A letter by PUL on the establishment of an Irish school in Cork 1894

An Músgraigheach 1, Meitheamh, 1943

[A reprint of a letter written by PUL in 1894 and published in United Irishman in the September 1st edition of that year.]

Caisleán Ua Liatháin,
Cúnndae Chorcaí.
An ceathrú lá déag de Bhealltaine, ’94.

A Dhiarmuid Uí Mhurchú,

Nuair ’chuaigh an scéal amach go raibh scoil Ghaelainne le hoscailt i gCorcaigh do scríbh Micheál Cíosóg chúm ó Bhaile Átha Cliath agus duairt sé liom leitir a chur chútsa ag ínsint duit méid mo dhúla sa ghnó atá idir lámhaibh agat. Tá os cionn deich mblian bhfichead ó thosnaigh an dúil sin agam. Is mó lá uaigneach atá tabhartha agam sa méid sin aimsire ag féachaint ar theangain ár sínsear ag imeacht as an saol os cómhair mo shúl, agus me ag machnamh ar mhéid a thrua, agus ar mhéid a náire, agus éinne do labharfadh ’na páirt gan de dhíolaíocht aige le fáil ach magadh agus tarcaisne, agus an cheist gan chiall úd, “cad é an mhaith í?”

Faoi dheireadh thiar thall do tháinig Muiris Ó hÉalaithe agus chómhairligh sé déanamh na bhfocal d’athrú, mar dhea go ndéanfadh san saoráid ar fhoghlaim na Gaelainne .i. an focal fómhar, cuirim i gcás, d’athrú chun “fóre”. Ní raibh fear go raibh eólas ar fhocal Gaelainne aige, ó Dhonncha Dí go Tigh Mháire, nár phreab láithreach ’na shuí, agus nár scread, dá nglacfí an chómhairle sin go raibh an Ghaelainn loitithe glan. Do liús féin mar aon leó agus duart go hárd agus go dána go mb’fheárr í ’mhúchadh láithreach agus í ’chur as an saol ar fad ná an cor san do thabhairt di.

As san do ghluais an t-aighneas agus bíodh gurbh olc an chómhairle a thug Muiris uaidh is maith an earra a tháinig as. Bhíodar a lán daoine ’na gcodladh agus do dhúisigh sé iad, nú b’fhéidir gur cirte a rá, do dhúisigh an t-aighneas iad. Tá deireadh leis an magadh agus leis an dtarcaisne. Ní cloistear anois an cheist, “Cad é an mhaith í?” Na daoine a bhí ag obair le fiche bliain faoi mhímheas, tá meas agus urraim ag dul dóibh anois, agus is mithid é.

Do bhíos ag Feis na Gaelainne i mBaile Átha Cliath agus ó shin i leith tá sé buailte isteach im aigne go ndéanfaid fir óga na hÉireann an Ghaelainn do chimeád beó, agus nách baol dúinn feasta, le cúnamh Dé, an masla agus an míchlú a bheadh i ndán dúinn go deó dá n-imíodh an Ghaelainn as an saol lenár línn.

Bhíos oíche ag Connradh na Gaelainne i mBaile Átha Cliath, agus do thaithn liom go mór conas ’ rinneadar a ngnó. Ach nuair ’ thánag abhaile do buaileadh isteach im aigne go daingean gur mhór go léir an trua gan scoil Ghaelainne i gCorcaigh. Do tuigeadh dom an méid seo; nách bhfuil sé ar chumas Ultaigh ná Connachtaigh Gaelainn Múmhan do gabháil len’ ais chómh cneasta agus ’ gheóbhadh Muímhneach féin í. Tá sí i bhfad níos ceólmhaire agus níos blasta ná Gaelainn aon chúige eile, agus dar liom, tá an chuid is mó dhi chómh ceart leó. Tá cuid di, agus ní cuid bheag, níos cirte.

Is mór go léir an mhaith, dá bhrí sin, scoil fá leith do bheith i gCorcaigh, óir is i gCorcaigh is feárr a tuigfar agus a cimeádfar beó i mbéalaibh daoine, an blas Muímhneach úd atá riamh molta don Mhúmhain. Dá éaghmais sin is tuairim láidir dom nách bhfuil eólas na Gaelainne chómh scartha in aon chor le muíntir na Múmhan agus atá sé le muíntir Bhaile Átha Cliath, agus dá bhrí sin gur mó an obair a dhéanfaidh scoil i gCorcaigh ná i mBaile Átha Cliath. ’Na theannta san arís, nuair ’bheidh dá scoil ag formad le chéile is mó agus is feárr an obair a dhéanfaidh gach scoil díobh ná dhéanfadh sí ’na haonar.

Deirim gan amhras go bhfuil árdchreidiúint ag dul d’fhearaibh óga Bhaile Átha Cliath. Do thosnaíodar gan léas eólais ar an dteangain. Bhíos cúpla uair an chluig sa scoil ag éisteacht leó, agus do thánag uathu lán d’iúnadh agus d’áthas. Cheapas nách raibh sé ar chumas éinne, gan taithí ón gcliabhán uirthi, Gaelainn do labhairt chómh cruínn agus chómh ceart agus do labhradar súd í im láthair. Beartaím, má rinneadar súd mar siúd, go ndéanfaid Muíntir Chorcaí i bhfad níos feárr, mar tá ag muíntir Chorcaí eólas ó thosach nách raibh acu súd.

Is trua nár thosnaigh an obair seo fiche bliain ó shin. Ní bheadh deachú na trioblóide le fáil agus bheadh obair na haimsire againn anois in aisce. Ach is feárr déanaí ná ródhéanaí. B’fhéidir nár ghearánta dhúinn agus tionnscnú anois féin.

Ní féidir an gnó ’ dhéanamh gan costas. Tá bille púnt agam dá chur chútsa sa leitir seo mar chúnamh beag. An chéad lá ’ bheidh mé i gCorcaigh ní mór dom bualadh isteach chúibh agus eólas a chur oraibh i dtreó go n-aithneóimís a chéile.

Cuirim anso síos duit, ó tá an tslí agam, amhrán a rinn file darbh ainm Uilliam Buingeán don Rudaire Brianach .i. Sir Edward O’Brien

Hurá, a Rudaire chumasaigh Bhrianaigh!
Hurá, a Rudaire thrúpa na srianta!
Hurá, a linbh nár geineadh as fiaile,
Ach as ceartlár ríthe ’ ghníodh dlithe is rialta!

Mo ghrása an leanbh nár eascair in éineacht,
Ach d’fhás seacht dtroithe chómh tara le chéile,
Mac an mharcaigh do ghreadadh na méirligh
Ó Léim an chapaill go Mala na méithmhart.
Hurá &c.

Sin lacht luinge ’na thuile trí shliabh chúinn,
D’fhíon bhreá bhorb, gan doicheall ’na dhiaidh dúinn,
Líontar gloine agus fiche chun Liam de,
Sláinte an Rudaire chumasaigh Bhrianaigh!
Hurá, &c.

Níl searrach i gcapall ná leanbh i mnaoi beó
Ó Bhunraite go Mainistir Ínse
Nách bhfuil ag preabaigh chun balaith an fhíona,
’Gus é dá chaitheamh ag maithibh na tíre.
Hurá, &c.

D’fhíontaibh dearga, lachna, is cróna,
Píopaí beathuisce, meadracha beórach,
Bíom dhá mblaiseadh go mblaiseam go tóin iad,
’S go dtéidh an ghealach i bhfolach ’nár mbrógaibh.
Hurá, &c.

Is dó’ liom gur beag na hamhráin a bhuail umat ba dheise ná é sin. Ní fheadar cad é an guth, nú an ceól is cóir a chur leis, munab é “Ó airiú, a sheanduine, leatsa ní gheóbhadsa”, nú “The Campbells are Coming”. B’fhéidir go bhféadfá féin an púnc san do réiteach níos feárr ná ’fhéadfainnse.

Tá an leitir thuas scríofa le trí lá agus níor chuireas sa phost í mar ní raibh fios cruínn agam ar t’ionad cónaithese. Ar maidin inniu do tháinig an foláramh chúm agus fuaras ann an t-eólas a bhí uaim.

Tá an fhógairt sin go maith. Tá an chuideachta uasal. Tá súil agam go n-oibreóidh gach duine a pháirt féin go dian.

Mise le háthas mór
Do chómharsa ionúin
PEADAR UA LAOGHAIRE.

Do Dhiarmuid Ó Murchú, Uasal,
Cisteóir Chonnartha na Gaelainne
i gCathair Chorcaí.

Nótaí

This is a song that was transcribed in the June 1894 edition of Irisleabhar na Gaedhilge. PUL’s version is not exactly the same as that given in that journal. The Irisleabhar version contains a translation at http://archive.org/stream/irisleabharnag0506dubluoft#page/n43/mode/2up and the following page.

Bíom dhá mblaiseadh go mblaiseam go tóin iad: bíom and blaiseam are first-person plural imperatives, corresponding to bímís and blaisimís.

Foclóirín

ainm: “name”, pronounced /anʹimʹ/.
airiú!:arú!, “why! really! indeed!” Pronounced /i’rʹu:~e’rʹu:/.
aisce: “gift, present”. In aisce, “for nothing”, meaning in the context here “without effort or trouble”.
amhrán: “song”, pronounced /ɑvə’rɑːn/.
anois féin: “right now”.
arís: “again”. Pronounced /i’rʹi:ʃ/.
athraím, athrú: “to change, alter”, pronounced /ɑhə’riːmʹ, ɑhə’ruː/.
Baile Átha Cliath:Dublin, pronounced /blʹa: ‘klʹiəh/.
balaithe: “smell”, or boladh in GCh. The original spelling, balaith, is adjusted here in the line with the WM pronunciation, /bɑlihi/, which appears to derive originally from the plural of the word.
beag: “small”, pronounced /bʹog/. Is beag na hamhráin, “there are few songs”.
Bealltaine: “May”, or Bealtaine in GCh. The ll often found in the older script is retained here to show the diphthong, /bʹaulhinʹi/.
bean: “woman”, with mnaoi in the dative here.
beartaím, beartú: “to think, estimate”.
beathuisce: “whiskey”.
beóir: “beer”, with beórach in the genitive. Glossed in PSD as “a favourite drink of the Irish”.
bille: “bill, note”. Bille púnt, “a pound note”. Púnt is possibly genitive plural here, as a one-pound note is a note denominated in pounds. More likely, púnt is a typo for the genitive singular, púint.
blas: “taste, flavour”, but also “accent”. Blas Muímhneach, “Munster accent”.
borb: “fierce”, but also “strong” of alcoholic drink. Pronounced /borəb/.
Brianach: someone surnamed Ó Briain.
Bunraite: Bunratty, Co. Clare. This placename is properly Bun na Raite, i.e. “the end of the River Raite”. It is unclear to me if PUL has reanalysed the na as an epenthetic vowel in Bunraite.
ceartlár: “the very midst”.
chun: “towards”. The combined forms of this preposition are distinctive: chúm, chút, chuige, chúithi, chúinn, chúibh, chúthu. The Standard has chugam, chugat, chuige, chuici, chugainn, chugaibh, chucu.
cimeádaim, cimeád: “to keep”, or coimeádaim, coimeád in GCh.
cisteóir: “treasurer”.
cliabhán: “cradle”.
cneasta: “gentle; comfortable”.
Connachtach: “a native of Connacht”.
Connradh na Gaelainne: “the Gaelic League”, founded in 1893. Pronounced /kuːrə nə geːliŋʹi/. The genitive connartha is pronounced
/kunərhə/.
cor: “throw, cast; condition, situation”. An cor san do thabhairt di, “to treat it in that way, to do that to it”.
Corcaigh: Cork city. This is one of many Irish placenames where the dative form has replaced the erstwhile nominative (from corcach, “marsh, lowlying swamp”).
crón: “nut-brown, copper-coloured, tan, tawny”. The foclóirín in the 1903 edition of PUL’s Aesop a Tháinig go hÉirinn said that crón is the colour of strong tea.
cuideachta: “company, the people present”, pronounced /ki’dʹaxtə~ki’lʹaxtə/.
Note the evidence given in CFBB that whereas some Muskerry speakers used an l in the related word cuideachtanas, AÓL had a d, indicating that the best speakers kept a d here.
cumasach: “capable, powerful”.
cúnndae: “county”, or contae in GCh. Pronounced /kuːn’deː~kuːn’teː/.
cúpla: “a couple”, taking the nominative singular. Pronounced /kuːpələ/.
dán: “lot, fate”. I ndán do, “in store for”.
deachú: “tenth part”. PUL uses deichiú in his Sgéalaídheachta as an mBíobla Naomhtha, but deachú, used here, is the historically correct from.
déanaí: “lateness”. Is feárr déanaí ná ródhéanaí, “better late than never”.
déanamh: “making; form”. Déanamh na bhfocal, “the form of the words; their spelling and appearance”.
dearg: “red”, pronounced /dʹarəg/.
deinim, déanamh: “to do”. Note that PUL uses the traditional preterite rinneadar here, instead of the WM form dheineadar. Rinn is given in the third person here instead of the traditional rinne, probably because the WM form, dhein, is of one syllable. Ghníodh here is the traditionally correct form of the past habitual, which would be dheineadh in WM Irish.
Diarmuid Ó Murchú: the surname is pronounced /oː murə’xuː/. I am not sure who this person was, other than that he was involved in the Gaelic League, as shown in this letter.
díolaíocht: “payment, recompense”. De dhíolaíocht, “in return (for it)”.
dó’: “hope, expectation; source of expectation”, or dóigh in GCh. This occurred as dóich in the original, but is edited as dó’ here, in line with the pronunciation. Is dó’ liom, “I think”.
doicheall: “churlishness”, pronounced /dohəl/.
Donncha Dí: this appears to be an incorrect rendering of the Co. Down placename, Donaghadee, which is the easternmost point of the Irish mainland. The correct Irish form is Dómhnach Daoi, “Daoi’s church”. The phrase “from Donaghadee to Tigh Mháire” refers to the eastern and western extremities of Ireland. See also Tigh Mháire.
dúil: “desire”; dúil i rud (agat), “desire for something”. The genitive is given as dúla here, where GCh has dúile.
éaghmais: “absence, lack”, or éagmais in GCh. Dá éaghmais sin, “besides that, furthermore”.
earra: “article, thing”, a word that is feminine here, but masculine in GCh. The original spelling, aradh, may indicate that this word does not slenderise a preceding consonant (as in an earra). Is maith an earra a tháinig as, “what came out of it turned out to be good”.
eascraím, eascairt: “to spring, shoot up, sprout”. PSD has eascraim, eascradh/eascar; I am not sure what forms PUL would have had in his Irish as I have not found attestation other than the quotation of this poem here. Pronounced /ɑskə’riːmʹ, ɑskirtʹ/.
fá, faoi: “under”. These would normally be in WM Irish, but PUL uses the more broadly accepted form here. Faoi dheireadh thiar thall, “at long last”. See also under leath.
feis: “festival”. Feis na Gaelainne, “Irish-language festival”.
fiaile: “weeds”.
folach: “act of hiding”, pronounced /fə’lɑx/.
foláramh: “warning; notice”, or foláireamh in GCh. Pronounced /flɑ:rəv/.
formad: “envy”, pronounced /forəməd/. Formad le chéile, “to rival/vie/compete with other other”.
gabhaim, gabháil: “to go, take”, with many subsidiary meanings. Rud do ghabháil let ais, “to understake something”. The conditional of this verb is aligned with that of gheibhim, fáil, i.e as gheóbhadh, in the absolute at any rate (the conditional of gheibhim, fáil becomes ní bhfaigheadh in the dependent). Ní gheóbhad is the future tense here, reflecting a similar development to the conditional. Pronounced /goumʹ, gvɑːlʹ/.
gealach: “moon”, pronounced /gʹə’lɑx/.
gearánaim, gearán: “to complain”. The verbal adjective is used in ní gearánta dhúinn, “we have no cause for complaint, we should not complain”. Pronounced /grʹɑ:nimʹ, grʹɑ:nˌ grʹɑ:ntə/.
geinim, giniúint: “to beget, give birth to”. Often used in the autonomous preterite. Geineadh is transcribed geneag in the Letiriú Shímplí editions of PUL’s works, and there may be an /e/ in this word in order to differentiate the lenited version of the work from forms of the verb deinim, déanamh.
glan: “clean”, but also an intensifier: loitithe glan, “totally ruined, spoilt, destroyed”.
greadaim, greadadh: “to strike, thump”.
guth: “voice”, but also “the register” of music or of singing voices.
hurá: “hurrah!” PSD has husá.
inniu: “today”, /i’nʹuv/. The final consonant heard in the pronunciation is left untranscribed, as it was not indicated in the historical orthography and is not indicated in the spelling adopted in GCh. The spelling aniogh was found in the works of Seathrún Céitinn. The original spelling given here was andiu.
ínsim, ínsint: “to tell”, or insím, insint in GCh.
ionad: “unit”. PUL uses the form adopted in GCh here, where his other works used inead. Ionad cónaithe, “residence, a place where someone lives; address”.
ionúin: “dear, beloved”.
iúnadh: “wonder, surprise”, ionadh. Pronounced /u:nə/.
lachna: “dull grey, dun”, glossed as “yellow” in the translation given in Irisleabhar na Gaedhilge.
lacht: if I have correctly identified this word, it means “the yield of milk”, and by extension “a large amount or load of something”. Lacht luinge, “shipload”.
le chéile: “steadily, by degrees”.
leanbh: “child”, pronounced /lʹanəv/.
léas: “glimmer, ray”. Gan léas eólais ar, “without the slightest knowledge of something”.
leath: “side”. Fá leith, “special separate”, which is generally found as fé leith in WM Irish.
Léim an chapaill: possibly Fánán Léim an Chapaill (“horseleap slip”) in Co. Kilkenny, or a minor placename elsewhere in Munster.
leitir: “letter”, pronounced /lʹetʹirʹ/. This was litir in the original, which form is adopted in GCh. In the older orthography there was a distinction between litir, “letter”, and leitir, “the side of a hill”, which have collapsed together in WM Irish.
Liam: I’m not sure who the Liam being referred to is, unless to the author of the song. In any case, Liam is indeclinable in Irish as an abbreviation of a foreign name.
línn: “period”, or linn in GCh. Note the long vowel here, /lʹi:ŋʹ/, whereas linn, “with us”, has a short vowel, /lʹiŋʹ/.
long: “ship”, with luinge in the genitive. Pronounced /lu:ŋg, liŋʹi/.
Mainistir Ínse: this is possibly Monaincha, properly Mainistir Ínse na mBeó (“monastery of the island of the living”), a monastery founded on an island near Roscrea in Co. Tipperary.
Mala: Mallow, Co. Cork, a corruption of the original Magh nAla (“plain of the rock”).
mar dhea: a phrase meaning “as if, supposedly, as it were”. Probably derived from mar bh’ea. Pronounced /mɑr ‘ja:/.
marcach: “rider, horseman”, pronounced /mər’kɑx/.
mart: “slaughtered cow; a cow fattened for its meat”.
masla: “insult, abuse”.
me: disjunctive form of the first-person pronoun, pronounced /mʹe/ (or /mʹi/ through raising of the vowel in the vicinity of a nasal cononant). Always in GCh.
meadar: “wooden pail”, with meadracha in the plural. Pronounced /mʹadər, mʹadərəxə/.
méid: “amount”. Méid frequently resists lenition in PUL’s works: sa méid sin, “that, all that, that much, etc”. An méid seo, “this much; this”.
méirleach: “robber, villain, bandit”, a word that is also found as sméirle in PUL’s Irish.
méith: “fat, juicy”. Méithmhart, “fattened beef”.
Micheál Cíosóg: properly Micheál Ó Cíosóg, or Michael Cusack (1847-1906), a native of Co. Clare born to Irish-speaking parents who founded the Gaelic Athletic Association and became involved in the Gaelic League.
míchlú: “ill-repute”.
mó: “many (a)”, adjusted from iomdha in the original text.
molaim, moladh: “to praise”. Rud atá molta don Mhúmhain, “something for which Munster is praised”.
múchaim, múchadh: “to extinguish, stifle”.
Muímhneach: “Munsterman”, pronounced /miːnʹəx/.
Muímhneach: “pertaining to Munster”, as an adjective.
Muiris Ó hÉalaithe: I haven’t been able to find out anything about this person, other than to note that Ó hÉalaithe is a surname associated with Muskerry.
Múmhain (an Mhúmhain): Munster, with
Múmhan (na Múmhan) in
the genitive. PUL uses Gaelainn Múmhan, without the article, although Gaelainn na Múmhan is also correct. These forms are pronounced /muːnʹ, ən vuːnʹ; muːn, nə muːn/.
muna:
“if not, unless”. This becomes munab before a vowel. Mara/marab and mura/murab are more generally found in PUL’s works.
nách: the negative dependent particle used with the copula, or nach in GCh, /nɑ:x/. PUL also uses nách here, with eclipsis” for the negative dependent particle used with other verbs, which is generally in WM Irish, thus writing nach b-fhuil, edited here as nách bhfuil, where ná fuil would be more natural in the dialect.
nú: “or”, or in GCh.
ó shin i leith: “from
that day till now”.
oibrím, oibriú: “to work, operate”. Pronounced /ebʹi’rʹi:mʹ, ebʹi’rʹu:/. Do pháirt a dh’oibriú, “to play your part”.
os cionn: “above”. Pronounced /ɑs kʹu:n/.
os cómhair: “in front of”. Pronounced /ɑs ko:rʹ/.
páirt: “part”, also in the sense of taking sides with someone. Labhairt na páirt, “to speak up for it, in support of it”.
píopa: “pipe, butt”, a measure equivalent to 105 imperial gallons.
preabach: “an act of jumping, starting, bounding”, becoming ag preabaigh in the dative. This word is not found in dictionaries, and the version of the song cited here given in Irisleabhar na Gaedhilge has ag preabadh and not ag preabaigh. Assuming this word to really exist, it would be pronounced /prʹə’bɑx, ə ‘prɑbigʹ/.
púnc: “point”, or ponc in GCh.Púnc do réiteach, “to sort something out, deal with a point”.
riail: “rule”, with rialta in the plural here where GCh has rialacha. Rialta is an adjective meaning “regular” in GCh.
rudaire: “knight”, or ridire in GCh. This was also given as ridire in the original, but PUL told Osborn Bergin that /rodirʹi/ was the correct pronunciation of this word.
saoráid: “ease, facility”. Pronounced /səi’rɑːdʹ/.
scrí’m, scrí’: “to write”, or scríobhaim, scríobh in GCh. The preterite has a slender v (or a slender g) in the singular: do scríbh, /ʃkrʹi:vʹ~ʃkrʹi:gʹ/. PUL used the classical spelling sgríobh in the original. Note the past participle scríofa, where some writers have scrite.
searrach: “foal”, pronounced /ʃə’rɑx/.
sínsear: “ancestor”, or sinsear in GCh. This word was traditionally spelt sinnsear, and had a long /i:/ in WM Irish. The singular form can have collective meaning, “ancestors”.
Sir Edward O’Brien: the name of two Irish politicians. I am unsure which is the person intended here. Sir Edward O’Brien, 2nd baronet of Leaghmenagh in Co. Clare represented Co. Clare in the Irish House of Commons from 1727 until his death in 1765. His grandson by the same name was the 4th baronet, a man who died in 1837.
slí: “way”. Ó tá an tslí agam appears to mean “since I have the means to do so”, but maybe it means “since I have the opportunity/inclination/time to do so”. More research required here.
srian: “reins of a horse”, with srianta in the plural.
taithneann, taithneamh: “to be pleasing to; to shine”, taitníonn, taitneamh in GCh. Generally in the first declension in PUL’s works, pronounced /taŋʹhən, taŋʹhəv/. The preterite, thaitin in GCh, is edited as thaithn here, pronounced /haŋʹ/. Do thaithn liom é, “I liked it”.
tara: “vigorous”, a word given in PSD as taradh. There doesn’t seem to be an equivalent word in FGB.
tarcaisne: “scorn, contempt, insult”.
teanga: “language”, with teangain in the dative.
téim, dul: “to go”. Rud do dhul duit, “to be accorded something (e.g. respect)” or “to be due or to deserve something”; both meanings are found in the text here.
Tigh Mháire: this appears to be PUL’s incorrect rendering of Tigh Mhóire, a place on Dunmore Head, Co. Kerry. The phrase “from Donaghadee to Tigh Mháire” refers to the eastern and western extremities of Ireland. See also Donncha Dí.
tionnscnaím, tionnscnú: “to begin, initiate”, or tionscnaím, tionscnamh in GCh. Possibly pronounced /tʹuːskə’niːmʹ, tʹuːskə’nuː/.
tón: “bottom”, with tóin in the dative, which form is adopted as the nominative in GCh.
trioblóid: “trouble”, pronounced /trʹubə’lo:dʹ/.
trua: “pity”. The genitive here is edited as trua, where the original text had truaighe, which would yield the same pronunciation. Traditionally the genitive was written truaighe or truagha.
trúpa: “troop”.
tugaim, tabhairt: “to give; to spend (of time)”. The verbal adjective here is tabhartha, where GCh has tugtha.
tuigim, tuiscint: “to understand”. Do tuigeadh dom, “I realised”.
tuile: “flood”.
uaigneach: “lonely, desolate”, pronounced /uəgʹinʹəx/.
uasal: “noble”. This word seems to be used as a suffix meaning “Mr.” or “Esq.” here.
Uilliam Buingeán: the name of an Irish poet, but I have not been able to find anything out about him. The name looks like it could be William Bingham.
Ultach: “Ulsterman”, pronounced /oulhəx/.

4 thoughts on “A letter by PUL on the establishment of an Irish school in Cork 1894

  1. Lean ort agus maith thú – ana shimiúl ar fad! Ach ní gath duit beidh ag éirí tógtha mar gheall ar an CO. Is drochrud riachtanach é. Ach pe sceal é bhainim a lán taitneamh as.

  2. Ana-shuimiúil. Táim féin im’ chónaí i Mainistir Fhear Maí agus is iar-scoláire Choláiste Cholmáin mé, mar a bhí an t-Athair Ua Laoghaire. Ar thángais riamh ar “Magh Eala” mar ainim eile do Mhala?

  3. A Eóghain! Tá ‘ fhios agam go bhfuil an tuairim ann ag a lán daoine gur “Magh Ealla” (plain of swans) fuirm thradisiúnta ar Mhala, ach chómh fada agus a thuigimse an scéal do fuaradh an fhuirm seo i láimhscríbhinníbh Uladh na 17ú haoise déag, agus ná tuigidís na hUltaigh sin i gceart cad is brí leis an ainm, agus ‘na dhiaidh san do thosnaigh a lán daoine ar “Magh Ealla” do scrí’ chómh maith leó san, bíodh ná raibh an ceart acu sa scéal in aon chor…

  4. Go raibh maith agat, tá sé sin ana-shuimiúil! Lean ort leis an obair, bainim ard-shásamh as ‘bheith ag léamh scríbhneoireacht Uí Laoghaire, do b’áille an Ghaelainn a bhí aige.

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