Notes on the LS of Aesop

In the preface, it is specifically stated that Osborn Bergin is aiming to show the pronunciation of the generation of the 1850s.
Some words have alternatives:
* dálta can be /dɑːltə/ or /dɑːlhə/, and all similar words exhibit the same choice.
* seisean can be /ʃiʃən/ or /ʃeʃən/.
* gach éinne can be /gə xeːŋʹi/ or /gɑh eːŋʹi/.
* tíormaigh can be /trʹimigʹ/ or /tʹiːrmigʹ/.
* i rachtaibh/i riochtaibh can be /ə rɑxtivʹ/ or /ə ruxtivʹ/.
* Usage varies regarding the article in ar an mbórd, which may be /erʹ ə moːrd/.
Osborn Bergin also points out that final vowels are often and regularly elided before vowels:
* duine acu: /dinʹ ə’ku/.
* ag faire orthu: /ə farʹ orhə/.
* agus me im chodladh: /ɑgəs mʹəm xolə/.
Fluent readers should elide as shown above.

Chapters 1-5
roimh: transcribed as /rimʹ/, although I prefer to let roimh stand where it is found in the original.
fabhaill: transcribed as /foulʹ/ – I think there is great confusion between /ou/ and /au/ in WM Irish. /ou/ is found in labhair and a few words, and I believe both Osborn Bergin and Shán Ó Cuív overused /ou/. Here /faulʹ/ would be better.
chómhachtaibh: transcribed as /xoːx’tiːvʹ/, but as PUL had cómhachta and not cómhachtaí in the plural, I believe it is better to let dative plural ends whether long or short, stand as they were in the original text.
dá, ‘ghá: Bergin transcribes +the verbal noun as /dɑː/ and ‘ghá+the verbal noun as /ɑː/. Both are generally /ɑː/ in Irish today, although there may have been some use of /dɑː/, which is etymologically unsound. I transcribe as and dhá in my editions
shuigh sé: one of the few verbs that has an audible g in the preterite, /higʹ ʃeː/.
á rá, ag rá: with a slender r, /ɑː rʹɑː, ə rʹɑː/.
árdliaigh: I had thought it was pronounced with a broad g, but Bergin has /ɑːrd-lʹiə/.
aige: Bergin has /igʹ’i/.
gearánta: Bergin has /gʹi’rɑːntə/; I assumed the first vowel would be omitted and the g slenderised.
gcurfá: /gər’fɑː/. It seems PUL had a broad r in this word.
fheabhas: /ous/, where /au/ would be better.
beirthe: /bʹerhə/, with a broad r.
tar: /tɑr/ where tair, with a slender r, is widely attested as the local form.
ioscad ghaoil: transcribed “iosgad guíl”, possibly /iskəd giːlʹ/, but it is not clear why Bergin has removed lenition here.
is geárr: /iʃ gʹaːr/, but I am not sure it is correct to slenderise the s other than before third-person pronouns.
do rug: /də rʹug/ with a slender r.
cá: transcribed /ka/ with no long a, but this may be a typographical error.
an t-iománaí: /ən tʹu’mɑːniː/. I am wondering if a slender t provides a contrast with the apparently broad t of tiománaí.
marófar: /mə’roːfər/, where the slender r seems wrong, but the r was written slender in the original text. Maróidís in fable 6 has the same problem, showing this is no one-off mistranscription.
dtosnaímís: /dosə’niːmʹiːʃ/, where the epenthetic vowel seem wrong, unless Bergin heard that from some speakers.
mar seo: /mɑrʹ ʃo/, where the r is given as slender. And the same thing elsewhere in this text for mar sin.
imbriathar: spelt am briathar in the original and transcribed as if /əm brʹiahər/. It may be that the labial consonants m an b remain broad despite the slender r, and that ambriathar would be a better spelling?
do ghnó féin dein: /də ɣnoː fʹeːnʹ dʹeːnʹ/, as if the imperative dein is ossified in this proverb.
seabhac: /ʃouk/, where once again /au/ would be better.

Chapters 6-10
géill: hostages, transcribed as /gʹeːlʹ/. Yet I am left wondering whether gill would not be a better plural of geall, but the fact that the original glossary claimed the singular was giall may provide the answer here.
inníor: transcribed as /iː’ŋʹiːr/, but the length of the first vowel seems erroneous, conflicting with IWM.
thúirlic: the past tense of túirleacan is transcribed as if /huːrlʹigʹ/, resolving a long-standing query of mine as to the pronunciation. However, the context is thúirlig an phiast, and in fable 18 below thúirlic sí is transcribed /huːrlʹikʹ ʃeː/.
chruaigh sé sa ghadaíocht: /xruəgʹ ʃeː/.
gcroich, croiche: shown as /groh, crohi/, but I am wondering if /i/ pronunciations are also possible here.

Chapters 11-12
saighead: pronounced /siːd/ here, but I am thinking /səid/ may be a better transcription.
shraing: prounounced /hriːŋʹ/ here, but I am thinking /hriːŋgʹ/ is a better transcription.
urchair: transcribed as if /urəxirʹ/, but IWM has /ruxirʹ/ for this word. I suppose it depends on how quickly the first u is pronounced.

doimhneas: /doŋʹəs/, where /deŋʹəs/ is also possible.
agead chlaínn: transcribed as agat’chluíng, implying /igʹət xliːŋʹ/, i.e., the ch devoices the d of agead.
tar éis: /trʹeːʃ/.


abha: /ou/, where /au/ would have been the better transcription.
sula: Osborn Bergin transcribes as /sɑrə/.
cuilith: transcribed as /kilʹihi/, which conforms better to the accepted form cuilithe.
chosnóidh: /xosə’noː/ with an epenthentic vowel.
stoirm: transcribed as sdoirim, which implies a pronunciation /storʹimʹ/ with an o.
i riochtaibh: transcribed as if /ə rɑxtivʹ/, and i reachtaibh is a possible variant.

croiceann: transcribed as if /krokʹən/, where /krekʹən/ is also possible.
uime: transcribed as if /imʹ’i/, with the accent on the second i.
ná rug: transcribed as /nɑː rʹug/, and I would like to check that the r is definitely slender even in non-lenitable circumstances.


deól: transcribed as if from deol, possible a mistranscription.


os cómhair: transcribed as as côir, showing that os is or can be pronounced /ɑs/, although IWM shows /os/.
abhal: transcribed as if úll, showing that even if spelt abhal, as the traditional spelling, this is the same as ubhall or úll.
dias: transcribed as if dias (and not lias), showing that replacing d by l was not universal.
inead: transcribed as if from ionad here.
poillín: transcribed as pouilín, but I think this a mistranscription, although poll is definitely /poul/.
aoibhneas: transcribed as ívneas, without an epenthetic vowel between the v and the n. This seems a mistranscription, as shown in IWM.
doircheacht: transcribed as doirihacht, which seems to show the pronunciation is with an o.
ollbhúirth: transcribed as alavúirh, and I am wondering if oll- as a prefix is generally pronounced /ɑl(ə)/.
ghlam: transcribed as ghlaum, indicating the diphthong.
uallfairte: transcirbed as ulhirti, and ulfairte was found in the original text. I would like further confirmation that there is no diphthong in the first syllable.
ní beag liomsa dhe:  transcribed /ní beog lium-sa ghe/, which may show that ní beag liom doesn’t have to be /nʹiː bʹe lʹum/.

coileán an mhada ruaidh: pronounced cuileán a vada rueg, showing that ruaidh is pronounced with a slender g.
den altóir: transcribed do’n altóir, showing that den is don in pronunciation, but transcription like this is not consistent.
thúirling sí: transcribed as húirlic shí ( see also comment in ch 6-10 above): I am wondering if it is normally húirlig and húirlic before shí as the g is devoiced.
oinigh: transcribed oinig, implying the first vowel is o.
folláin: transcribed as fuláin, but better without the first vowel at all, fláin.


ar ghálaibh aonair: transcribed as er ghaluiv änuir, indicating correctly there should not have been a long á in the original.
luachra: transcribed as luachra, with no sign of an epenthetic.


tirim: transcribed as trim.
thiormaigh: transcribed as hriumuig, but híormuig would also be possible.
ionfhuar: transcribed as onuar.
táim dhom loscadh le tart: transcribed as táim am losga le tart, and I am very dubious over the authenticity of this dhom.

roinneamair: transcribed as roingeamuir as if there were no diphthong in the first syllable. I need more evidence on this one.
abhac: transcribed as ouc, where auc would be better, reflecting a continual confusion over whether /au/ or /ou/ is the vowel in such words. I assume that Brian Ó Cuív had it right in IWM that most of these are /au/, but there are some words like leabhar that have /ou/.

martaol: transcribed as mairtäl, but looking at the transcription in CFBB, there would be no need for the slender r here.
thíormaigh:  transcribed as hriuma, and I think this is the more dialectal form than híorma.
taispeánadh: tisbeánag with slender t.
taighde: transcribed as tuídi, where Shán Ó Cuív uses the transcription tayidi in this LS edition of Séadna.
fomoraigh: transcribed as fouruig, but the m is not lenited in the original text or the glossary there to. Even so, fomhóraigh is the form in Ó Dónaill’s dictionary.
trioblóid:  transcribed triubalóid, showing the epenthetic vowel, but I am still a little unclear as to the first vowel.  Paragraph 315 of IWM may imply /ə/.
tsaibhris: transcribed as toivirish, because LS finds it hard to show an /e/ after a broad consonant (see roiv for raibh).

corrán: transcribed corán, although I believe this would be better as crán.
dhruid: transcribed as ghrid, and Shán Ó Cuív also uses similar transcription in his LS version of Séadna, and I have only just realised that IWM also shows the first d in druid is slender.
ceannrach: transcribed as ceaunrach, but I would go with Brian Ó Cuív’s transcription in IWM showing deletion of the n.
a chonách air é: transcribed as chnách er é, confirming the elision of the o.

gídh gur: transcribed as cé gur. I think gídh gur is an older form, but in my view if it is so written, it would be better to pronounce it that way to show the archaism.
dtigheadh: transcribed as díoch, this is the older form of dtagadh.
ollphiast: transcribed as olafiast, this shows that oll- is followed by a vowel, but the quality of the vowel is shown here as /o/, and not the /ɑ/ indicated above in ollbhúirth.
air sean: transcribed as er shon, but I think air sin in the correct interpretation of this, and the sean here is some kind of cleaving towards more classical norms.

nothing exceptional


gairgeach: transcribed as goirigeach, probably indicating an i in the first syllable.
a ‘nín ó: transcribed as a nín ó, confirming that the feminine noun iníon is aligned with the masculine declension in the vocative, at least in so far as it is slenderised.
maróinn: transcribed as maireóing, but this appears to be a constant mistake in LS to put a slender r in this word and its cognates.


ruaidh: transcribed rueg in the genitive.
rugadh: transcribed rugag, as the autonomous does not take lenition
scoileann: transcribed sgoileann, with no sign of an h (scoiltim is also possible).
leamhán: transcribed liován.


ghlaeigh sé: transcribed ghlaeg shé, showing the g.
scéidh sé: transcribed shgég shé, showing the g is pronounced.
sháigh sé: transcribed háig shé, showing the g is pronounced.


an ghaoith: gaoith as a nominative is transcribed here as gäh.
fhulag: transcribed as ulag, although olag would be possible too.
scuainne: transcribed as sguenhi, where I had expected sguengi.
dhúinne: transcribed as ghúing-na.
anois: transcribed as inìsh, but it seems a mistake to put a slender n in here.
dtigeann: transcribed as dtagan, although the older form was not wrong.
i ndiaidh na fearthana: transcribed a nie na fearhana, and the -dh should be deleted in pronunciation before na.


in aghaidh an lae: transcribed as a nay ‘n lä showing the -dh should be deleted before the article.


sula: transcribed as sar a.
phréamhaigh sé: transcribed as friàvuig shé, but the presence of the g seems a mistake.
loirgnibh: transcribed as loiriginiv, whereas the LS edition of Séadna transcribed this word as loraganuiv. I assume Osborn Bergin has it right here.
shlinnibh: transcribed as hlíngiv, but I would like to check the length of the vowel, as I believe the addition of a syllable in the dative should shorten it.
sceímhealaibh: transcribed as shgiviàluiv, but IWM gave the pronunciation of sceímheal as /ʃkʹiːl/.


faoiseamh: transcribed as fäshav. I hadn’t spotted it before, but IWM also concurs in this, and so the original spelling is misleading.

34 – nothing exceptional.


greadadh chút, mar ghaoith: transcribed greada chút, mar ghäth, but it seems correct to use the dative here.
leagthí: transcribed as leagtí, but autonomous endings were often with th, and I prefer to leave them as is where th occurs in original texts.


peoca: the transcription pé ‘cu doesn’t really attempt to give the pronunciation.
munab: transcribed as marab.


gliocas: transcribed as gliucas, implying a u.
curtar: transcribed as curtar, confirming this pronunciation as against cuirtar.

38, 39 – nothing exceptional.


Tair: transcribed as tar, which was probably the original spelling, but not the local form.


me féin: transcribed mi hén whereas thu féin earlier in the sentence was hu fén.
mhuineál: transcribed as vuineál, whereas CFBB shows this should have a slender m.
tslabhra: transcribed tloura, with the constant confusion of /au/ and /ou/ in LS.
churfá: transcribed chuirfá, but it seems from the general spelling in PUL’s works that chuirfá is better.
réidh: transcribed , but seems mistaken.


ghearán: transcribed ghreán.
do tánathas: transcribed do hánahas, and I had been dubious about tánathas, as irregular verbs are normally lenited in the autonomous.
choisíocht: transcribed chushycht, but it seems there is an o here.


líntibh: transcribed as líontuiv.
ó chiainibh: transcribed as ó chianuiv, but this is not the local form.


gcosnóidís: gosanóidísh, with an epenthetic.
mharódh: transcribed vaireóch, but  the slender r is wrong.
led chluais: transcribed let chluesh, as the ch would devoice the d of led.


giob: pronounced giub.
fógra: an epenthetic vowel is not shown.
shampla: transcribed as houmpala, but, apart from the ou/au problem, the LS of PUL’s An Teagasg Críostaidhe does not show an epenthetic vowel.
beirthe: transcribed bèarha, and maybe I should write bertha, lest beirthe be confused for beirithe.
dtairrigthear: transcribed as dtaruigtear.
éascacht: trasncribed as iasgacht, but this seems a mistake, as IWM says éasca is /e:skə/.
casachtach: the transcription shows this is accented on the middle syllable.
is amhlaidh mar atá an scéal: amhlaidh is pronounced amhla in this phrase.


shiopa: transcribed hupa, ie without the slender ch sound that lenited slender s sometimes, but not always, gives.

47 – nothing exceptional.


caismirt: I thought this had an epenthetic vowel, but none is shown.
mórán: this is transcribed as mórán, aligning with the transcription in IWM that shows a long vowel in this word. Yet Brian Ó Cuív uses muarán in his CFBB.


údhálta: this is transcribed as if pronounced údhálta here, but two varying transcriptions in the LS edition of Séadna indicate variously údhalta and úáltha. More research required here.


phlaoisc: pronounced /fliːʃkʹ/ (I had wondered whether the long e sound of the nominative would be kept).

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