Aithris ar Chríost, leabhar a 1, caibidil a 1 agus a 2

Aithris ar Chríost

Tomás a Cempis do scríbh

An tAthair Peadar Ua Laoghaire Canónach, S.P. d’aistrigh

Nihil Obstat: Ioseph Ua Ceallacháin, Censor Theol. Deputat.

Imprimi Potest: Gulielmus, Archiep. Dublinen. Hiberniae Primas.

Die 18va Maji, 1914.

AN CHÉAD LEABHAR

CAIBIDEAL A HAON.

LEAN CRÍOST AGUS TABHAIR DRUÍM LÁMHA LE BAOIS AN tSAEIL.

1. An té a leanann Mise ní shiúlann sé sa doircheacht, adeir an Tiarna. Bréithre Chríost iad san. Cuirid siad in úil dúinn, más maith linn bheith gan doircheacht ná daille íntinne, nách foláir dúinn, ’nár mbeatha agus ’nár mbéasaibh, aithris a dhéanamh ar Chríost féin.

Bímís, dá bhrí sin, ag síormhachnamh ar bheatha Íosa Críost.

2. Tá bua ag an dteagasc a thugann Críost uaidh ar theagasc na naomh go léir, agus an té go mbeadh an íntinn cheart aige gheóbhadh sé bia sprideálta sa teagasc san.

Ach ráiníonn dá lán daoine bheith ag éisteacht go minic leis an Soíscéal agus ná cuirid siad puínn suime ann, toisc gan íntinn Chríost a bheith acu.

Ach an té gur mian leis bréithre Chríost do thuiscint i gceart, agus le sochar, ní foláir dò a dhícheall a dhéanamh chun a bheatha ar fad do chur ar aon dul le beatha Chríost.

3. Cad é an tairbhe dhuit bheith ábalta ar labhairt go léannta ar an dTríonóid, más duine gan úmhlaíocht tu agus go gcuireann tú fearg ar an dTríonóid?

Is deimhin nách briathra doimhne a dheineann naomh ná fíoraon de dhuine; ach gur beatha mhaith a tharraigeann grá Dé ar dhuine.

B’fheárr liom an aithrí ’ bheith im chroí ná me ’ bheith ábalta ar a dh’ínsint cad é an ní aithrí.

Dá mbeadh an Bíobla go léir de ghlanmheabhair agat, agus ráite na n-ollamh go léir, cad é an tairbhe dhuit é gan grá Dé agus grásta Dé a bheith agat?

Baois gach baoise agus baois ar fad is ea gach ní ach amháin grá ’ thabhairt do Dhia agus a thoil do dhéanamh.

Sid í an chiall is aoirde, neamhshuím do chur sa tsaol so agus ríocht na bhflaitheas do shaothrú.

4. Baois, dá bhrí sin, is ea dúil a chur i saibhreas agus bheith ag brath air, mar raghaidh sé ar neamhní.

Baois is ea dúil a chur in onóir, agus bheith ag rith i ndiaidh na huaisleachta.

Baois is ea toil a thabhairt do dhrúis, dúil a chur sa rud a chuirfidh pianta ifrinn ort ar ball.

Baois is ea dúil a chur i saol fada ’ dh’fháil, agus gan dúil a chur i saol fónta ’ chaitheamh.

Baois is ea féachaint chun na beatha so ar fad, agus gan cuímhneamh in aon chor ar an mbeatha atá rómhainn.

Baois is ea mian ár gcroí do chur in sna nithibh atá ag imeacht uainn ar cos’ in áirde, agus gan brostú chun na háite ’na mbeidh aoibhneas síoraí againn, agus go bhfanfaidh sé againn.

5. Cuímhnigh go minic ar an seanfhocal úd: Ní bhíonn an tsúil sásta lena bhfeiceann sí, ná an chluas lena n-airíonn sí. Breithnigh, dá bhrí sin, ar conas a chimeádfair do chroí ó ghrá do sna nithibh a chítear, agus ar conas a dh’iompóir ar na nithibh ná feictear. Óir, an mhuíntir a leanann sásamh a ndrochmhian sailíd siad a gcoínsias, agus caillid siad grásta Dé.

CAIBIDEAL A DÓ.

ÚMHLAÍOCHT AIGNE.

1. Is é nádúr an duine dúil a bheith aige in eólas; ach cad é an tairbhe eólas gan eagla Dé?

An duine bocht tuatha a dheineann réir Dé, is feárr go mór atá an scéal aige ná ag ollamh an uabhair a thugann faillí ann féin agus é ag faire ar ghluaiseacht na spéartha.

An té a chuireann aithne cheart air féin, tuigeann sé a shuaraí féin, agus ní chuireann moladh ó dhaoine aon áthas air.

Dá mbeadh eólas agam ar a bhfuil de nithibh sa domhan agus gan me ’bheith ar staid na ngrást, cad é an tairbhe ’ dhéanfadh sé dhom i láthair Dé, a thabharfaidh breith orm de réir mo ghníomhartha?

2. Cuir uait an dúil mhór san in eólas. Tá mórán fíll agus mórán dul amú aigne sa dúil sin.

Is maith le lucht eólais go mbeifí ag féachaint suas chúthu agus ag moladh a n-eagna.

Tá mórán rudaí ná deineann eólas orthu aon tairbhe don anam.

Agus tá an duine sin go mór gan chiall a thugann aire d’aon nithibh eile ach do sna nithibh a dheineann tairbhe anama dhò. Ní thugann mórán focal sásamh méinne; ach cuireann beatha mhaith suaimhneas ar an aigne; agus tugann an coínsias glan muinín mhór do dhuine as Dia.

3. Dá mhéid é t’eólas agus dá fheabhas, is ea is déine an bhreith a tabharfar ort mura mbeidh do bheatha naofa de réir
t’eólais.

Ná bíodh mór-is-fiú ort, dá bhrí sin, mar gheall ar chéird ná ar ealaín, ach bíodh eagla ort mar gheall ar an eólas atá fálta agat.

Má thuigeann tú it aigne go bhfuil a lán nithe ar eólas agat agus go dtuigeann tú iad maith go leór, bíodh ’ fhios agat, leis, go bhfuil a lán eile nithe agus ná fuil aon eólas agat orthu.

Ná bí uaibhreach mar gheall ar t’eólas, ach admhaigh t’aineólas. Cad chuige go gcurfása thu féin roimh éinne, agus go bhfuil mórán daoine níos léannta ná thu agus níos oilte ar an ndlí ná thu?

Más maith leat rud éigin tairbheach a dh’fhoghlaim agus a bheith ar eólas agat, ná hiarr go gcurfí aithne ort ná go gcurfí suím ionat.

4. Sid í an fhoghlaim is aoirde agus is tairbhí, fíoraithne ar dhuine féin agus uirísleacht. Eagna mhór agus fíoraontacht is ea gan aon mhaíomh a dhéanamh asainn féin, agus meas mór maith a bheith againn ar an bhfear thall i gcónaí.

Bíodh go bhfeicfá peaca ag duine eile á dhéanamh os cómhair do shúl, nú coir throm éigin, níor cheart duit a mheas gur feárr tu féin ná é, mar ní fheadraís cad é an fhaid a bheifá féin ar dhea-staid.

Táimíd go léir lag; ach tuigse ná fuil éinne níos laige ná thu féin.

Foclóirín

admhaím, admháil: “to admit, acknowledge, confess”, pronounced /ɑdə’vi:mʹ, ɑdə’vɑ:lʹ/.
aigne: “mind”, pronounced /agʹinʹi/.
aineólas: “ignorance”.
aithne: “acquaintance”, pronounced /ahinʹi/.
aithrí: “penance”, pronounced /arʹ’hi:/.
aithris: “imitation; an act of imitating or mimicking”. Pronounced /ahirʹiʃ/.
anam: “soul”.
aoibhneas: “bliss, delight”, pronounced /iːvʹinʹəs/.
árd: “high”. Note the comparative aoirde, where airde stands in GCh.
baois: “folly”.
Bíobla: “Bible”, pronounced /bʹiːbələ/.
breithním, breithniú: “to consider, examine”, breathnaím, breathnú in GCh. Pronounced /brʹenʹ’hi:mʹ, brʹenʹ’hu:/. However, IWM has breathnaigh; both forms are likely to have co-existed in WM.
briathar: “word; verb.” Note that both bréithre and briathra are used in the plural here; GCh has briathra. Pronounced /brʹiəhər, brʹeːrʹhi~brʹiəhərə/.
caibideal: “chapter”, orcaibidil in GCh. As PUL consistently uses the spelling caibidiol in his works, and so seems to have pronounced this word with a broad l, /kabʹidʹəl/, although a slender l is more common in later generations.
ceárd: “trade”. The dative singular is céird, with a long e; compare ceird used as the nominative in GCh.
chím, feiscint: “to see”, or feicim, feiceáil in GCh.
cimeádaim, cimeád: “to keep”. This word and all cognates (chimeádaidís, etc) have a broad c in the classical spelling and in GCh, but a slender c or ch (as applicable) in WM Irish: /kʹi’mʹa:d/, /xʹi’mʹa:didʹi:ʃ/, etc. PUL used the classical spelling in the original. Also note that the GCh distinction between coimeád, “keep”, and coimhéad, “watch over”, does not obtain in WM Irish: coimhéad is an Ulster word.
coínsias: “conscience”, pronounced /kiːnʃəs/.
coir: “crime, sin”, pronounced /kirʹ/.
cor: “throw, cast; condition, situation”. In aon chor, “at all”, pronounced /ə’neːxər/.
cuirim, cur: “to put”. The conditional autonomous forms is curfí here (cuirfí is the more usual form in WM Irish). Similarly, the second-person singular conditional form curfá is found here, in preference to cuirfá in later WM Irish.
daille: “blindness”, pronounced /dilʹi/. Daille íntinne, “blindness of heart”.
de: “of, from”. It is important to bear in mind that this simple preposition is pronounced in the same way as do in WM Irish, /də/. It has been thought better to edit these with the historically correct prepositions, as they would stand in GCh. Note that PUL was particularly insistent on writing do réir, which he held was either pronounced /də re:rʹ/ or /dʹrʹe:rʹ/—in other words the slender d only appeared when run together as a single word—but this has been edited as de réir here. The alignment of do and de in pronunciation only applies to the simple preposition; the prepositional pronoun de is pronounced /dʹə~dʹi/. See also do.
dea-staid: literally “a good state”, or “a state of grace”, but corresponding here to “integrity” in the English edition of Aithris (ní fheadraís cad é an fhaid a bheifá féin ar dhea-staid, “thou knowest not how long thou shalt keep thine integrity”).
deinim, déanamh: “to do, make”, or déanaim, déanam in GCh. Deinim is a corruption of the historical form do-ghním, whereas déanaim is historically the dependent form of do-ghním.
diaidh: “wake, rear”, pronounced /dʹiəgʹ/. The -dh- ending is not always pronounced, particularly before the singular and plural definite articles.
do: “to”. Note that the classical spelling of the preposition pronoun is adopted in GCh, but this form is pronounced /do/ in the dialect and so edited as dò here. See also under de.
doimhinn: “deep”, with doimhne in the comparative, or domhain, doimhne in GCh. Pronounced /dəiŋʹ, deŋʹi/.
doircheacht: “darkness”, pronounced /dorʹihəxt/, according to the LS edition of Aithris. Dorchacht in GCh.
drochmhian: “evil desires”.
druím: “back”, or droim in GCh. PUL uses drom for the actual back of a person or an animal, but druím for more derived usages (druím lámha, “the back of a hand”; druím na talún, “the face of the earth”). Druím lámha a thabhairt le rud, “to abandon or abjure something”.
drúis: “lust”.
dul amú: “to be mistaken, be spoilt” and similar meanings. Dul amú aigne, “distraction”.
dul: “condition, state”. Ar aon dul le, “in line with”.
eagla: “fear”, pronounced /ɑgələ/.
eagna: “wisdom”, pronounced /ɑgənə/.
ealaí: “art, science, skill”, with ealaín in the dative singular.
éinne: “anyone”, or aon duine in GCh.
faid: “length”, or fad in GCh. An fhaid, “while”, fad or a fhad in GCh.
feadar: “I don’t know, I wonder”. Ní fheadraís, “you don’t know”, pronounced /nʹiː adə’riːʃ/.
feall: “deceit”, with fíll in the genitive.
fear: “man”. An fear thall, “other people, others”.
fearg: “anger”, pronounced /fʹarəg/.
fíoraithne: “true knowledge”, pronounced /fʹiːr-ahinʹi/. Fíoraithne ar dhuine féin, “true knowledge of oneself”.
fíoraon: “a just or righteous person”, or fíréan in GCh. IWM show the WM pronunciation as /fʹi:’rʹe:n/, but PUL may have had a broad r in this word.
fíoraontacht: “righteousness”, or fíréantacht in GCh.
foláir: “excessive, superfluous”. Ní foláir dúinn, “we must”. Pronounced /flɑ:rʹ/.
gheibhim, fáil: “to get, find”. Gheibhim is the absolute form of the verb faighim; the distinction is not observed in the Standard, which has faighim alone. The conditional form is found here, gheóbhadh, pronounced /jo:x/.
gheibhim, fáil: “to get, find”. Gheibhim is the absolute form of the verb faighim; the distinction is not observed in the Standard, which has faighim alone. The past participle found here is fálta, /fɑ:lhə/; fachta is also used in PUL’s works. GCh has faighte.
grásta: “grace”. Dinneen’s dictionary shows the nominative singular to be grás, but this word is nearly always found as grásta. PUL seems to use it as a grammatically singular word (cf. grásta mór ó Dhia in PUL’s Sgéalaidheachta as an mBíobla Naomhtha). However, the genitive is na ngrást, which preserves the genitive plural declension.
ifreann: “hell”, pronounced /ifʹirʹən/.
ínsim, ínsint: “to tell”, or insím, insint in GCh.
lámh: “hand”. Note that the nominative singular (and genitive plural) is pronounced /lɑ:v/ with the genitive singular (lámha) and the nominative plural (lámha) both pronounced /lɑ:/. PUL explained in his Notes on Irish Words and Usages that the genitive of this word should be lámha and not láimhe, and in his works he generally adheres to this usage. It is consistent in terms of the declension pattern for lámh to become láimhe in the genitive and láimh in the dative, but PUL was probably concerned that the pronunciation of láimhe was being mangled by learners who did not realise it was pronounced the same as lámha. The dative singular (láimh) and the dative plural (lámhaibh) are both pronounced /lɑ:vʹ/. PUL was insistent that this word had a nasal vowel, and thus was audibly distinct from , “day”, but such nasalisation is not a feature of modern-day WM Irish.
léannta: “learned”, pronounced /lʹeːntə/.
lucht: “people”. Pronounced /loxt/. Lucht eólais, “people who have knowledge”.
me: disjunctive form of the first-person pronoun, pronounced /mʹe/ (or /mʹi/ through raising of the vowel in the vicinity of a nasal cononant). Always in GCh.
méinn: “mind, disposition”, or méin in GCh. Sásamh méinne, “mental satisfaction”.
mór-is-fiú: “self-esteem, self-regard, pride”. This is apparently not hyphenated in Standardised Irish, but seems to be a single word.
mórán: “many”, pronounced /muə’rɑːn/.
muinín: “trust, confidence”.
nách: nach in GCh, /nɑ:x/.
nú: “or”, , pronounced /nu:/.
oilte: “nurtured, bred”. Oilte ar, “versed in”.
ollamh: “master-poet” or in the context found here, “philosopher”.
os cómhair: “in front of”. Pronounced /ɑs ko:rʹ/.
peaca: “sin”.
rá: “saying”, with ráite in the plural.
ráiníonn: “to reach”, without a verbal noun in common use. Usually found impersonally meaning “to happen to, transpire”. Ráiníonn dá lán daoine, “many people happen to”.
réir: “service, treatment”. Réir Dé dhéanamh, “to serve God”.
saibhreas: “wealth”. pronounced /sevʹirʹəs/.
sailím, sailiú: “to sully, foul”, or salaím, salú in GCh.
saol: “life, world”. The original spelling was saoghal, and the spelling change has introduced inconsistencies: the genitive, originally saoghail, is spelt saoil in the Standard, which would give the wrong WM pronunciation. The genitive is edited as saeil here.
saothraím, saothrú: “to cultivate, develop”. Ríocht na bhflaitheas do shaothrú, “to labour to gain the kingdom of heaven”.Pronounced /seːr’hiːmʹ, seːr’huː/.
sid é: “this is, here is”, corresponding to siod é in GCh. Similarly, sid í and sid iad correspond to siod í and siod iad.
síormhachnamh: “constantly contemplating”.
siúlaim, siúl: “to walk.” PUL tends to have siúlaim in the first conjugation in the present tense; the future, preterite and imperative forms found in his works are in the second conjugation (shiúlaigh sé, etc). The LS edition of of Aithris shows that ní shiúlann sé is pronounced /nʹiː xʹuːlən ʃeː/, as sh before a long back vowel tends to become /xʹ/.
sochar: “advantage, benefit”.
soíscéal: “gospel”. Pronounced /si:ʃ’kʹe:l/.
spéir: “sky”. The plural, spéartha, is used in gluaiseacht na spéartha, “the course of the stars”, referring to astronomical gazing.
sprideálta: “spiritual”, or spioradálta in GCh.
staid: “state, condition”. Staid na ngrást, “a state of grace”.
tairbhe: “benefit”, pronounced /tɑrʹifʹi/.
tairbheach: “beneficial”. Pronounced /tɑrʹifʹəx/.
tarraigim, tarrac: “to pull, draw”, or tarraingím, tarraingt in GCh. Pronounced /tɑrigʹimʹ, tɑrək/. The various forms of this verb exhibit the same changes: the preterite is tharraig /hɑrigʹ/. This verb was in the first declension in PUL’s works (do tharraigeadar). PUL used the classical spellings (taraingim, etc) in the original—albeit with a single r, reflecting his views on the use of double letters—and these have been adjusted. Shán Ó Cuív’s LS edition of PUL’s novel Séadna shows a slender r pronunciation, as does the LS edition of Aithris. GCD also shows this to be the more general Munster pronunciation. Another piece of evidence that could be cited is the Irish of Diarmuid Ua Laoghaire, PUL’s second cousin and professor at Coláiste na Múmhan in Ballingeary, who wrote thairidh sé with a slender r (see Diarmuid Ua Laoghaire, Cogar Mogar, p20). However, Osborn Bergin’s LS edition of PUL’s Catilína and Aesop a Tháinig go hÉirinn show a broad r, and Brian Ó Cuív also uses a broad r in the phonetic spellings he used in CFBB. As both forms exist (see Stair na Gaeilge 489), it seems best to edit here with the broad r that PUL himself used.
Tríonóid: “Trinity”.
tu, thu: disjunctive form of the second person pronoun, pronounced /tu, hu/. Always in GCh.
tuaith: “the countryside; rural district.” Note the genitive here is given as tuatha, GCh has tuaithe. Either spelling would yield the pronunciation /tuəhə/, but Dinneen’s dictionary shows that PUL’s spelling was accepted. Duine bocht tuatha, “lowly peasant”.
uabhar: “pride”.Ollamh an uabhair, “a proud professor/educated man/philosopher”. Pronounced /uər/.
uaibhreach: “proud, arrogant”, pronounced /uəvʹirʹəx/.
úil:iúl in GCh, “knowledge”. The word úmhail, “attention”, appears to have become confused with the dative of eól, producing úil. Rud a chur in úil do dhuine, “to let someone know something, to make someone realise something”.
uirísleacht: “lowliness, humility”, or uirísle in GCh.
úmhlaíocht: “humility”, pronounced /uː’liːxt/.

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About djwebb2010

at the conservative end of the libertarian spectrum
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