g, as in in aghaidh an lae, /ən əin ‘leː/ (or is it /inʹ əin ‘leː/?).
aighneas: “contention, argument”, pronounced /əinʹəs/.
anmhian: “passion, lust”. The original text had ainmhianta, in the plural, transcribed by Shán Ó Cuív in the LS edition of Aithris as ayinvianta, but Brian Ó Cuív shows in Cnósach Focal ó Bhaile Bhúirne that anmhian is pronounced /’ɑn-‘vʹian/.
ann: “there; in it, in him”. This word is pronounced /aun/ when stressed, but /un/ when unstressed (see IWM, paragraph 402), which is found particularly often in ann féin, /un fʹeːnʹ/.
ansan: “then”, ansin in GCh.
aontaím, aontú: “to unite”. Aontaigh me leat féin, “make me one with you”.
aontaítheacht: “a state of being recollected, calm, composed”. Dá aontaítheacht é ann féin, “however composed he is”; the English version of Imitatio Christi says “the more a man hath unity in himself”. The LS edition of Aithris shows the pronunciation is /eːn’tiːhəxt/.
baoth: “foolish, vain”, with baoithe in the plural. The GCh plural is baotha, which is the logical plural; baoithe should be the comparative.
baothaireacht: “vanity, silliness”.
bárr, barra: “top”. De bhárr, “as a result of”.
breithiúntas: “judgment, discernment”, or breithiúnas in GCh.
buaim, buachtaint: “to win, gain a victory”, or buaim, buachan in GCh.
cá: “where?”, transcribed as ca in the LS version of Aithris prepared by Shán Ó Cuív in 1930. It may be that a short vowel is possible here.
cad: “what”, used as cad é in exclamations meaning “how”: cad é a bhfuil de dhaoine, “how many people”.
cáil: “repute, fame”. Cáil i bhfoghlaim, “fame/reputation on account of one’s learning”.
caillim, cailliúint: “to lose; to perish”, or caillim, cailleadh in GCh.
ceataí: “inconvenience, awkwardness, a problem”. This appears in GCh as ciotaí, but ceataighe is the traditional spelling, and the pronunciation in WM Irish is /kʹa’ti:/. Ceataí dhéanamh duit, “to inconvenience you”.
cruthaím, cruthú: “to create”. PUL said in Notes on Irish Words and Usages that he had both seen and heard cruthaitheóir and cruthnaitheóir, but had only seen cruthú in print, but had never heard anything other than cruithniú; yet, chruthaithe is found here. Cruithním, cruithniú and cruithnithe would be more natural to the WM dialect. Gach ní cruthaithe, “all creation”.
dea-bhreithiúntas: “right judgement”. Breithiúntas would be breithiúnas in GCh, although dea-bhreithiúnas is not specifically listed in FGB.
deimhin: “certain, sure”, pronounced /dʹəinʹ/. Go deimhin, “in truth, assuredly”.
dícheall: this usually means “one’s best efforts”, but a rarer, literary meaning is “neglect, negligence”. Deineann sé dícheall ar gach aon chreidiúint a lorg dò féin, “he neglects to seek all the credit for himself”. Pronounced /dʹiːhəl/.
dorcha: “dark”, pronounced /dorəxə/.
drochshampla: “bad example”, pronounced /dro-haumplə/ according to the transcription in LS, although there may be an epenthetic vowel.
dua: “trouble doing something”. Gan dua, “easily, with no trouble”.
dúáilce: “vice”. See the comments under súáilce.
ealaí: “art, science, skill”, with ealaín in the dative singular, which form has replaced the nominative in GCh. The dative plural here is ealaíontaibh, with a t, although the nominative plural is found as ealaíona in other works by PUL (see Eisirt).
éistim, éisteacht: “to listen; keep silent, hold your tongue”. Note that éist is normally /e:ʃtʹ/, but a byform eist /eʃtʹ/ may also be heard in the phrase eist do bhéal, “hold your tongue”, or as an imperative meaning “hush; hold your tongue”. Consequently, the third-person imperative éisteadh is transcribed here in the LS version of Aithris as eshdeach, with a short e.
fiafraím, fiafraí: “to ask (a question of someone)”, used with de. Pronounced /fʹiər’hi:mʹ, fʹiər’hi:/.
fíoraonta: “righteous”, or fíréanta in GCh.
fíorléannta: “truly learnèd”.
freagraim, freagairt: “to answer”, pronounced //. Freagairt i rud, “to account for something; to answer for it”.
gabhaim, gabháil: “to go” with many subsidiary meanings. Gabháil leis, “for something to go with something, be mixed in with something”. Pronounced /goumʹ, gvɑːlʹ/.
glan: “clean”. Coínsias glan, “a clear conscience”.
glóire: “glory”, or glóir in GCh.
inead: “unit, place”, or ionad in GCh. In inead, “instead of”. Pronounced /inʹəd/.
labhraim, labhairt: “to speak”, or labhraím, labhairt in GCh. Labhraid siad go léir an tAon san, “they all speak of Him”.
lámh uachtair: “the upper hand”. Fáil lámh uachtair (or an lámh uachtair) ar dhuine, “to get the upper hand over someone”, where lámh uachtair stands in the nominative absolute as a noun phrase.
leamh: “disgusting; insipid; foolish, silly”, pronounced /lʹav/. Is leamh an gnó dhúinn é, “it is grievous folly”.
léim, lé’: “to read” or léim, léamh in GCh. The GCh spelling of the verbal noun is highly in appropriate, given that the traditional spelling was léigheadh, and so the verbal noun has been truncated in the spelling here to indicate the pronunciation better.
loirgim, lorg: “to search, seek”, or lorgaím, lorg in GCh. Pronounced /lirʹigʹimʹ, lorəg/.
mainistir: “monastery”. The dative plural, edited here as mainistríbh, was given as mainistiríbh in the original text, showing an epenthetic vowel, /manʹiʃtʹirʹiː/, although none in shown in the LS version of Aithris.
máistir: “master”. The plural, edited here ias máistrí, was given as maighistirí in the original text, showing an epenthetic vowel, /mɑːʃtʹirʹiː/, although the LS version of Aithris has mayishtrí, which appears to be the wrong pronunciation.
mór: “large”. Is mór agam é, “I think it important”, and hence is mó acu eólas do chruinniú, “they think it more important to accumulate knowledge”.
ní: “thing”. Aon ní, “one thing”, pronounced /eː’ŋʹiː/ according to the LS version of Aithris.
obair: “work”, with oibreacha in the plural. Pronounced /obirʹ, ebʹirʹəxə/.
olc: “evil”, with uilc in the genitive, where GCh has oilc.
órdnaím, órdnú: “to ordain”, or oirním, oirniú in GCh. Órdnaithe ó Dhia, “ordained by God”.
peoca: “whether”, from pé acu, or pé’cu. Pronounced /pʹukə/. Often followed by a relative clause.
réidh: “clear, smooth, level”, pronounced /reːgʹ/. Eólas réidh here possibly means “agreeable, ready” and therefore “useful knowledge”?
salachar: “dirt, sewage”, pronounced /slɑxər/ according to the transcription in LS.
saoi: “wise man”, with the genitive plural (and singular?) sua. GCh would have saoithe in the genitive plural.
séanmhar: “lucky, happy”, pronounced /ʃianvər/.
seasmhach: “steady, constant”, pronounced /ʃasəvəx/.
seirbhís: “service”, pronounced /ʃerʹi’vʹiːʃ/.
seochas: “besides; in comparison with”, or seachas. Spelt seachas in the original, but pronounced /ʃoxəs/.
símplí: “simple”.
símplíocht: “simplicity, simplemindedness”.
socraím, socrú: “to settle, place”. Pronounced /sokə’ri:mʹ, sokə’ru:/.
solaoid:“illustration, example, parable”.
súáilce: “virtue”. The LS version of Aithris has suáilcív for the dative plural here, spelt sobháilcíbh in the original text. Compare the transcription with a medial v in the LS version of Catilína. Bearing in mind the comments in paragraph 137 of IWM that a v at the beginning of a word or syllable approaches /w/ in its realisation, it seems reasonable to adopt the transcription used in Scéal mo Bheatha, the autobiography of Dónall Bán Ó Céileachair edited by Coiste Litríochta Mhúscraí: see súáilceach on p 182. The pronunciation is therefore /suː’ɑːlʹkʹi/.
suaithim, suathadh: “to shake, toss about”, or suaithim, suaitheadh in GCh.
tapaidh: “quick”, or tapa in GCh. Pronounced /tɑpigʹ/.
téarma: “term, expression”, with téarmaibh in the dative plural here (although the LS version of Aithris transcribes as if from téarmaíbh). Pronounced /tʹiarmə/. Téarmaí sua, “philosophical sophistries, matters of philosophy”.
tosach: “beginning, front”, pronounced /tə’sɑx/.
tuirseach: “tired”, pronounced /tir’ʃax/.
túisce: “soonest; first”. Is túisce leó é, “they prefer it”.
úmhal: “humble, obedient”. Pronounced /u:l/.

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