Mo Sgéal Féin 1 (modernised spelling)

I: Mo Shínsear

Sa bhliain d’aois an Tiarna míle sé chéad a dó do briseadh cath ar Ghaelaibh agus ar an dá Aodh, Aodh Ó Néill agus Aodh Rua Ó Dónaill, in aice Chionntsáile. Bhí naoi mbliana caite an uair sin ag muíntir na hÉireann ag troid go dian i gcoinnibh a namhad ar son na hÉireann agus ar son an chreidimh, agus i gcaitheamh na naoi mblian san do rugadar bua ar na Gallaibh ins gach cath trom dár buaileadh eatarthu go dtí an briseadh sin Chionntsáile. Do loit an t-aon bhriseadh amháin sin bua na naoi mblian, agus bhí Éire fé chosaibh a namhad arís.

Ansan do ghluais an cos-ar-bolg agus an t-éirleach, agus an feall i riocht dlí, agus an t-éitheach i riocht na fírinne; na Gaeil dá ruagadh a talamh a sínsear nuair ná séanfaidís a gcreideamh, agus an talamh á thabhairt do ropairíbh iasachta anall ó Shasana agus ó Albain; go dtí gur chuir déine na héagóra ’ fhéachaint ar na Gaelaibh éirí amach arís agus iarracht eile do dhéanamh ar iad féin a chosaint ar a leithéid de léirscrios.

Daichead blian tar éis bhriseadh Chionntsáile is ea d’éiríodar amach arís. Nuair a bhí an t-éirí amach san dá bheartú is ea aduairt file éigin:—

“Bliain a daichead beidh aiteann gan síol gan bhláth,
’S an bhliain in’ aice beid Sasanaigh sínte ar lár.”

Ba ródhóbair go dtagadh an focal san fíor an uair sin. Tháinig Eóghan Rua Ó Néill, mac driothár d’Aodh Ó Néill, anall go hÉirinn, agus do cuireadh i gceannas Gael Uladh é. Fear stuama, cróga, éirimiúil, oilte ar chogadh agus ar ghnóthaíbh cogaidh, ab ea é, mar ba dhual do ’ bheith. Tháinig mórán de chlaínn na n-uasal a díbreadh tar éis bhriseadh Chionntsáile, thánadar anall ón Spáinn agus ón bhFrainnc agus ó áiteannaibh eile den Iúróip, agus níorbh fhada go raibh slóite líonmhara Gael ins gach cúig’ de chúigíbh na hÉireann, agus iad “ag seasamh a gcirt.” Do leanadar ag “seasamh a gcirt” go dtí gur dhein Eóghan Rua Ó Néill, ag an mBeinn mBorb, gníomh díreach de shaghas an ghnímh a dhein driotháir a athar agus Aodh Rua Ó Dónaill ag Béal an Átha Buí deich mbliana agus daichead roimis sin.

Bhí uaisle Gael agus Seana-Ghall cruinnithe an uair sin i gCíll Chainnigh agus iad ag déanamh dlithe agus rialta do mhuíntir na hÉireann, agus gan ar chumas mhuíntir Shasana aon chur isteach a dhéanamh orthu ná aon chosc do chur lena ngnó. Ach nuair a rug Eóghan Rua Ó Néill an bua uathásach ag an mBeinn mBorb tháinig éad ar chuid de sna huaislibh Gaelacha eile. I ndiaidh ar ndiaidh do mhéadaigh agus do leathnaigh an fuath agus an drochaigne acu dho san agus dá chéile. Tháinig easaontas, leis, sa Chómhairle, i gCíll Chainnigh, idir na Gaeil agus na Seana-Ghaíll. Dhein an namhaid gach aon dícheall, le feall agus le héitheach agus le cleasaíocht, ag séideadh fé gach taobh i gcoinnibh an taoibh eile, ag tabhairt na leathbhfabhar uathu, na nithe do thógfadh taobh agus ná tógfadh an taobh eile, go dtí gur mhó an fuath a bhí ag uaislibh na Cómhairle agus ag taoiseachaibh na sló dá chéile ná mar a bhí ag aon taobh acu don namhaid. Tar éis naoi mblian bhí an gnó san Chíll Chainnigh titithe as a chéile chómh glan agus dá mba briseadh eile mar bhriseadh Chionntsáile a bheadh tagaithe orthu. Ansan tháinig Cromwell, agus do dhein sé sin léirscrios agus éirleach agus cos-ar-bolg, ar Ghaelaibh agus ar an gcreideamh, agus ba neamhní an léirscrios a lean briseadh Chionntsáile seochas é.

Tar éis bhriseadh Chionntsáile, bíodh gur ag na Gallaibh a bhí an bua, bhí lán a gcroí d’eagla acu roimis na Gaelaibh. Mar gheall ar an eagla san dheineadar síocháin leó. Níor shíocháin dáiríribh an tsíocháin sin, áfach. Síocháin chun fíll agus chun uisce-fé-thalamh ab ea í. Ní raibh sí i bhfad déanta nuair a thosnaigh an feall. Do leog na Gaíll orthu go bhfuaradar eólas ar éirí amach eile ’ bheith beartaithe ag uaislibh na nGael i gcoinnibh na nGall agus i gcoinnibh rí Sacsan. Coir bháis ab ea an beartú san dá bhféadfí é ’ dheimhniú. Chun é ’ dheimhniú ní raibh le déanamh ach breith, ’na nduine agus ’na nduine, ar na huaislibh Gaelacha agus iad do bhreith anonn go Lúndain agus iad do thriail thall, agus dá dtabharfí ciontach iad, an chroch a thabhairt dóibh. Do thuig na huaisle Gaelacha an cleas san. Bhí ciall cheannaigh fálta acu go daingean um an dtaca san. Bhí ’ fhios acu go maith ná raibh aon choir déanta acu, ná raibh aon éirí amach beartaithe acu, ná aon chuímhneamh acu ar a leithéid; ná raibh uathu ach cead suaimhnis agus socrachta tar éis a naoi mbliana cogaidh. Ach bhí ’ fhios acu, leis, nuair a curtí dlí Shasana i bhfeidhm ar dhuine, nár chosaint don duine sin macántacht ná neamhchiontacht, go mór mór, má ba dhuine é go raibh talamh nú tiarnas nú saibhreas aige le cailliúint.

Do thuig uaisle na nGael an ní sin go maith an uair sin, agus do theitheadar a hÉirinn sara bhféadfí an cleas Gallda san a dh’imirt orthu, iad do thriail agus iad do dhaoradh agus iad do chrochadh.

Nuair a bhíodar imithe bhí áthas ar an rí agus ar na Gallaibh. Níorbh fheárr leó rud a dheineadar uaisle na nGael ná teitheadh lena n-anam. Bhí talamh breá fada fairsiog Chúig’ Uladh fágtha ’na ndiaidh acu, chómh maith díreach agus ’ bheadh sé fágtha ’na ndiaidh acu dá bhfanaidís agus go gcrochfí iad. Sin a raibh ón namhaid. Do thóg an namhaid an talamh agus do roinneadar eatarthu é.

D’imigh na huaisle Gaelacha dob aoirde an uair sin a Cúig’ Uladh. Bhí uaisle móra na Múmhan imithe roimis sin. Níor fhág san in Éirinn, thuaidh ná theas, ach na mionuaisle agus na daoine bochta. Deich mbliana agus daichead ’na dhiaidh san, nuair a críochnaíodh an léirscrios a dhein Cromwell, do deineadh iarracht mharaitheach ar shliocht Gael go léir, idir uasal agus íseal, do ghlanadh a talamh na hÉireann amach, le díbirt nú le bás. Ní ghlacfaidís an creideamh nua pé mealladh ná marú a déanfí orthu chuige. Ní ghlacfaidís é ar ais ná ar éigin. Cheap an namhaid, dá bhrí sin, ná raibh le déanamh leó ach iad do dhísciú ar fad. Bhí a chiall féin ag an namhaid sa ghnó san. Nuair a díbreadh na huaisle móra a Cúig’ Uladh, d’fhan talamh Chúig’ Uladh ag an namhaid. Dá bhféadfí sliocht Gael go léir do mharú nú do dhíbirt a hÉirinn, d’fhágfadh san talamh na hÉireann go léir ag an namhaid. Is é an talamh a bhí ón namhaid, ar scáth creidimh.

An léirscrios a lean briseadh Chionntsáile do luigh sé go trom ar uaislibh móra na nGael, ach chuaigh a lán de sna mionuaislibh saor uaidh. Ach nuair a tháinig léirscrios Chromwell do luigh sé ar an uile dhuine de shliocht na nGael, idir uasal agus íseal. Do leath sé ar fuid na dútha go léir, isteach i ngleanntaibh uaigneacha agus in áiteannaibh imigéiniúla, i dtreó nár fhéad aon áit ná aon aicme daoine dul uaidh. Daoine a bhí an uair sin ’na gcónaí in sna háiteannaibh imigéiniúla san, agus go raibh a sínsear rómpu ’na gcónaí iontu ar feadh na gcéadta blian agus na bhfichidí glún, go sámh agus go suaimhneasach, saor ó bhuaireamh agus ó chruatan na gcogaí a bhí coitianta ar siúl lasmu’ dhíobh, do shrois léirscrios Chromwell iad. Do creachadh agus do scriosadh iad. An méid nár cuireadh chun báis díobh dob éigean dóibh teitheadh lena n-anam as na seanáiteannaibh cónaithe sin, beó bocht, agus imeacht ar fuid an tsaeil.

Bhí an uair sin sa taobh thiar d’Uíbh Laeire, sa Mhúmhain, caisleán nár rómhór, agus Caisleán Charraig na Cora an ainm a bhí air. Bhí beirt driothár ’na gcónaí sa chaisleán san. Diarmaid Ó Laeire ab ainm do dhuine acu, agus Conchúr Ó Laeire ab ainm don duine eile. Do shrois an léirscrios iad. B’éigean dóibh imeacht, agus an caisleán agus an dúthaigh d’fhágáilt ag coigríoch éigin iasachta. Thánadar aneas go Baile Mhúirne. Do phós duine acu bean de mhuíntir Dhuinnín a bhí ’na cónaí ar na hUlánaibh, agus d’fhan sé ansan. De réir mar a hínseadh dom dob é sin Conchúr. Chuaigh Diarmaid soir go háit ar a dtugtí Carraig na Madraí, agus chuir sé fé ann. Tamall ’na dhiaidh san do chuaigh duine de shliocht Chonchúir ó thuaidh go Dúth’ Ealla, agus chuaigh sé chun cónaithe ar an Mullach Rua, cheithre mhíle ar an dtaobh thuaidh de Shráid an Mhuilinn, in aice Chuilinn Uí Chaoimh. Do phós sé sin bean ar a dtugtí Aoibhlín an Réileáin. Is dó’ liom gur de mhuíntir Cheallacháin gurbh ea í. Bhí mac acu san agus Conchúr ab ainm do, agus fear ana-chiallmhar, ana-stuama, ab ea é. Do phós sé bean de mhuíntir Icí, iníon do Thadhg Ó hIcí, Tadhg mhac Aindriais, a bhí ’na chónaí thiar ar an Athán, ar bruach Abhann Móire. Neill ní Taidhg a tugtí ar an inín. Bhí lán tí de chlaínn acu. Siobhán ab ainm do dhuine de sna hiníonaibh.

Bhí Diarmaid, fé mar a hínseadh dom, ’na chónaí ar Charraig na Madraí. Bhí mac aige sin agus Conchúr ab ainm do. Nuair a bhí an Conchúr san pósta agus ag déanamh do féin, bhí buachaill aimsire aige, agus Conchúr ab ainm don bhuachaill, leis, agus de mhuíntir Laeire ab ea é, agus dá dheascaibh sin, “Conchúr Máistir” agus “Conchúr Buachaill” a tugtí ar an mbeirt. Bhí clann ag an gConchúr Máistir sin, ach chómh tiubh agus a thagaidís do gheibhidís bás. Bhí sé féin agus a bhean go hana-bhuartha mar gheall air sin. Do thárla, tráth, go raibh súil le duine eile clainne acu. Bhí an t-am ag teacht, ach má bhí, do bhí an bhuairt agus an t-eagla orthu araon go n-imeódh an leanbh san fé mar ’ imigh an chuid eile a tháinig roimis. Bhí an bhuairt agus an t-eagla ar an máthair chómh mór san gur bhaol, dá mba ná beadh aon chúis eile chun na díobhála ’ dhéanamh, nár bheag an bhuairt aigne chuige. Roinnt laethanta sara dtáinig an t-am chun na clainne ’ theacht, do bhuail chúthu an doras isteach bean ná feacaigh éinne acu riamh roimis sin. D’fhiafraigh fear an tí dhi cárbh as í.

“Thánag i bhfad ó bhaile anso chúibh,” ar sise, “aduaidh ó Chíll Dara.”

Ansan d’fhéach sí ar an mnaoi.

“Ná bíodh aon bhuairt ná aon eagal ort an turas so,” ar sise. “Mairfidh an té atá ag teacht anois, ach is ar aon choinníll amháin é,” ar sise. “Tugtar ainm chúil le cine air, agus mairfidh sé.”

Nuair a bhí an méid sin ráite aici d’imigh sí uathu an doras amach, agus ní fheacaigh éinne í, beó ná marbh, san áit ’na dhiaidh san.

Níorbh fhada go dtáinig an chlann; mac óg. Conchúr nú Diarmaid nú Art nú Céadach nú Fear, na hainmneacha do bhain leis an gcine; ach do tugadh Barnabí ar an mac san, ainm nár hairíodh riamh roimis sin ar éinne de mhuíntir Laeire. Tháinig mac eile ’na dhiaidh. Do leanadh ar an gcúl le cine, agus do tugadh Peadar mar ainm air. Do mhair an bheirt, agus do dhein fir mhóra mhaithe dhíobh. Do phós Barnabí agus bhí beirt mhac aige. Thug sé Diarmaid ar dhuine acu, in ainneóin an chúil le cine, agus thug sé Peadar ar an mac eile, ainm a dhriothár.

Nuair a bhí an bheirt mhac san éirithe suas b’éigean do Bharnabí imeacht ó Charraig na Madraí. Níor fhéadas riamh a dhéanamh amach cad é an chúis.

San am gcéanna san bhí ’na chónaí thuaidh ar Ghleann Daimh, ag bun Mhullach an Ois, fear ’narbh ainm do Diarmaid Ó Tuathaigh. Bhí beirt iníon aige, Siobhán Ní Thuathaigh agus Máire Ní Thuathaigh. Tá ar an dtaobh theas de Ghleann Daimh baile gurb é ainm atá air ná Lios Caragáin. Bhí an baile sin ’na thalamh in áirde le línn Bharnabí Uí Laeire agus a bheirt mhac a bheith ag imeacht ó Charraig na Madraí. Do thóg Diarmaid Ó Tuathaigh an talamh san a bhí in áirde, agus dhein sé dhá fheirm de, agus thug sé an dá fheirm dá bheirt iníon, do Shiobhán agus do Mháire. Bhí meas ana-mhór aige ar bheirt mhac Bharnabí Uí Laeire. Dhein sé dhá chleamhnas leó. Thug sé Siobhán do Dhiarmaid agus thug sé Máire do Pheadar, agus chuir sé isteach sa dá fheirm ar Lios Caragáin iad chun cónaithe. Bhí féar bó agus fiche ins gach feirm díobh, agus bhí an dá lánúin óg láidir, ábalta ar pé tairbhe a bhí sa talamh do bhaint as. Níor thalamh maith é. Talamh fiain fliuch ab ea an chuid ba mhó dhe. Ach do tógadh dhá lín tí mhóra mhaithe chreidiúnacha air. Bhí lán tí de chlaínn ag gach lánúin acu. Bhí chúig dhuine dhéag nú sé dhuine dhéag clainne ag Peadar agus ag Máire Ní Thuathaigh. Diarmaid ab ainm don mhac ba shine a bhí ag Peadar.

Nuair a tháinig an t-am chuige do tráchtadh ar chleamhnas idir an Diarmaid sin agus Siobhán Ní Laeire, an iníon úd Chonchúir Uí Laeire a bhí an uair sin ’na chónaí thuaidh ar an Mullach Rua, in aice Chuilinn Uí Chaoimh. Do tuigeadh gur mhaith an cleamhnas le déanamh é. Do tuigeadh, leis, go raibh an gaol ann, agus go mb’fhéidir nárbh fholáir col do réiteach sara ndéanfí an pósadh. Do cómhairíodh an gaol, ar an dá thaobh, siar go dtí an bheirt driothár, Diarmaid Óg agus Conchúr Ó Laeire, an bheirt úd a díbreadh a Caisleán Charraig na Cora; agus do fuaradh, ón gcómhaireamh, go raibh an gaol, ar gach taobh, níba shia amach ná an cúigiú glúin. Do deineadh an cleamhnas. Do pósadh Diarmaid Rua Ó Laeire, mac do Pheadar Ó Laeire agus do Mháire Ní Thuathaigh ar Lios Caragáin, le Siobhán Ní Laeire, iníon do Chonchúr Ó Laeire agus do Neill Ní Icí, a bhí ar an Mullach Rua. Sa bhliain d’aois an Tiarna míle ocht gcéad tríochad a naoi, bhí mac ag an mbeirt sin. Mise an mac san.

Nótaí

Daichead blian tar éis bhriseadh Chionntsáile is ea d’éiríodar amach arís: note the present tense is ea. Normally the copula would be present-tense in such sentences, regardless of the tense in the main clause. PUL explained in Papers on Irish Idiom that is ea was used where the fact remained true, but that ab ea could be used if the original fact no longer obtained.
Beid Sasanaigh: PUL used the plural form of the verb when governed by nouns in the present and future tenses, and occasionally in the past tense. Beidh Sasanaigh would be more normal nowadays. Also note similar usage with the third-person plural pronoun (táid siad, beid siad) throughout PUL’s works.
Ag an mBeinn mBorb: eclipsis of the adjective in the dative is a noted feature of West Muskerry Irish. Such usage was not universal—lenition in such circumstances is also found—but was more common where the noun itself was eclipsed. Some phrases such as ar an gcuma gcéanna and san am gcéanna are always found with such eclipsis.
Na leathbhfabhar: “half-favours”. Leath normally lenites, but eclipses an f in Cork Irish.
Rí Sacsan: the King of England. This normally appears as Rí Shasana, with lenition. However, the form given here literally means “King of the Saxons”, with Sacsan in the genitive plural rather than the genitive singular, explaining the lack of lenition.
Baile gurb é ainm atá air ná Lios Caragáin: PUL is quoted in Papers on Irish Idiom as saying that the definite article cannot be used where nouns, such as ainm here, are defined by a later clause; however, Thomas F. O’Rahilly points out that some good speakers of WM Irish did use the article in these circumstances.
Tríochad: PUL normally uses the vigentesimal counting system, but as dates are more complex, prefers to use decimal numbers in dates.

Index of Persons

Aodh Ó Néill: Hugh O’Neill, who was born around 1550 in Co. Tyrone and recognised in 1587 as Second Earl of Tyrone, succeeding to a title granted to his grandfather under the English policy of “surrender and regrant”. He resisted the English during the Nine Years’ War (1594-1603). He took part in the “Flight of the Earls” in September 1607, and died in Rome in July 1616. He is regarded as the last High King of Ireland (1598-1601).
Aodh Rua Ó Dónaill: Hugh Roe O’Donnell, king of Tyrconnell and one of the leaders of the Nine Years’ War against English rule. He was born around 1572 in Co. Donegal, left Ireland after his defeat at the battle of Kinsale in early 1602 and died at Valladolid in Spain in July 1602.
Aoibhlín an Réileáin: “Eileen of the Lawn”, probably Aoibhlín Ní Cheallacháin; great-grandmother of PUL, from Mullaghroe near Millstreet.
Barnabí Ó Laeire: paternal great-grandfather of PUL.
Conchúr Ó Laeire: 1. the great-great-grandfather of PUL, forced to flee Carrignacurra; brother of Diarmaid Ó Laeire. He moved to Ballyvourney and married a member of the Ó Duinnín family. 2. the maternal grandfather of PUL and son of Aoibhlín an Réileáin. 3. another great-great-grandfather of PUL who was son of the first Diarmaid Ó Laeire. Known as Conchúr Máistir. 4. a servant of the third Conchúr Ó Laeire with the same name as his master. Known as Conchúr Buachaill.
Cromwell: Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658), and English military leader styled as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of English, Scotland and Ireland. He ordered a conquest of Ireland in 1649-53 accompanied by many atrocities.
Diarmaid Ó Laeire: 1. the paternal great-great-great grandfather of PUL, forced to flee Carrignacurra. Known as Diarmaid Óg. Brother of Conchúr Ó Laeire. 2. the brother of PUL’s paternal grandfather, the third Peadar Ó Laeire. 3. Diarmaid Rua Ó Laeire, PUL’s father, and husband of Siobhán Ní Laeire.
Diarmaid Ó Tuathaigh: the great-grandfather of PUL, who lived at Glendav, Co. Cork.
Eóghan Rua Ó Néill: Owen Roe O’Neill (ca. 1590-1649), nephew of Hugh O’Neill, was one of the Irish nobles who left Ireland in the “Flight of the Earls”, returning 40 years later to lead a rebellion against English rule. He died in 1649 before he could be captured by Cromwell’s army.
Máire Ní Thuathaigh: PUL’s paternal grandmother.
Neill Ní Icí: maternal grandmother of PUL and daughter of Tadhg Ó hIcí.
Peadar Ó Laeire: 1. the author of this autobiography, who preferred the spelling Peadar Ua Laoghaire (1839-1920); referred to here by the abbreviation PUL. 2. a brother of PUL’s great-grandfather, Barnabí Ó Laeire. 3. the paternal grandfather of PUL, who married Máire Ní Thuathaigh. Note the name Peadar is pronounced /pʹadirʹ/ with a slender r in West Muskerry.
Siobhán Ní Laeire: mother of PUL and wife of Diarmaid Rua Ó Laeire.
Siobhán Ní Thuathaigh: sister of PUL’s paternal grandmother, Máire Ní Thuathaigh.
Tadhg mac Aindriais Ó hIcí: great-grandfather of PUL who lived at Dromahane, Co. Cork.

Index of Places

Abha Mhór (an Abha Mhór): the River Blackwater in Co. Cork.
Alba: Scotland, pronounced /ɑləbə/. The dative is Albain.
Athán (an Athán): Dromahane, Co. Cork, a placename meaning “fir-tree”. Also Drom Atháin.
Baile Mhúirne: Ballyvourney, a famous village in the Cork Gaeltacht. Also spelled Baile Bhúirne, a placename of unclear meaning.
Béal an Átha Buí: Yellowford, the site in Co. Armagh of a battle in 1598 where Hugh O’Neill and Hugh Roe O’Donnell defeated the English.
Beann Bhorb: Benburb (“rough peak”) is a village in Co. Tyrone that saw a famous battle in 1646 where the Irish defeated the Scottish Covenanters’ army.
Carraig na Cora: Carrignacurra (“the rock of the weir”), the location of a castle in Co. Cork originally held by the Ó Laeire family.
Carraig na Madraí: Carrignamadry (“the rock of the dogs”), a minor placename in Co. Cork.
Cíll Chainnigh: Kilkenny (“church of St. Cainnech”), a town and county in Ireland and the site of an independent Irish government (“the Confederation of Kilkenny”) in the 1640s.
Cíll Dara: Kildare (“church of the oak”), a town and county in Ireland.
Cionntsáile: Kinsale (“the head of the brine”), Co. Cork, /kʹu:n-‘tɑ:lʹi/. The location of a battle in January 1602 that saw the defeat of the Gaels. As with a number of other placenames, the noun appears to be in the dative (cionn is an old dative of ceann): placenames are so frequently used in the dative, that this often becomes the standard form of the word.
Cuilinn Uí Chaoimh: normally referred just as Cullen, meaning “holly-tree”, this placename in Co. Cork has a connection with the O’Keeffe family.
Dúth’ Ealla: Duhallow (“land of swans”), Co. Cork.
Éire: Ireland.
Frainnc (an Fhrainnc): France, pronounced /fraiŋkʹ/.
Gleann Daimh: Glendav (“stag valley”), Co. Cork.
Iúróip (an Iúróip): Europe, or Eoraip in the CO. PUL told Osborn Bergin the pronunciation was /u:’ro:pʹ/.
Lios Caragáin: Lisscarrigane (“enclosure of rough ground”), Co. Cork. Caragán appears to be a corruption of carrachán, “rough ground”.
Lúndain: London, or Londain in the CO.
Mullach an Ois: Mullaghanish (“deer ridge”), Co. Cork.
Mullach Rua (an Mullach Rua): Mullaghroe (“red ridge”), Co. Cork.
Múmhain (an Mhúmhain): Munster, /mu:nʹ/. The genitive is Múmhan. The dative Múmhain has replaced the historical nominative Múmha.
Sasana: England.
Spáinn (an Spáinn): Spain, pronounced /spɑ:ŋʹ/.
Sráid an Mhuilinn: Millstreet, Co. Cork.
Uíbh Laeire: Iveleary, Co. Cork, a placename associated with the Ó Laeire family. Laeire (“calfkeeper”), laoire in the CO, was originally spelled laoghaire; the pronunciation is /le:rʹi/.
Ulaidh: Ulster, pronounced /olə/. The genitive is Uladh.
Uláin (na hUláin): Ullanes, a placename in the Cork Gaeltacht. Na huláin refers to stone boulders that were ancient Druid tombs.

Foclóirín

nar, ’narbh: PUL frequently uses i as the helping preposition in relative clauses, producing ’narbh where gurbh (etymologically derived from the use of ag as the helping preposition) would be more common in Munster Irish today.
a: “from”, as in the CO. The preposition as historically appeared with an s only before the singular and plural articles (as an, as na), the relative pronoun (as a), possessive adjectives (as mo), and before gach, but this usage was not always adhered to in late WM Irish. A prefixes an h to a vowel, as in a hÉirinn.
áirde: “height”. Talamh in áirde, “land to be let”.
arís: “again”. PUL’s original spelling, airís, indicated that he used a slender r in this word, /i’rʹi:ʃ/.
aiteann: “furze”.
buachaill aimsire: “servant boy”.
caillim, cailliúint: “to lose; to spend”, or caillim, cailleadh in the CO.
chun: “towards”. The combined forms of this preposition are distinctive in WM Irish: chúm, chút, chuige, chúithi, chúinn, chúibh, chúthu. The Standard has chugam, chugat, chuige, chuici, chugainn, chugaibh, chucu.
coigríoch: “stranger”, or coigríochach in the CO.
coinníoll: “condition”; with coinníll in the dative.
coir: “crime”, pronounced /kirʹ/.
col: “impediment”.
cos-ar-bolg: “brutal oppression”. Note this word is generally masculine here—in line with grammatical rules whereby the final unit of a compound word governs the gender—but is feminine in one instance in the original text.
croch: “the gallows”.
cuirim, cur: “to put”.” The autonomous forms of this verb are spelled curfí and curtí here, as PUL was generally consistent in his use of cur ; these would be cuirfí and cuirtí in modern-day WM Irish.
cúl le cine: “contrary to one’s heritage, non-traditional, against the race”, referring adjectivally in chapter 1 to a name not previously found in a family tree, and by extension to a non-Gaelic name.
de: “of, from”. This simple preposition is pronounced in the same way as do in WM Irish, /də/. PUL stated that do réir was either pronounced /də re:rʹ/ or /dʹrʹe:rʹ/. The alignment of do and de in pronunciation only applies to the simple preposition; the prepositional pronoun de is pronounced /dʹə~dʹi/.
deasca: “gleaning; result”. Dá dheascaibh sin, “for that reason”.
díscím, dísciú: “to destroy, exterminate”.
dlí: “law”, with the plural here dlithe, where the CO has dlíthe.
do: “to”. Note that the classical spelling of the prepositional pronoun is adopted in the CO, but this form is pronounced /do/ in the dialect and so edited as do here.
driotháir: “brother”, or deartháir in the CO.
dúthaigh: “land, region, district”, with the genitive singular dútha. Dúiche in the CO.
éirí amach: “uprising”.
éirím, éirí: “to rise”. This word is pronounced /əi’rʹi:mʹ, əi’rʹi:/ in WM Irish, and all cognates have /əi/ too.
éirleach: “slaughter, havoc”.
éitheach: “falsehood”.
fágaim, fágáilt: “to leave”, or fágaim, fágáil in the CO. The verbal noun is also found as fágaint in Mo Sgéal Féin; PUL’s usage seems to be in free variation.
fairsiog: “wide, extensive”, or fairsing in the CO. Pronounced /fɑrʃəg/.
féachaint: cur ’ fhéachaint, “to force or compel someone”. This would be iallach or iachall a chur in the CO. PUL uses this phrase without an intervening de, but the phrase generally occurs as cur d’fhéachaint ar dhuine rud a dhéanamh.
fuaid, fuid: ar fuaid, ar fuid, /erʹ fuədʹ, erʹ fidʹ/, “throughout”, ar fud in the CO. PUL wrote in his Notes on Irish Words and Usages (p54) that ar fuaid should be used for broad areas (ar fuaid na paróiste) and ar fuid for small areas (ar fuid an tí), but it is clear that this distinction is not always adhered to.
gheibhim, fáil: “to get, find”. This is the absolute form of the verb faighim; the distinction is not observed in the Standard, which has faighim alone. The past participle used here is fálta, /fɑ:lhə/ corresponding to faighte in the Standard. Fachta is sometimes found in WM Irish with the same meaning.
glacaim, glacadh: “to accept”. This word takes a direct object in WM Irish (rud a ghlacadh), whereas the CO has glacadh le rud.
gurb: generally pronounced /gərb/ before third person pronouns, but often pronounced /gurəb/ elsewhere.
gurbh: generally pronounced /gərv/ before third person pronouns, but often pronounced /gurəv/ elsewhere.
i: i becomes ins before the article (ins an, in sna), and before gach in WM Irish.
imigéiniúil: “remote”.
lánú: “couple”, or lánúin in the CO, where the dative has replaced the nominative.
léirscrios: “destruction, devastation”.
leogaim, leogaint: “to let, allow”, ligim, ligean in the CO. PUL uses the spelling leigim in the original, influenced by classical norms, but the WM pronunciation of this word is /lʹogimʹ/.
lín tí: “household”, or líon tí in the CO. The n appears to be slenderised owing to the slender t that follows.
maraitheach: “deadly, lethal”, or marfach in the CO, pronounced /mɑrəhəx/.
namhaid: “enemy”, pronounced /naudʹ/. Traditionally námha, the dative has now replaced the nominative. Namhaid is also used in the plural, where naimhde would stand in the CO. With nominative singular and plural both namhaid and genitive singular and plural both namhad, it is only morphologically apparent when the plural is being used with the dative plural, namhdaibh.
naoi: “nine”, pronounced /ne:/.
nú: “or”, , pronounced /nu:/.
riail: “rule, regulation”, with the plural here rialta, or rialacha in the CO.
riocht: “guise”. Feall i riocht dlí, “falsehood in the guise of the law”.
roim: “before”, or roimh in the CO, pronounced /rimʹ/. With the third person pronoun, this becomes roimis, “before him”. Roimis is also used with the definite article.
ruaigim, ruagadh: “to expel, drive out”, or ruaigim, ruaigeadh in the CO.
saol: “life, world”. The original spelling was saoghal, and the spelling change has introduced inconsistencies: the genitive is spelt saoil in the Standard, which would give the wrong WM pronunciation, and so is edited as saeil here.
sara: “before”, or sula in the CO.
Seana-Ghall: the Old English, a term used to describe early settlers from England, as opposed to the Nua-Ghall, or English settlers who arrived from the Tudor period onwards.
seochas: “besides”, or seachas in the CO. Pronounced /ʃoxəs/.
sínsear: “ancestor; ancestors”, or sinsear in the CO. Traditionally spelt sinnsear, the pronunciation is with a long /i:/ in WM Irish. Note that the singular noun can have collective meaning.
slua, slóite: “army”. PUL normally forms the plural of this word, sluaite in the Standard, with an  ó . While IWM shows the local pronunciation as /sluətʹi/, /slo:tʹi/ is also found in verse. The medial  ó  is therefore retained wherever it was given in the original, including in the genitive plural sló (slógh), for slua. It is also worth noting this word is feminine in PUL’s works.
sroisim, sroisiúint: “to reach”, or sroichim, sroicheadh in the CO. Pronounced /sroʃimʹ, sro’ʃu:ntʹ/.
stuama: “sensible, level-headed”, variously spelt stuama and stuamdha in the original. Pronounced /stuəmhə/, where mh in the transcription system of IWM indicates a devoiced m.
tríochad: “thirty”. PUL generally forms the numbers in tens in -d: ie fichid, tríochad, daichead, caogad. By contrast, the CO uses tríocha and caoga as the nominatives, and so on for the higher decades. Triocha, /trʹuxə/, is also found in Cork Irish.
turas: “journey, round, occasion”. Pronounced /trus/.
uathásach: “terrible”, or uafásach. Pronounced /uə’hɑ:səx/ in WM Irish.

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