Catilína 30

XXX.

Tar éis beagán laethanta do léigh an fear seanaide, L. Saenius, os cómhair na seanaide, leitir aduairt sé a tháinig chuige ó Fhaesulae. Bhí curtha síos sa leitir sin go raibh C. Manlius tar éis arm a ghlacadh an séú lá roim Chalainn September agus go raibh mórshlua aige. Ansan do thit amach an rud is gnáth ’na leithéid de chás. Daoine dhá rá go bhfeacthas míorúiltí agus iúnaí saeil. Daoine eile dhá rá go raibh slóite dá gcruinniú agus armáil á ollmhú i gCapua agus in Apulia, agus go raibh daoraicme na cathrach dá ngléasadh chun cogaidh. As san do chin an tseanaid Q. Marcíus Rex do dhul go Faesulae agus Q. Metelus Creticus do dhul go hApulia agus chun na tíre mórthímpall. Ceann airm lasmu’ den chathair ab ea gach fear acu san. Do coisceadh gach fear acu ar onóir madhma ’ dh’fháil, trí chúlchainnt a dhein roinnt daoine orthu, daoine a dhíolfadh an t-olc agus an mhaith ar bhreib. Do cuireadh Q. Pompéius Rufus go Capua ’na phraetóir agus Q. Metelus Celer go tír Phicénum ’na phraetóir, agus do ceadaíodh dóibh sin slógadh do dhéanamh de réir mar ba ghá. Ansan do gealladh luacht saothair d’éinne ’ thabharfadh eólas uaidh ar ghnó na ceilge a bhí ar siúl in aghaidh an stáit. Dá mba dhaor é bhí a fhuascailt a daoirse le fáil aige agus céad sestertia, rud éigin fé bhun naoi gcéad púnt. Dá mba shaor é bhí dhá chéad sestertia le fáil aige agus má bí sé féin sa cheilg an choir sin a mhaitheamh do. Do cuireadh na gladiatóirí as an gcathair amach agus b’éigean dóibh iad féin do roinnt i measc Capua agus na saorbhailte, de réir a ngustail. Do ceapadh lucht faire ar fuid na cathrach agus do cuireadh na miontaoisigh os a gcionn.

Foclóirín

caileann: “calends; the first of the month”. The Romans counted both forwards and backwards from the calends of the month. An séú lá roim Chalainn September appears to be a mistake in the translation for the original ante diem VI. Kalendas Novembres, “the sixth day before the calends of November, i.e. October 27th, counting inclusively at both ends”. PUL’s original spelling of the dative is Challainn here, with a double l. However, it seems caileann has a single l, and only becomes caille (Lá Caille, “New Year’s Day”), through assimilation of the n to the l (cailne >caille; see also áille, the comparative of álainn), and so the dative should be cailinn, pronounced with a broad l, as indicated in PUL’s spelling and the Leitiriú Shímplí version of Catilína, thus producing calainn. Dinneen also shows cailinn and calainn in the dative. Caileann, caille and calainn would be pronounced /kalʹən, kilʹi, kɑliŋʹ/.
Capua: Capua, a city in southern Italy, the north of Naples.
cinim, cineadh: “to determine, decree, fix, assign”, or cinnim, cinneadh in the CO. Do chin an tseanaid Q. Marcíus Rex do dhul go Faesulae, “Q. Marcius Rex was ordered by the senate to go Faesulae”. The original text has do chinn, but the Leitiriú Shímplí edition has do chin, implying that the pronunciation is /xʹinʹ/ here; this is backed up by the entry for cinniúint in Cnósach Focal ó Bhaile Bhúirne, showing /kʹi’nʹu:ntʹ/. Further research required here. The verbal noun also needs research, and is possibly ciniúint in WM Irish.
daoirse: “slavery”. Fuascailt as daoirse, “manumission, release from slavery”.
daor: “slave”.
daoraicme: “slave class”.
gladiatóir: “gladiator, fighters who provided entertainment in ancient Rome”. Dinneen has gladaire for “gladiator”, and Ó Dónaill has gliaire, but PUL generally eschews made-up Irish words for non-Irish concepts.
leitir: “letter”, pronounced /lʹetʹirʹ/. This would be litir in the CO, but note that in the older orthography there was a distinction between litir, “letter”, and leitir, “the side of a hill”, which have collapsed together in WM Irish.
luacht saothair: “reward”, or luach saothair in the CO. Both forms are found in PUL’s works.
maidhm: “burst, eruption”, but also “battle, rout”. Note madhma here in genitive, where the CO has maidhme. Onóir madhma, “battle honours”. Onóir madhma dh’fháil, “to receive the honour of entering Rome in triumph”. Pronounced /məimʹ, məimə/.
miontaoiseach: “lower-level leader”, here referring to aediles, tribunes and quaestors, Roman officials below the ranks of consul, censor and praetor.
míorúilt: “miracle”, pronounced /mʹi:’ru:hlʹ/.
L. Saenius: Lucius Saenius, a senator about whom little else is known.
Q. Marcíus Rex: Quintus Marcius Rex, who had served as consul in 68 BC. He was sent in 63 BC to watch the movements of Caius Manlius, Catilina’s henchman, and refused to listen to Manlius’ offers of peace.
Q. Metelus Celer: Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer, a member of a prominent family in ancient Rome, many members of which seved as consuls, and thus a relative of Q. Metelus Creticus. Her received the surname Celer due to the celerity with which he attended to his father’s funeral. Celer held the office of praetor in 63 BC and was sent to Picenum and Gaul to raise troops against Catilina and blocked Catilina’s passage through the Appenines to Gaul. Later served as consul in 60 BC.
Q. Metelus Creticus: Quintus Caecilius Metellus Creticus, a member of a prominent family in ancient Rome, many members of which served as consuls. He served as consul in 69 BC, and later gained the surname of Creticus for his conquest of Crete for the Roman Empire.
Q. Pompéius Rufus: Quintus Pompeius Rufus, praetor in 63 BC and later governor of the Roman province of Africa in 61 BC.
saor: “a free man, someone who is not a slave”.
seanaid: “Senate”, or seanad in the CO. PUL uses the feminine form here, which is backed up by Dinneen’s dictionary, whereas the CO form is masculine. Fear seanaide, “senator”, where the CO has seanadóir.
September: PUL uses the Latin/English word here, as Meán Fhómhair would be inappropriate in the Roman context.
sestertia: a Roman unit of account. The sestertius was a Roman coin worth one-quarter of a denarius, with the sestertium (an abbreviation for sestertium mille) worth 1,000 sestertii. In the British currency (used in Ireland) before the suspension of the gold standard in 1914, 100 sestertia would have been worth £807 5s 10d, which is alluded to by PUL’s calculation that 100 sestertia were worth a little under £900. Sestertia appears as both sestertia and seistertia in the original, but sestertia has been standardised on here in line with PUL’s general principle of not gaelicising the spelling of foreign words.

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About dj1969

at the conservative end of the libertarian spectrum
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